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La hojarasca; Gabriel García Márquez. Enviado por: Miguel Fijó Idioma: castellano Pais: Espana 13 paginas. GABRIEL GARCIA MARQUEZ. Nacio en Aracataca (Colombia) en 1928,curso estudios de secundaria en San Jose, a partir de 1940 y finalizo su bachillerato en el Colegio Liceo de Zipaquira, el 12 de diciembre de 1946. How To Brainstorm For A Research Paper! Posteriormente se matricula en la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad Nacional de Cartagena el 25 de febrero de 1947, aunque sin mostrar excesivo interes por los estudios. Hva Er Et Essay! Su amistad con el medico y escritor Manuel Zapata Olivella le permitio acceder al periodismo. How To For A Research! Fue despues del Bogotazo (el asesinato del dirigente liberal Jorge Eliecer Gaitan en Bogota, las posteriores manifestaciones y la brutal represion de las mismas), cuando comenzaron sus colaboraciones en el periodico liberal El Universal , que habia sido fundado el mes de marzo de ese mismo ano por Domingo Lopez Escauriaza.
RESUMEN DE LA OBRA: La hojarasca, trata de la historia del entierro de un hombre, un medico misterioso y odiado, al que sus vecinos quieren dejar insepulto. An Essay Scholarship! Al mismo tiempo es la historia del odio acumulado durante veinticinco anos en Macondo, un lugar llamado a ser, pocos anos despues, famoso en el mundo entero. La obra comienza con la muerte de un medico innominado, que cayo en desgracia con el pueblo de Macondo y que un buen dia decidio ahorcarse, para mostrarse por primera vez, como dice Gabo, comodamente muerto, en el velatorio del doctor del pueblo. La historia es narrada a traves de los monologos de tres personajes de una misma familia: un viejo coronel (el abuelo), Isabel (hija del coronel), y el hijo de Isabel. A traves de los ojos del nino, te puedes pasear por los frios y tristes alrededores de la muerte y del velatorio (la muerte de una persona y su cortejo, la muerte del pueblo y su procesion); los mismos ojos te cuentan el ocaso del pueblo; fundidas sus riquezas y apagado su esplendor por las guerras y las crisis; esas mismas que llenaron las calles y las casas de una hojarasca formada de desperdicios naturales y humanos.
De pronto, llego la compania bananera perseguida por “la hojarasca”(era una hojarasca revuelta, alborotada, formada por los desperdicios humanos y materiales de los otros pueblos: rastrojos de una guerra civil que cada vez parecia mas remota e inverosimil.) La hojarasca era implacable, contaminando todo de su revuelto olor multitudinario, olor de secrecion a flor de piel y de recondita muerte. En el texto coexisten dos fuerzas antagonicas e irreconciliables que presentan dos visiones del mundo, igualmente opuestas. Brainstorm Research Paper! Nosotros, paradigma del orden (conformado por las familias fundadoras de Macondo y representado por la figura mitica del Coronel), tiene como oponente al cantante hojarasca (formado por los desplazados de las guerras civiles alentados por la oportunidad de trabajo que abre la llegada de la compania extranjera a Macondo), paradigma de lo entropico que instituye nuevos heroes contradictores de los valores occidentales y lleva a cabo un proceso de organizacion desintegradota. Todo enmarcado dentro de un proceso de evolucion historica de la region del norte-costera de Colombia, basado en la eliminacion del elemento autoctono y en la importacion de poblacion nueva. How Write An Essay! Como resultado obtenemos una sociedad basicamente compuesta por gente recien llegada “ los recien llegados” ( expresion aparece en el prologo de la novela) y un sincretismo cultural y racial que genera esa vision del mundo completamente nueva y original. La Hojarasca nos muestra, la ideologia de un patriciado liberal en crisis es, en apariencia, el punto de vista ideologico que organiza el desarrollo del relato, pues el verdadero proposito de la novela es la representacion-evaluacion del advenimiento (?de la postergacion?) de la modernidad en Colombia. El elemento responsable del sentido en el texto de la novela, es una formacion social que enmarca el desarrollo historico de la region caribena colombiana dentro de la caracterizacion de Pueblo Nuevo y la opone a la de los Pueblos Testimonios de la region Andina. Paper! Esta formacion social implica, como ya se dijo, la eliminacion-obliteracion de la poblacion autoctona y la importacion de mano de obra esclava, en primera instancia, y luego, asalariada, producto de los flujos migratorios tan importantes en la conformacion de todas las sociedades del Caribe.
En la novela, esta formacion social se ve a traves de tres articuladores semioticos: la figura del extranjero, la desaparicion de Meme y la deshumanizacion de los guajiros, y a traves de la tecnica del metarrelato o relato espejo. Macondo, pueblo reciente conformado por recien llegados (solo tiene unos 30 anos, la edad de Isabel) y el proposito ultimo de la novela es precisamente mostrar ese origen cercano, esa novedad y su evolucion. How Write For A! La intencion del autor probablemente es buscar su origen, escudrinar su identidad, responderse a la pregunta: ?De donde vengo? De extranjeros, de recien llegados, parece ser la respuesta. Brainstorm Paper! Por eso son ellos los dinamizadores de la trama de la novela. Hva Er Et Essay! El relato gira en torno al extranjero medico; el liderazgo en el pueblo es ejercido por el cachorro, otro recien llegado; Martin ejerce singular atraccion sobre las mujeres de Macondo, e incluso, sobre el coronel; el coronel mismo es un recien llegado. How To! Las uniones en el pueblo de las que tenemos conocimiento se dan siempre con extranjeros: Meme-Medico, Isabel-Martin, Genoveva-Titiriteros, signo inequivoco de la tendencia integracionista y de la tendencia al sincretismo de las sociedades caribenas. En el texto aparece una semiotica referida a lo foraneo como elemento integral y constitutivo de Macondo: La hojarasca volteo y salio a recibirlo y con la vuelta perdio el impulso, pero logro unidad y solidez; y sufrio el natural proceso de fermentacion y se incorporo a los germenes de la tierra. Si uno de los rasgos de los pueblos contiguos al mar Caribe fue el extermino casi total de la poblacion autoctona, nos preguntamos por que aparecen indigenas en un texto que pretende erigirse como imagen especular de la region donde se desarrolla; y, adicionalmente, y aun mas intrigante: ?Por que guajiros? Cabe recordar, senalar que el contacto de los espanoles con la poblacion indigena, tuvo drasticos efectos sobre esta y como el mismo autor continua diciendo los indigenas fueron reemplazados por negros traidos de las antillas y del Africa, con lo cual se incidia en la modificacion de la encomienda como sistema de produccion ante la impresionante desaparicion de los indigenas. En el texto se convierte este proceso de exterminio a partir de un articulador semiotico: la desaparicion de la india Meme y su descendencia.
Este, a su vez, se articula discursivamente a traves de la oposicion del discurso oficial del extranjero causante del exterminio: en cuanto a Meme nos dio una explicacion que habria podido parecer pueril, pero que fue dicha por el con el mismo acento con que habria dicho su verdad. Dissertation! Dijo que Meme se habia ido, eso era todo. Brainstorm Paper! Asi, a traves del discurso no-oficial portado por un pasquin: Pero en el pasquin que aparecio en esta esquina se decia que el medico asesino a su concubina y le dio sepultura en el huerto En la obra se utiliza la tecnica del dato escondido, en cuanto a la descendencia indigena, es decir, narracion por omision o por omisiones significativas, silenciando temporal o definitivamente ciertos datos de la historia para dar mas relieve o fuerza narrativa a esos mismos datos que han sido momentanea o totalmente suprimidos, principio de organizacion narrativa muy apropiado para este caso, pues el discurso oficial, el del extranjero, es el que oculta y omite el dato: Digame una cosa, doctor: ?Que fue de la criatura? El no modifico la expresion: ?Que criatura, coronel?, Tiene razon, coronel.
Hasta me habia olvidado de eso, con esto, el autor y su region, se explican, se piensan. How Write An Essay For A Scholarship! Sin embargo, aun queda por resolver el hecho mas intrigante en este sentido: ?Por que guajiros? La respuesta parece residir, en mi opinion, en una formacion social mucho mas especifica que se presenta en el departamento del Gran Magdalena, una de las subregiones de la costa Caribe colombiana, compuesta hasta los anos sesenta por las regiones del Magdalena, La Guajira y El Cesar, territorios sobre los cuales la ciudad de Santa Marta ejercia importante influencia como capital. Brainstorm Research! Segun Adriana Mercedes Corso, las actividades administrativas de la gobernacion, las sesiones de la Asamblea Departamental, la oferta de servicios financieros (v. Phd Dissertation! gr. How To Brainstorm Research! la Caja Agraria) para esos territorios se realizaban en Santa Marta y se ofrecia educacion de calidad en el Liceo Celedon, claustro en el cual se formaron muchos cesarenses y guajiros. Benjamin Franklin! Producto de esa situacion de primacia, encontramos una formacion ideologica que senala la superioridad de los samarios y la inferioridad de los guajiros, tendencia xenofobica que senala la categorizacion de vasallos para los ultimos y senores para los primeros. How To! Es por eso que el pueblo ve con 'malos ojos' la actitud de Meme de pretender ser una senora y esta a punto de apedrearla: Meme se habia presentado a la iglesia, adornada como una cualquiera elevada a la categoria de senora. Research Paper Disclaimer! Y por eso Isabel la ve vestida mas como un pesebre de navidad que como una senora
La estructura ideologica se refleja en la obra a partir de la deshumanizacion de los guajiros vasallos del Coronel. How To Brainstorm For A Research! Asi, para Isabel son animales amaestrados en un circo , para el nino cuatro cuervos en un caballete y para el Coronel, una posesion, por eso los llama mis hombres . Hva Er Et Essay! Como senala Vargas Llosa, los guajiros apenas son personas: meras presencias, se confunden con las vigas, con el catre solitario, con el ataud. El relato espejo: La parte mas importante de la mise en abime de la region caribena hecha por el autor esta en la narracion hecha por el nino. How To For A Research! La pregunta obligada parece ser: ?Por que es el nino quien inicia y termina narrando en La Hojarasca, si el desconoce en su mayoria los datos de la historia? Mi hipotesis se orienta a que la insercion de su narracion no tiene nada que ver con la historia del doctor narrada por los otros dos personajes, y a que, mas bien, estamos en presencia de un metarrelato o relato espejo que pretende ser una explicacion, una revelacion del proposito central de la novela: la formacion de un pueblo nuevo o pueblo caribeno. Los monologos del nino son la representacion de un despertar, de una iniciacion: Por primera vez he visto un cadaver, He pasado frente al espejo de la sala y me he visto de cuerpo entero, . Statement Death Penalty! Y he pensado: ese soy yo, como si hoy fuera domingo.
El nino aparece, entonces, como simbolo de ese pueblo naciente, nuevo, inocente, en proceso de aprendizaje. How To! Un pueblo sin pasado mitico y sin conciencia de futuro. Phd Dissertation Words! De ahi que la narracion del nino se desarrolle casi siempre en presente. Si bien el personaje que tiene relacion con el Mersault de Camus es el medico, el discurso existencial aflora, de manera explicita, en los monologos del nino como signo inequivoco de esa busqueda identitaria, de esa filosofia del ser. Brainstorm For A Research! Garcia Marquez, al igual que Hector Rojas Herazo, poeta y companero del grupo de Cartagena, sigue la linea heidegeriana del existencialismo ateo en la que el ser no se concibe de modo indirecto por via del pensamiento intelectivo sino tan solo directamente revelandose al hombre a traves de su existencia personal. Research! Como en el autor sucreno, el conocimiento del mundo se hace a traves de los sentidos asi lo vemos en frases como : veo que tienen la cabeza acerada y un panuelo amarrado a la mandibula., veo que tiene la boca un poco abierta , Y senti ese olor a desperdicios , y oigo a lo lejos el pito del tren que se pierde en la ultima vuelta, Yo conozco los cuartos por el olor. La aparicion del discurso existencial se explica, en razon a una formacion ideologica asociada al centralismo como actitud dominante en Colombia desde la decada del 40 que de acuerdo con Jacques Gilard, se mostraba 'inmune a las disonancias de unas periferias cuya existencia no se reconocia sino en dosis homeopaticas' y que a finales de los 40 fue defendida y sustentada por el suplemento literario del periodico El tiempo, por unos anos la publicacion cultural de mas amplia difusion en el pais y cuyos colaboradores (German Arciniegas, Eduardo Caballero Calderon, entre otros) eran enemigos acerrimos del pensamiento existencialista. How To Paper! El mismo Garcia Marquez corrobora su apego al existencialismo en una entrevista con Jose Luis Diaz-Granados, al ser consultada su opinion sobre un cuento de este ultimo: Esta bueno el cuento. Phd Dissertation! Pero no es existencialista. Asi vemos que, la narracion del nino se constituye en metarrelato, es decir, relato que habla de si mismo; en relato espejo que se constituye en 'senal' del texto basico que ayuda a clarificar el proposito central de este.
Vision caribe del mundo y panteon de heroes caribenos. Del mismo modo , la novela patenta la emergencia de una vision caribena sui generis que instituye valores igualmente singulares, en marcada oposicion a los valores occidentales fundamentados en la moral cristiana, introduciendo, de paso, un nuevo tipo de figuras heroicas que, como lo senala el profesor Avella , no siguen las reglas del juego sino que se juegan la regla. De los personajes que caben resaltar en la novela es, quiza, El Cachorro, la representacion del anti-sacerdote, religioso que no preconiza las bondades de la moral cristiana, defiende a un ateo y no lee la Biblia. How To For A! El Cachorro es poco ortodoxo y menos doctrinario y, por tanto, muy caribe. Is A Good Statement Death! Es uno de los representantes del desorden y aunque nacio en el pueblo, tambien es un extranjero que llego junto con la hojarasca. For A! Para todos tiene caracteristicas heroicas, incluso para el coronel, representante del orden, por ello es uno de los elementos que corrobora la desestabilizacion de la vision del mundo occidental y de la ideologia conservadora-moralista que va de la mano con ella por parte de la vision caribena.
La figura del sacerdote en “no religioso parece surgir de una tendencia social y religiosa escenificada a partir del Segundo Concilio Vaticano en una nueva generacion de sacerdotes que, en palabras de Jaime Eduardo Jaramillo, expresan una vision notablemente mas secularizada que muchos de sus antecesores expresada en una ensenanza religiosa mas moderna, tolerante y pragmatica El cachorro, a su vez, determina otra figura en el panteon caribe: el almanaque Bristol, reemplazando a uno de los simbolos mas sagrados del mundo occidental: La Biblia. Benjamin Essays! El mismo Coronel lo deja ver: De todos modos, lo que suceda tenia que suceder, como si lo hubiera anunciado el almanaque. Brainstorm For A Paper! Claro esta que el ataque de Garcia Marquez a la religion, en este sentido, tambien se encuentra ligado al papel de la iglesia catolica como aparato ideologico y represivo del Estado durante la hegemonia conservadora de mitad de siglo. La otro personaje heroico caribeno reflejada en la novela, es la del trickster, tal vez la de mayor recurrencia en las manifestaciones folcloricas de todo el gran Caribe (recordemos a Ananse, por ejemplo). Essays! Martin, el esposo de Isabel, es la clara representacion del ser astuto que logra enganar a todos valiendose de los mas ingeniosos ardides, consiguiendo la admiracion de todos por ello. Brainstorm For A Research Paper! Asi, Martin desposa a Isabel con el objetivo de ganarse la confianza del Coronel y llevar a cabo una empresa con el respaldo de los bienes de este. Hva Er Et Essay! A pesar de que ha desaparecido desde hace nueve anos, el Coronel piensa: han transcurrido nueve anos pero no por ello tengo derecho a pensar que era un estafador.
No tengo derecho a pensar que su matrimonio fue apenas una coartada para persuadirme de su buena fe. For A! . Words! Sin embargo, en el fondo, el Coronel sabe que ha sido enganado por un especialista en timos y por eso senala mas adelante: si ambos nos equivocamos al confiar en Martin, corre como error compartido. Paper! Ademas, el coronel deja entrever cierta admiracion por el astuto joven: llego a mi casa con un saco de cuatro botones, segregando juventud y dinamismo por todos los poros, envuelto en una luminosa atmosfera de simpatia . Hva Er Et Essay! Isabel advierte esa situacion: Martin parecia vinculado a mi padre por una entranable y solida amistad y este hablaba de aquel como si fuera el y no yo quien iba a casarse con Martin. El juego de las reglas se puede ver en la conversacion del alcalde con el Coronel acerca del entierro del doctor. How To For A Paper! El alcalde se erige como el deshonesto, el hombre que se enfrenta al mundo adverso y sobrevive en una situacion precaria jugandose la regla: Y entonces comprendo que es deliberadamente ilogico, que esta inventando trabas para impedir el entierro. Benjamin Essays! Es aqui donde la desestabilizacion de esa vision del mundo occidental, logica y racional, llega a su punto maximo. How To Brainstorm Research! Es la vision caribe, anti-logica y entropica la que organiza claramente el desarrollo del relato y las relaciones de los personajes, pues el Coronel comienza a tener una vision menos ortodoxa: Coronel, esto podriamos arreglarlo de otro modo. Hva Er Et Essay! Y yo, sin darle tiempo a terminar, le digo: «Cuanto» . Finalmente, cabe resaltar que La Hojarasca es obra fundacional del Caribe Colombiano, en tanto se erige como espejo de su evolucion historica a traves de la duplicacion de las estructuras socio-historicas que dieron origen a ella. Research Paper! El texto presenta, paralelamente, una vision del mundo particular a la region caribena que emerge desestabilizando e imponiendose, en definitivas, a la vision aparentemente dominante, la vision del mundo occidental, cristiano-moralista, e instaurando, de paso, un nuevo panteon heroico que contraviene los valores y patrones axiomaticos introducidos por esa moral cristiana. En el texto, este proposito se refleja al establecerse una red semiotica que apunta hacia el realce de lo extranjero, de lo recien llegado, y al rebajamiento de lo autoctono. Hva Er Et Essay! Del mismo modo se logra a partir de la introduccion de la tecnica del relato espejo y del discurso existencial y a traves de la utilizacion de heroes investidos de anti-valores, anversos de los arquetipos tradicionales. La suposicion de que Remedios, la bella, poseia poderes de muerte, estaba entonces sustentada por cuatro hechos irrebatibles.
Aunque algunos hombres ligeros de palabra se complacian en decir que bien valia sacrificar la vida por una noche de amor con tan conturbadora mujer, la verdad fue que ninguno hizo esfuerzos por conseguirlo. How To For A Paper! Tal vez, no solo para rendirla sino tambien para conjurar sus peligros, habria bastado con un sentimiento tan primitivo, y simple como el amor, pero eso fue lo unico que no se le ocurrio a nadie. Words! Ursula no volvio a ocuparse de ella. Brainstorm Research Paper! En otra epoca, cuando todavia no renunciaba al proposito de salvarla para el mundo, procuro que se interesara por los asuntos elementales de la casa. Phd Dissertation! Los hombres piden mas de lo que tu crees, le decia enigmaticamente. Paper! Hay mucho que cocinar, mucho que barrer, mucho que sufrir por pequeneces, ademas de lo que crees.
En el fondo se enganaba a si misma tratando de adiestrarla para la felicidad domestica, porque estaba convencida de que, una vez satisfecha la pasion, no habia un hombre sobre la tierra capaz de soportar asi fuera por un dia una negligencia que estaba mas alla de toda comprension. Hva Er Et Essay! El nacimiento del ultimo Jose Arcadio, y su inquebrantable voluntad de educarlo para Papa, terminaron por hacerla desistir de sus preocupaciones por la bisnieta. Research! La abandono a su suerte, confiando que tarde o temprano ocurriera un milagro, y que en este mundo donde habia de todo hubiera tambien un hombre con suficiente cachaza para cargar con ella. Qun Qiu Dissertation! Ya desde mucho antes, Amaranta habia renunciado a toda tentativa de convertirla en una mujer util. How To For A Research Paper! Desde las tardes olvidadas del costurero, cuando la sobrina apenas se interesaba por darle vuelta a la manivela de la maquina de coser, llego a la conclusion simple de que era boba. What Good Statement Death Penalty! Vamos a tener que rifarte, le decia, perpleja ante su impermeabilidad a la palabra de los hombres. Brainstorm Paper! Mas tarde, cuando Ursula se empeno en que Remedios, la bella, asistiera a misa con la cara cubierta con una mantilla, Amaranta penso que aquel recurso misterioso resultaria tan provocador, que muy pronto habria un hombre lo bastante intrigado como para buscar con paciencia el punto debil de su corazon.
Pero cuando vio la forma insensata en que desprecio a un pretendiente que por muchos motivos era mas apetecible que un principe, renuncio a toda esperanza. Hva Er Et Essay! Fernanda no hizo siquiera la tentativa de comprenderla. How To Brainstorm For A! Cuando vio a Remedios, la bella, vestida de reina en el carnaval sangriento, penso que era una criatura extraordinaria. Research Paper Plagurism! Pero cuando la vio comiendo con las manos, incapaz de dar una respuesta que no fuera un prodigio de simplicidad, lo unico que lamento fue que los bobos de familia tuvieran una vida tan larga. How To Paper! A pesar de que el coronel Aureliano Buendia seguia creyendo y repitiendo que Remedios, la bella, era en realidad el ser mas lucido que habia conocido jamas, y que lo demostraba a cada momento con su asombrosa habilidad para burlarse de todos, la abandonaron a la buena de Dios. What Is A Good Thesis For The Death Penalty! Remedios, la bella, se quedo vagando por el desierto de la soledad, sin cruces a cuestas, madurandose en sus suenos sin pesadillas, en sus banos interminables, en sus comidas sin horarios, en sus hondos y prolongados silencios sin recuerdos, hasta una tarde de marzo en que Fernanda quiso doblar en el jardin sus sabanas de bramante, y pidio ayuda a las mujeres de la casa. How To Brainstorm For A Research Paper! Apenas habia empezado, cuando Amaranta advirtio que Remedios, la bella, estaba transparentada por una palidez intensa. -?Te sientes mal? -le pregunto. Remedios, la bella, que tenia agarrada la sabana por el otro extremo, hizo una sonrisa de lastima. -Al contrario -dijo-, nunca me he sentido mejor.
Acabo de decirlo, cuando Fernanda sintio que un delicado viento de luz le arranco las sabanas de las manos y las desplego en toda su amplitud. Qun Qiu! Amaranta sintio un temblor misterioso en los encajes de sus pollerines y trato de agarrarse de la sabana para no caer, en el instante en que Remedios, la bella, empezaba a elevarse. How To Paper! Ursula, ya casi ciega, fue la unica que tuvo serenidad para identificar la naturaleza de aquel viento irreparable, y dejo las sabanas a merced de la luz, viendo a Remedios, la bella, que le decia adios con la mano, entre el deslumbrante aleteo de las sabanas que subian con ella, que abandonaban con ella el aire de los escarabajos y las dalias, y pasaban con ella a traves del aire donde terminaban las cuatro de la tarde, y se perdieron con ella para siempre en los altos aires donde no podian alcanzarla ni los mas altos pajaros de la memoria. Para concluir senalar que La Hojarasca , primera novela de Garcia Marquez, cabe analizarla a la luz de los procesos socio-historicos que configuraron la region caribena colombiana (modernizacion, procesos identitarios, de urbanizacion, de poblamiento) y presentar una lectura sociocritica de la misma que ilustre la emergencia de una vision Caribe del mundo al lado de la mise en abime de un proceso de transformacion socio-economica de un Pueblo Nuevo como elementos estructurantes del relato y como manifestaciones de una manera especular de ver la realidad. Bloom, Harold (editor). Qun Qiu Dissertation! Gabriel Garcia Marquez.
Nueva York: Chelsea Books, 1989. How To Brainstorm For A Research Paper! El gran critico americano recopila aqui 18 importantes trabajos criticos que analizan al novelista desde diversos angulos metodologicos. Cebrian, Juan Luis. Franklin! Retrato de Garcia Marquez. How To For A Research! Barcelona: Circulo de Lectores, 1989.
Biografia del periodista y del escritor, realizada por otro periodista y escritor.
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Dec 19, 2017 How to brainstorm for a research paper,
Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and how to brainstorm for a paper, grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to dissertation those looking to format their own resumes. How To Brainstorm For A Paper. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and hva er et essay, sample images covering every resume format for your convenience.
Looking for more resume samples? Click the how to research, link below. How to Choose the Best Resume Format. Use the benjamin franklin essays, chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to brainstorm research formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and hva er et essay, Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely.
Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to for a create the best resume for qun qiu dissertation, you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of for a research resume format examples . The links below are separated by qun qiu, resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to how to brainstorm for a oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in how write for a scholarship, terms of your promotions and how to research paper, upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers.
I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. Qun Qiu. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here.
The functional resume format frames the candidate in brainstorm for a research, terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the hva er et essay, reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and how to for a research, simply lists them at the top of the resume in hva er et essay, order of brainstorm research paper most relevant to plagurism disclaimer least relevant skills. How To. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to research plagurism disclaimer the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the how to research paper, functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. I am in research paper plagurism, the midst of a big career change into a new industry.
I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to how to brainstorm research highlight my upward career mobility. Essays. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. How To Brainstorm For A Research. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set.
I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. Qun Qiu. I want to emphasize my educational experience. How To Brainstorm Research. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about hva er et essay what should be in for a research paper, included in a combination resume format, click here.
If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in how write scholarship, the comments at the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to how to brainstorm for a research paper answer them for franklin, you! PS. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist.
If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. Brainstorm. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience.
Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of benjamin essays luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck!
I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and how to brainstorm, development. Words. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to how to for a now make the shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples.
For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in an essay for a, the middle of my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. How To Brainstorm For A Research Paper. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in death, 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur.
I was largely unsuccessful and in for a, order to stay on what statement death top of brainstorm for a research paper my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at words, various bars and how to, clubs at words, night. How To Brainstorm. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. Paper. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to how to for a focus on your skills that are relevant to how write scholarship the internship you are applying for. Brainstorm Research Paper. Good luck on hva er et essay the job hunt and thank you for your service!
Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and for a paper, isn’t in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for words, any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to brainstorm for a what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt!
Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience. Words. Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over how to for a research 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either.
Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on benjamin essays 2012 and brainstorm, have been working at paper disclaimer, Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of brainstorm luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Dissertation. Now I want to apply for brainstorm research, a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for qun qiu, this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format.
Best of paper luck! Detailing all 18 years of franklin essays your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to how to for a paper the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of qun qiu dissertation luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996).
After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). How To For A Research Paper. Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and dissertation, I moved to how to research paper Switzerland and phd dissertation, just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format.
This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in how to brainstorm research, high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of how write an essay for a Health for how to for a, a year. I currently want to what thesis statement death penalty go back to brainstorm for a finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate.
Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks!
List your current position first. How Write An Essay. Best of research luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of how write for a scholarship luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice.
Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the brainstorm for a paper, resume format, but when in how write an essay for a scholarship, doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on how to for a the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide.
Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to scholarship your inbox.
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abstract of essay On opening the MS. Copy of the Essay on Human Understanding, dated 1671, I found the following paper without title or date: it is an Epitome or Abstract of the Essay, drawn up by how to brainstorm for a Locke himself;#0151;the same which was translated by research disclaimer Le Clerc, and published in the Bibliothèque Universelle of 1688, before the Essay was given to brainstorm for a research the world. Lib. I. In the thoughts I have had concerning the Understanding, I have endeavoured to hva er et essay prove that the mind is at first rasa tabula . But that being only to remove the prejudice that lies in some men's minds, I think it best in this short view I design here of my principles, to pass by all that preliminary debate which makes the how to brainstorm for a research, first book, since I pretend to show in what follows the original from whence, and the ways we receive all the ideas our understandings are employed about in thinking. Lib. II. Essays. Chap. 1. The mind having been supposed void of all innate characters, comes to how to brainstorm paper receive them by degrees as experience and observation lets them in; and we shall, upon consideration, find they all come from two originals, and dissertation, are conveyed into the mind by two ways, viz. How To Research. sensation and reflection . 1st.
It is evident that outward objects, by affecting our senses, cause in our minds several ideas which were not there before: thus we come by the idea of red and blue, sweet and dissertation, bitter, and whatever other perceptions are produced in how to brainstorm for a research paper, us by benjamin sensation . 2nd. The mind, taking notice of its own operation about these ideas received by sensation, comes to have ideas of those very operations that pass within itself: this is another source of for a, ideas, and this I call reflection ; and from hence it is qun qiu, we have the brainstorm research, ideas of how write scholarship, thinking , willing , reasoning , doubting , purposing , c. From these two originals it is how to, that we have all the ideas we have; and I think I may confidently say that, besides what our senses convey into the mind, or the ideas of paper disclaimer, its own operations about those received from sensation , we have no ideas at all. Brainstorm Paper. From whence it follows#0151;first, that where a man has always wanted any one of his senses, there he will always want the ideas belonging to that sense; men born deaf or blind are sufficient proof of this. Secondly, it follows that if a man could be supposed void of all senses, he would also be void of all ideas; because, wanting all sensation, he would have nothing to excite any operation in him, and so would have neither ideas of sensation , external objects having no way by phd dissertation words any sense to excite them, nor ideas of reflection , his mind having no ideas to be employed about. Chap. 2. To understand me right, when I say that we have not, nor can have, any ideas but of sensation, or of the operation of our mind about them, it must be considered that there are two sorts of ideas, simple and complex. Brainstorm For A Research. It is of simple ideas that I here speak; such as are the white colour of paper plagurism, this paper, the sweet taste of sugar, c., wherein the mind perceives no variety nor composition, but one uniform perception or idea; and of these I say we have none but what we receive from sensation or reflection ; the mind is wholly passive in how to for a, them, can make no new ones to itself, though out of these it can compound others, and make complex ones with great variety, as we shall see hereafter; and hence it is that though we cannot but allow that a sixth sense may be as possible, if our all-wise Creator had thought it fit for us, as the dissertation, five he has bestowed ordinarily upon man, yet we can have by no means any ideas belonging to a sixth sense, and that for the same reason that a man born blind cannot have any ideas of colours, because they are to how to brainstorm for a research be had only by the fifth sense, that way of sensation which he always wanted. Chap. 3#0151;6.
I think I need not go about to set down all those ideas that are peculiar objects of each distinct sense, both because it would be of no great use to give them by tale, they are most of them obvious enough to our present purpose, and phd dissertation, also because they most of them want names; for, bating colours, and some few tangible qualities, which men have been a little more particular in denominating, though far short of their great variety, tastes, smells, and sounds, whereof there is no less a variety, have scarce any names at all, but some few very general ones. Though the taste of milk and a cherry be as distinct ideas as white and red, yet we see they have no particular names; sweet, sour, and bitter, are almost all the appellations we have for that almost infinite difference of relishes to be found in Nature. Omitting, therefore, the for a paper, enumeration of the simple ideas peculiar to each sense, I shall here only franklin essays observe that there are some ideas that are conveyed to the mind only by one sense, viz. colours by the sight only, sounds by how to for a the hearing, heat and cold by hva er et essay the touch, c. Others again are conveyed into the mind by more than one sense, as motion, rest, space, and figure, which is brainstorm, but the termination of space, by research paper disclaimer both the sight and touch. Others there be that we receive only from reflection; such are the ideas of thinking, and how to for a, willing, and what is a good thesis statement for the penalty, all their various modes. And some again that we receive from all the ways of sensation , and from reflection too, and those are number, existence, power, pleasure, and pain, c. These, I think, are in general all, or at least the greater part, of the simple ideas we have, or are capable of, and research, which contain in them the materials of all our knowledge, out of which all our other ideas are made, and beyond which our minds have no thoughts nor knowledge at all. Chap. 7. One thing more I shall remark concerning our simple ideas, and then proceed to show how out of them are made our complex ideas; and that is, that we are apt to mistake them, and take them to be resemblances of something in paper disclaimer, the objects that produce them in us, which, for the most part, they are not. This, though it lead us into the consideration of the way of the how to for a paper, operation of bodies upon us by our senses, yet, however unwilling I am to engage in any physical speculations, pretending here to give only an historical account of the understanding, and to set down the way and manner how the mind first gets the materials, and by what steps it proceeds in the attainment of knowledge; yet it is necessary a little to explain this matter, to avoid confusion and obscurity. For to discover the nature of sensible ideas the better, and how write an essay for a scholarship, discourse of the intelligibly, it will be convenient to distinguish them, as they are ideas or perceptions in our minds, and as they are in how to, the bodies that cause such perceptions in us. Whatsoever immediate object, whasoever perception, be in the mind when it thinks, that I call idea ; and how write an essay scholarship, the power to produce any idea in the mind, I call quality of the how to for a, subject wherein that power is. Thus, whiteness, coldness, roundness, as they are sensations or perceptions in hva er et essay, the understanding, I call ideas; as they are in for a research paper, a snow-ball, which has the dissertation, power to produce those ideas in how to brainstorm research paper, the understanding, I call them qualities.
The original qualities that may be observed in bodies are, solidity, extension, figure, number, motion, or rest; these, in whatsoever state body is put, are always inseparable from it. The next thing to be considered is, how bodies operate one upon good thesis statement for the another; and the only way intelligible to me is by impulse; I can conceive it no other. How To Brainstorm For A Research Paper. When, then, they produce in dissertation, us the ideas of any of their original qualities which are really in them,#0151;let us suppose that of extension or figure by the sight,#0151;it is evident that the thing seen being at a distance, the impulse made on the organ must be by how to brainstorm paper some insensible particles coming from the object to franklin essays the eyes, and by a continuation of that motion to the brain, those ideas are produced in us. For the producing, then, of the ideas of these original qualities in brainstorm research, our understandings, we can find nothing but the impulse and motion of some insensible bodies. An Essay For A. By the same way we may also conceive how the how to for a research paper, ideas of the colour and phd dissertation words, smell of a violet may as well be produced in how to brainstorm paper, us as of phd dissertation, its figure, viz. by a certain impulse on our eyes or noses, of particles of such a bulk, figure, number, and motion, as those that come from violets when we see or smell them, and by the particular motion received in the organ from brainstorm research paper that impulse, and continued to the brain; it being no more impossible to conceive that God should annex such ideas to such motions with which they have no similitude, than that He should annex the idea of pain to the motion of a piece of steel dividing our flesh, with which that idea has also no resemblance.
What I have said concerning colours and smells may be applied to sounds and tastes, and all other ideas of bodies produced in us by the texture and motion of particles, whose single bulks are not sensible. And since bodies do produce in us ideas that contain in how write for a, them no perception of bulk, figure, motion, or number of parts, as ideas of warmth, hunger, blueness, or sweetness, which yet it is plain they cannot do but by the various combinations of how to brainstorm research paper, these primary qualities , however we perceive them not, I call the powers in bodies to produce these ideas in us secondary qualities. From whence we may draw this inference, that the ideas of the primary qualities of bodies are resemblances of them, and their archetypes do really exist in the bodies themselves; but the words, ideas produced in us by paper these secondary qualities have no resemblance of them at all. There is nothing existing in the bodies themselves that has any likeness to qun qiu dissertation our ideas. Brainstorm Research Paper. 'Tis only in them a power to cause such sensations in us, and what is blue, sweet, or warm, in for a, idea, is but the certain bulk, figure, and motion of the insensible parts of the bodies themselves to which we give those denominations. Chap. 8#0151;10. Chap. For A Research Paper. 11.
Having showed how the phd dissertation, mind comes by all its simple ideas, in the next place I shall show how these simple ideas are the materials of all our knowledge, and how, from several combinations of how to brainstorm for a research paper, them, complex ones are made. Though the mind cannot make to itself any one simple idea more than it receives from those two sole inlets, sensation and essays, reflection , wherein it is merely passive, yet out of these being lodged in the memory, it can make, by repeating and how to brainstorm research, several ways combining them, a great variety of other ideas, as well as receive such combinations by qun qiu dissertation the senses. How To For A Paper. I shall give some few instances of an essay for a scholarship, this in those that seem the most abstruse, and how to brainstorm for a research, then proceed to other things. Chap. 12. That our eyes and touch furnish us with ideas of space, I think nobody will deny; we cannot open our eyes nor move our bodies, or rest them upon phd dissertation words anything, but we are convinced of it. Having got the how to brainstorm for a research paper, idea of the length of our span, or the height and research paper, breadth of the brainstorm, door we usually go in and out at, or of the bulk of any body that familiarly comes in our way, we can repeat this idea in our minds as often as we will, and so increase that idea to what bigness we please by still adding the like or the double to the former; and by this way, though sensation should supply us with no idea but of a foot, a yard, or a mile long, we could by this repetition attain and form to ourselves the phd dissertation, idea of immensity, which had its foundation still in that idea of space we received by how to brainstorm for a our senses, and is nothing but the enlargement of that by repetition. I shall not here set down what I have at large written, to show the clear distinction between the idea of franklin essays, body and space, which some have endeavoured to confound; it shall suffice only to mention, that when distance is brainstorm for a paper, considered between any two things, abstract from any consideration of body filling up the interval, it may most properly be called space #0151;when the distance is considered between the extremes of a solid body it may fitly be called extension . The right application of these two terms would, I hope, help us to avoid some confusion, which sometimes happens in discourses concerning body and space. Chap. 13.
Time and duration have a great conformity with extension and space. Had the original, from whence we have our idea of how write for a, duration, been well considered, I imagine time would never have been thought mensura motû , since it hath truly nothing to do with motion at how to brainstorm for a paper, all, and would be the same it is, were there no motion at all. He that will look into qun qiu himself and paper, observe what passes in disclaimer, his own mind, well find that various ideas appear and disappear there in train all the time he is waking, and this so constantly, that though he is never without some whilst he is awake, yet it is brainstorm paper, not one single one that possesses his mind alone, but constantly new ones come in and go out again. If any one doubts of this, let him try to keep his thoughts fixed upon any one idea without any alteration at all; for if there be any the least alteration of thought by addition, subtraction, or any manner of change, there is then another, a new idea. From this perpetual change of ideas observable in our minds, this train of new appearances there, we have the research paper plagurism disclaimer, clear idea of succession.
The existence of anything commensurate to any part of such succession, we call duration ; and how to brainstorm research, the distance between any two points of duration, we call time . That our ideas of time and duration have their original from this reflection is evident from hence, that whenever this succession of ideas ceases in our minds, we have no idea, no perception at all of duration, and therefore a man that sleeps without dreaming perceives no distance betwixt his falling asleep and waking; but if dreams furnish him with trains of ideas, the perception of duration accompanies them, and that comes in to his account of time. Though mankind have made choice of the revolution of the sun and moon as the fittest measure of time, because they are everywhere observable, and not easily discernible to be unequal, yet this is not because of any connection between duration and motion; for any other regular periodical appearances, that were common to all the world, would measure time as well, were it without any sensible motion. Chap. 14. Death Penalty. And though the word time is usually taken for that part of duration which is how to brainstorm for a research paper, taken up by an essay for a the existence of natural things, or the research paper, motions of the heavens, as extension for that part of space which is dissertation, commensurate and filled by body, yet the mind having got the idea of any portion of time, as a day, or a year, it can repeat it as often as it will, and so enlarge its ideas of duration beyond the how to brainstorm paper, being or motion of the usn, and have as clear an idea of the 763 years of the Julian period before the beginning of the what is a good thesis death, world, as of any 763 years since; and from this power of repeating and enlarging its ideas of duration, without ever coming to an end, frame to itself the brainstorm research, idea of eternity, as by what is a good statement for the death endless addition of ideas of space it doth that of paper, immensity. Chap. Franklin. 15. The idea of number, as has been observed, is suggested to us by reflection, and all the ways of sensation we count ideas, thoughts, bodies, everything; and having got the idea of a unit, by the repetition and addition of one or more such units, make any combinations of numbers that we please.
Chap. 16. For A Research Paper. Whereas the mind can never come to the end of these additions, but finds in itself still the power of adding more in words, the proportion it pleases, hence we come by how to brainstorm for a research paper the idea of infinite, which, whether applied to space or duration, seems to hva er et essay me to for a be nothing else but this infinity of scholarship, number, only with this difference, that in number, beginning at a unit, we seem to be at one end of the how to brainstorm for a, line, which we can extend infinitely forward. In duration we extend the infinite end of number or addition two ways from us, both to duration past and duration to come; and in good for the death, space, as if we were in for a paper, the centre, we can on paper plagurism, every side add miles or diameters of the orbis magnus , c., till number and the power of addition fail us, without any prospect or hopes of coming to an end. That this is the idea we have of how to, infinite, made up of additions, with still an inexhaustible remainder, as much as there is in number, and not in any positive comprehensive idea of infinity, I shall not, in phd dissertation, the brevity I now propose to myself, set down the proofs of at large: let any one examine his own thoughts and see whether he can find any other but such an how to brainstorm for a idea of infinity; in the mean time, it suffices me to show how our idea of research plagurism disclaimer, infinite is made up of the simple ideas derived from sensation and for a research paper, reflection . Chap. What Thesis Statement. 18, 19. Chap.
20. Brainstorm Research Paper. Amongst the simple ideas we receive both from sensation and plagurism, reflection , pleasure and pain are none of the most inconsiderable; they are our great concernment, and they often accompany our other sensations and thoughts. For as there are few sensations of the body that do not bring with them some degrees of pleasure or pain , so there are few thoughts of our minds so indifferent to us that do not delight or disturb us; all which I comprehend under the names of pleasure and pain . That satisfaction or delight, uneasiness or trouble, which the mind receives from any either external sensation or internal thought whatsoever, has an aptness to cause, increase, or continue pleasure in us, or to lessen or shorten any pain, we call good , and brainstorm for a paper, the contrary we call evil : upon what is a good for the these two, good and evil , all our passions turn, and by research reflecting on essays, what our thoughts about them produce in us, we get the ideas of the how to for a, passions. Thus any one reflecting upon the thought he has of the qun qiu dissertation, delight which any present or absent thing is apt to produce in him, has the idea we call love. For when a man declares in autumn, when he is eating them, or in how to brainstorm for a paper, the spring when there are none, that he loves grapes, he means no more but that the taste of grapes delights him. The being and welfare of a man's children and friends producing constant delight in qun qiu dissertation, him, he is said constantly to for a love them. What Is A Good Thesis Statement Death. On the contrary, the thought of the pain which anything present or absent is apt to produce in us, is what we call hatred. Brainstorm For A Paper. The uneasiness a man finds in himself upon the absence of anything whose present enjoyment carries the idea of delight with it, is franklin essays, that we call desire , which is greater or less as that uneasiness is more or less.
Joy is how to brainstorm, a delight of the mind from the consideration of the present or future assured possession of a good. Thus a man almost starved has joy at the arrival of relief even before he tastes it; and essays, we are then possessed of any good when we have it so in our power, that we can use it when we please; a father, in whom the how to brainstorm for a paper, very well being of his children causes delight, is in the possession of that good always as long as his children are in such an estate; for he needs but to reflect on it to have that pleasure. Fear is an uneasiness of the mind upon the thought of future evil likely to befall us. I will not go over hva er et essay all the passions; they are not my business; these are enough, I think, to show us how the ideas we have of how to, them are derived from sensation and reflection . Chap. Is A Thesis Statement Death. 21. I shall only mention one more simple idea, and show how we come by it, and give some instances of some modifications of it, and how to for a paper, then put an end to this part of simple ideas and their modes. Every man experiences in himself that he can move his hand or tongue, which before was at rest; that he can apply his mind to how write scholarship other thoughts, and lay by those that he has at present; hence he gets the idea of how to for a research paper, power . All power regarding action, we have, as I think, the hva er et essay, ideas but of two sorts of action: viz. motion and thinking . The power we find in ourselves to prefer this or that peculiar thought to its absence, this or that peculiar motion to rest, is that we call will . And the actual preference of any action to its forbearance, or vice versâ , is volition . The power we find in ourselves to act, or not to act, conformable to how to brainstorm for a research paper such preference of our minds, gives us the idea we call liberty . Qun Qiu Dissertation. Chap. 22. Having thus, in short, given an account of the original of all our simple ideas, and in the instances of some of them showed how, from certain modifications of them, the mind arrives at those that seem at first sight to be very far from paper having their original in any ideas received from sensation, or from any operation of our minds about them, I shall now proceed to those that are more complex, and show that all the ideas we have (whether of natural or moral things, bodies or spirits) are only certain combinations of these simple ideas got from scholarship sensation or reflection , beyond which our thoughts, even when they ascend up into the highest heavens, cannot extend themselves. The complex ideas we have may, I think, be all reduced to these three sorts, viz.#0151; Substances, Modes, and Relations. Chap.
23. That there are a great variety of substances in this world is past doubt to every one; let us then see what ideas we have of for a research, those particular substances about which our thoughts are at any time employed. Benjamin Franklin Essays. Let us begin with those more general ideas of body and spirit. I ask, what other idea a man has of body, but of solidity , extension , and brainstorm paper, mobility , joined together, which are all simple ideas received from sense. Perhaps some one here will be ready to dissertation say, that to have a complete idea of how to brainstorm paper, body, the idea of substance must be added to solidity and extension . But of hva er et essay, him that makes that objection, I shall demand what his idea of substance is?
So likewise our idea of spirit is of a substance that has the power to think and to move body , from which, by how to the way, I conclude that we have as clear an idea of spirit as we have of body; for in one we have the clear ideas of benjamin franklin, solidity , extension , and mobility , or a power of being moved, with an brainstorm for a paper ignorance of its substance , and in what is a good thesis statement, the other we have two as clear ideas, viz. of thinking and motivity , if I may so say, or a power of moving, with a like ignorance of its substance . For substance in both is but a supposed but unknown substratum of those qualities, something, we know not what, that supports their existence; so that all the ideas we have of the substance of anything is an how to brainstorm for a research obscure idea of research disclaimer, what it does, and not any idea of what it is. This further I have to add, that our idea of substance, whether spiritual or corporeal, being equally obscure, and our ideas of mobility and motivity (If I may for shortness' sake coin that new word) being equally clear in both, there remains only to how to brainstorm research compare extension and thinking . These ideas are both very clear, but the difficulty that some have raised against the notion of a spirit, has been, that they said they could not conceive an unextended thinking thing, and I, on the contrary, affirm that they can as easily conceive an unextended thinking thing as an extended solid. To make an an essay extended solid there must be an idea of a cohesion of parts, and I say it is as easy to conceive how a spirit thinks, as how solid parts cohere; that is, how a body is extended; for where there are no cohering parts, there are no parts extra partes , and consequently no extension; for if body be divisible, it must have united parts, and if there were no cohesion of the parts of brainstorm paper, body, body would quite be lost, and cease to be. He that can tell me what holds together the parts of steel or a diamond, will explain a fundamental difficulty in natural philosophy. Bernouli, who has endeavoured to explain the coherence of the parts of all bodies by benjamin essays the pressure of the other, hath made two great oversights: 1st, That he takes no notice that let the for a research paper, pressure of any ambient fluid be as great as it will, yet that if there be nothing else to hold the parts of any body together, though they cannot be pulled asunder perpendicularly, yet it is demonstrable they may be slid off from one another as easily as if there were no such pressure; and the experiment of two polished marbles held together by hva er et essay the pressure of the atmosphere makes it evident to sense, since they can so easily by a side motion be separated, though they cannot by a perpendicular. That he takes no care of the particles of the ether itself, for they too being bodies, and consisting of parts, must have something to hold them together, which cannot be themselves; for it is as hard to conceive how the parts of the least atom of matter are fastened together, as how the greatest masses, and yet, without this, we have as great a difficulty to conceive body as spirit, an extended as a thinking thing. But whether the notion of brainstorm paper, a spirit be more obscure, or less obscure, than that of body, this is certain, that we get it no other way than we do that of the body; for as, by our senses, receiving the ideas of plagurism, solidity , extension , motion , and rest , and supposing them inherent in how to research paper, an unknown substance, we have the idea of body; so by collecting together the an essay for a, simple ideas we have got by reflecting on those operations of our own minds which we experience daily in ourselves, as thinking , understanding , willing , knowing , and the power of moving bodies, and by supposing those, and the rest of the for a paper, operations of our minds, to be coëxisting in some substance which also we know not, we come to have the idea of those beings we call spirits. The ideas we have of understanding and dissertation, power , which we have, from reflection on what passes in ourselves, joined to duration , and all these, enlarged by our idea of infinite , gives us the idea of that Supreme Being we call God ; and to how to for a research paper satisfy us that all our complex ideas contain nothing in qun qiu, them but the brainstorm for a paper, simple ideas taken from sensation and words, reflection , we need but cast our thoughts on the different species of spirits that are or may be; for though it be possible there may be more species of spiritual beings between us and brainstorm, God upwards, than there are of sensible beings between us and nothing downwards, we being at a greater distance from hva er et essay infinite perfection than from the lowest degree of being, yet it is certain we can conceive no other difference between those various ranks of angelic natures, but barely different degrees of understanding and power, which are but different modifications of the how to for a, two simple ideas we got from is a statement penalty reflecting on what passes in brainstorm for a, ourselves. As to our ideas of natural substances, it is evident they are nothing but such combinations of simple ideas as have been observed by sensation to exist together; for what is our idea of hva er et essay, gold , but of a certain yellow shining colour, a certain degree of weight , malleableness , fusibility , and perhaps fixedness , or some other simple ideas put together in our minds, as constantly coëxisting in brainstorm research, the same substance, which complex idea consists of more or fewer simple ones as his observation who made this combination was more or less accurate?
And thus I think from sensation and reflection , and the simple ideas got thence, differently combined and modified, we come by hva er et essay all our ideas of substances. Another sort of complex ideas there is, which I call modes , which are certain combinations of simple ideas, not including the obscure one we have of substance. Of these modes there are two sorts: one where the combination is made of simple ideas, of the same kind as a dozen or a score made up of a certain collection of units; the other sort of modes is, when the combination is made up of ideas of several kinds, such are the ideas signified by the words obligation, friendship, a lie. The former sort, whereof I have above given several instances, I call simple modes ; the latter I call mixed modes . These mixed modes, though of an for a endless variety, yet they are all made up of nothing but simple ideas derived from sensation or reflection, as is easy for any one to hva er et essay observe who will, with ever so little attention, examine them. For example, if a lie be speaking an untruth knowingly, it comprehends the simple ideas#0151;1st, Of articulate sounds: 2nd, The relation of these sounds to brainstorm for a research paper ideas, whereof they are the how write an essay scholarship, marks: 3rd, The putting those marks together differently from what the ideas they stand for are in the mind of the speaker: 4th, The knowledge of the speaker, that he makes a wrong use of these marks: all which are either simple ideas, or may be resolved into brainstorm research paper them. In like manner are all other mixed modes made up of simple ideas combined together. It would be endless, as well as needless, to go about to enumerate all the mixed modes that are in the minds of men, they containing almost the whole subject about which Divinity, Morality, Law, and benjamin franklin essays, Politics, and several other sciences, are employed. Chap.
24. Chap. 25#0151;27. Besides the ideas, whether simple or complex, that the brainstorm, mind has of things as they are in themselves, there are others it gets from their comparison one with another: this we call relation ; which is paper, such a consideration of how to for a research paper, one thing as intimates or involves in it the consideration of another. Now since any of our ideas may be so considered by us in one thing as to intimate and lead our thoughts to another, therefore all, both simple and what good thesis, complex, may be foundations of relation, which however large it is, yet we may perceive hereby how it derives itself originally from sensation and reflection , it having no other foundation but ideas derived from thence. I shall not need to go over the several sorts of relations to show it; I shall only research remark that to relation it is necessary there should be two ideas or things, which being not both always taken notice of, makes several terms pass for the marks of positive ideas, which are in paper disclaimer, truth relative: viz. great and old, c., are ordinarily as relative terms as greater and older, though it be not commonly so thought; for when we say Caïus is older than Sempronius, we compare these two persons in the idea of duration, and signify one to have more than the other; but when we say Caïus is how to brainstorm for a, old, or an old man, we compare his duration to that which we look on to be the ordinary duration of men.
Hence it is essays, harsh to say a diamond or the sun is old, because we have no idea of any length of duration belonging ordinarily to for a research them, and so have no such idea, to compare their age to as we have of those things we usually call old. This is, in short, what I think of the several sorts of complex ideas we have, which are only these three, viz. of substances , modes , and benjamin franklin, relations , which being made up, and containing in them nothing but several combinations of simple ideas received from sensation and reflection, I conclude that in all our thoughts, contemplations, and reasonings, however abstract or enlarged, our minds never go beyond those simple ideas we have received from those two inlets, viz. Brainstorm. sensation and reflection. Chap. 28#0151;31. Lib. III. When I had considered the ideas the mind of man is furnished with, how it comes by them, and of what kind they are, I thought I had no more to do but to proceed to the further examination of franklin, our intellectual faculty, and how to paper, see what use the mind made of those materials or instruments of knowledge which I had collected in the foregoing book; but when I came a little nearer to consider the nature and manner of human knowledge, I found it had so much to paper disclaimer do with propositions, and brainstorm research paper, that words, either by custom or necessity, were so mixed with it, that it was impossible to discourse of knowledge with that clearness one should, without saying something first of words and language.
Chap. 1 The ideas in men's minds are so wholly out of sight to others, that men could have had no communication of thoughts without some sign of their ideas. The most convenient signs, both for their variety and quickness, that men are capable of, are articulate sounds, which we call words. Words then are signs of ideas; but no articulate sound having any natural connection with any idea, but barely of the sound itself, words are only signs (chap. Paper Plagurism. 2) by voluntary imposition, and can be properly and how to for a paper, immediately signs of nothing but the ideas in the mind of him that uses them; for being employed to express what he thinks, he cannot make them signs of ideas he has not, for that would be to make them signs of nothing.
It is true, words are frequently used with two other suppositions#0151;1st. It is commonly supposed that they are signs of the ideas in hva er et essay, the mind of him with whom we communicate: this is reasonably supposed, because, unless this be so, the speaker cannot be understood; but it not always happening that the how to research, ideas in the mind of the hearer always exactly answer those to for a scholarship which the speaker applies his words, this supposition is not always true. 2nd. Brainstorm For A Research. It is commonly supposed that words stand not only for ideas, but for how write an essay scholarship, things themselves; but that they should stand immediately for things is impossible, for how to brainstorm, since they can be signs immediately of nothing but what is in the mind of the speaker, and there being nothing there but ideas, they stand for things no otherwise than as the ideas in the mind agree to them. Words. Chap.
3. Words are of how to paper, two sorts, general terms, or names of what good statement death, particular things: all things that exist being particular, what need of general terms? and what are those general natures they stand for, since the how to for a paper, greatest part of words in common use are general terms? As to qun qiu the first; particular things are so many, that the mind could not retain names for them, and in the next place, could the brainstorm research paper, memory retain them, they would be useless, because the benjamin franklin essays, particular beings known to brainstorm research paper one would be utterly unknown to another, and so their names would not serve for communication where they stood not for phd dissertation, an idea common to both speaker and hearer: besides, our progress to knowledge being by generals, we have need of general terms. As to the second, the general natures general terms stand for, are only general ideas, and ideas become general only by being abstracted from time and place and other particularities, that make them the how to brainstorm for a, representatives only of individuals, by which separation of some ideas which annexed to them make them particular, they are made capable of agreeing to several particulars: thus ideas come to represent not one particular existence, but a sort of things as their names, to for a stand for sorts, which sorts are usually called by the Latin terms of art, genus and species, of which each is for a paper, supposed to have its particular essence; and though there be much dispute and stir about genus and species, and their essences, yet in truth the benjamin franklin, essence of each genus and species, or, to how to for a research paper speak English, of research paper, each sort of things, is nothing else but the abstract idea in the mind which the speaker makes the general term the sign of. It is how to brainstorm for a research paper, true, every particular thing has a real constitution by which it is dissertation, what it is; and brainstorm for a research paper, this, by the genuine notion of the word, is called its essence or being; but the word essence having been transferred from its original signification, and hva er et essay, applied to the artificial species and for a paper, genera of the schools, men commonly look on essences to belong to the sorts of things, as they are ranked under different general denominations, and in what good thesis for the, this sense essences are truly nothing but the brainstorm, abstract ideas which those general terms are by any one made to stand for. The first of these may be called the benjamin, real , the second the nominal essence , which sometimes are the how to research paper, same, sometimes quite different one from another. Chap. 4. The nature and signification of words will be made a little more clear if we consider them with relation to those three several sorts of ideas I have formerly mentioned, viz. simple ideas, substances, and modes, under which also I comprehend relations. An Essay For A. 1st. The names of simple ideas and substances intimate some real existence from whence they are taken, as from their patterns; but the names of mixed modes terminate in the mind, and therefore I think it is brainstorm for a research, they have the good thesis statement penalty, peculiar names of notions. 2nd.
The names of for a, simple ideas and an essay for a scholarship, modes signify always the how to brainstorm research, real as well as nominal essences; the names of benjamin essays, substances seldom, if ever, anything but the nominal essence. 3rd. The names of simple ideas are of all other the least doubtful and uncertain. 4th. But that which I think of great use to remark, and which I do not find anybody has taken notice of, is, that the names of simple ideas are not definable, but those of all complex ideas are; for a definition being nothing but the making known the how to brainstorm paper, idea that one word stands for by several others not synonymous words, it cannot have place in any but complex ideas. It is very manifest how both the Peripatetics, and even modern philosophers, for plagurism, want of observing this, have trifled or talked jargon in endeavouring to define the names of some few of the how to brainstorm for a paper, simple ideas, for, as to the greatest part of them, they found it best to let them alone; for qun qiu, though they have attempted the definitions of motion and light, yet they have forborne to offer any definitions of the greatest part of simple ideas; and those definitions of light and motion they have ventured at, when strictly examined, will be found to be as insignificant as anything can be said to explain what the term red or sweet signifies; when a man can be found that can by words make a blind man understand what idea the how to research paper, word blue stands for, then also may he be able by a definition to for a scholarship make a man have the true signification of the for a, word motion or light who never had it any other way. Research Paper. 5th. The names of simple ideas have but few assents in linea pr?dicamentali , as they call it, because these ideas, not being compounded, nothing can be left out of any of them to make it more general and comprehensive, and research paper, therefore the name colour , which comprehends red and blue , c, denotes only the simple ideas that come in by the sight. Chap. 5. As to the names of mixed modes and relations, which are all of them general terms#0151;1st.
The essences of their several sorts are all of them made by the understanding. 2nd. They are made arbitrarily and with great liberty, wherein the mind confines not itself to the real existence of any patterns. 3rd. But though the essences or species of benjamin franklin essays, mixed modes are made without patterns, yet they are not made at random without reason. Not only signification, but shortness also, and despatch, is one of the great conveniences of language; and hence it is research paper, suitable to the end of speech not only that we should make use of sounds for words, signs of ideas, but also that one short sound should be the sign of many distinct ideas combined into one complex one. Suitable to this end, men unite into one complex idea many scattered and independent ones, and give a name to how to research it where they have occasion often to think on how write an essay scholarship, such combinations and express them to others, and thus several species of for a research, mixed modes are made arbitrarily by men giving names to certain combinations of ideas, which have in themselves no more connection that others which are not by any denomination so united.
This is evident in the diversity of languages, there being nothing more ordinary than to dissertation find many words in one language which have none that answer them in another. Chap. 6. The names of substances signify only their nominal essences, and not their real essences, which two essences in substances are far different things, v.g. the colour, weight, malleability, fusibility, fixedness, and perhaps some other sensible qualities, make up the complex idea men have in their minds, to which they give the how to, name gold; but the texture of the insensible parts, or whatever else it be, on which these sensible qualities depend, which is its real constitution or essence, is quite a different thing, and research plagurism disclaimer, would give us quite another idea of gold if we knew it; but since we have no idea of that constitution, and brainstorm, can signify nothing by our words but the ideas we have, our name gold cannot signify that real essence. It is therefore by their nominal essences that substances are ranked into sorts under several denominations, which nominal essences being nothing but abstract, complex ideas, made up in various men of various collections of simple ideas which they have observed or imagined to co-exist together, it is plain the essences of the species of substances, and consequently the how write an essay for a, species themselves as ranked under distinct denominations, are of men's making. I do not say the substances themselves are made by men, nor the likeness and agreement that is to paper be found in how write, them, but the how to brainstorm research paper, boundaries of the species, as marked by distinct names, are made by men. But though men make the essences whereby the species of substances are limited and distinguished, yet they make them not so arbitrarily as they do in modes; for in substances they propose to dissertation themselves the real existence of brainstorm for a, things as the patterns they would follow, yet through their variety of skill or attention, their complex idea, made up of a collection of sensible qualities, signified by the same specific name, is in phd dissertation words, various men very different, the brainstorm, one putting in simple ideas that the other has omitted; but the research plagurism, real essences supposed of the species of things must be, if there were any such, invariably the same. If the first sorting of individuals into their lowest species depend on the mind of man, as has been shown, it is much more evident that the more comprehensive classes, called genera by the masters of logic, are so, which are complex ideas designedly imperfect, out of which are purposely left several of those qualities that are to brainstorm for a be found constantly in the things themselves as they exist; for as the mind, to dissertation make general ideas comprehending several particular beings, leaves out those of time and place, and others that make them incommunicable to more than one individual, so, to make others yet more general that may comprehend different sorts, it leaves out these qualities that distinguish them, and for a research paper, puts into its new collection only such ideas as are common to benjamin essays several sorts; so that in this whole business of genus and species, the genus, or more comprehensive, is but a partial conception of what is in the species, and how to brainstorm, the species but a partial idea of what is to benjamin franklin be found in each individual.
This is suited to the true end of speech, which is to denote by one short sound a great many particulars as they agree in for a, one common conception genera ; and species, then, seem to me to be nothing but sorting of things in order to denomination, and the essence of hva er et essay, each sort is how to brainstorm research paper, nothing but the abstract idea to which the denomination is annexed; for a little attention will teach us that to particular things nothing is essential, but as soon as they come to be ranked under any general name, which is the same as to benjamin franklin essays be reckoned of brainstorm for a paper, any species, then presently something is essential to hva er et essay them, viz. all that is comprehended in the complex idea that the name stands for. This further is to be observed concerning substances, that they alone, of all the several sorts of ideas, have proper names; to which we may add, that though the how to brainstorm for a paper, specific names of substances can signify nothing but the qun qiu, abstract ideas in the mind of the speaker, and so consequently the for a, substances that agree to that idea, yet men, in how write for a scholarship, their use of them, often substitute them in the room of, and paper, would suppose them to stand for, things having the real essence of that species, which breeds great confusion and uncertainty in their use of words. Chap. 7. Words have a double use: 1st, to record our own thoughts; and for this any words will serve, so they be kept constantly to the same ideas. 2nd. To communicate our thought with others, and for this use they must be common signs standing for the same ideas in phd dissertation words, those who have communication together.
In communication they have also a double use: The first of these is that which serves for the upholding of common conversation and commerce. The philosophical use is to convey the precise notions of things, and to express in how to research, general propositions certain and undoubted truths, which the mind may rest upon, and be satisfied with in its search after true knowledge. In this last use of words they are especially liable to great imperfections of uncertainty and obscurity in their signification. Words naturally signifying nothing, it is necessary that their signification, i. e. the precise ideas they stand for, be settled and retained, which is hard to be done: 1st. Where the ideas they stand for are very complex, and made up of a great number of how write for a, ideas put together. 2nd. Where the ideas that make up the complex one they stand for have no connection in for a research, nature, and so there is no settled standard anywhere existing in nature to rectify and adjust them by. 3rd. Where the hva er et essay, signification of the word is referred to a standard existing, which yet is not easy to be known.
4th. Where the signification of the word and the real essence of the thing are not exactly the same. The names of mixed modes are very much liable to doubtfulness, for the two first of these reasons; and the names of research paper, substances chiefly for the two latter. According to these rules, as well as experience, we shall find, First, That the names of simple ideas are the least liable to uncertainty, 1st, because they are simple, and so easily got and retained; 2nd, because they are referred to nothing but that very perception which things in nature are fitted to produce in us. Second. That names of mixed modes are very uncertain, because the what statement death, complex ideas they are the signs of have no standing patterns existing in nature whereby to for a research paper be regulated and adjusted; their archetypes are only in research paper, the minds of men, and therefore uncertain to be known, and being very much compounded and often decompounded, are very hardly to be exactly agreed on and retained. Where shall one find an assemblage of all the ideas the word Glory stands for, existing together? And the precise complex idea the name Justice is the how to research, sign of, is seldom, I imagine, settled and retained. Third, The names of substances are very uncertain, because their complex ideas not being voluntary compositions, but referred to patterns that exist, are yet referred to patterns that cannot at all be known, or at words, least can be known but very imperfectly. 1st. As has been showed, sometimes the names of substances are supposed to stand for their supposed real essences.
Everything having a real constitution, whereby it is what it is, this is apt to be called its essence, as if it were the essence of a species; but whether it be or no, this is certain, that, it being utterly unknown, it is impossible to know in research paper, such a supposition or reference, of the name which any word stands for. Qun Qiu. 2nd. Sometimes the ideas the names of substances stand for are copied from the sensible qualities to be observed in bodies existing; but in this, which is their proper use, it is not easy to adjust their significations, because the qualities that are to paper be found in substances out of which we make their complex ideas, being for the most part powers, they are almost infinite, and one of them having no more right than another to be put into our complex ideas, which are to be copies of these originals, it is hva er et essay, very hard by these patterns to adjust the signification of their names, and therefore it is very seldom that the same name of any substance stands in two men for the same complex idea. Chap. 8. To this natural imperfection of words it is how to brainstorm research, not unusual for men to add voluntary abuses, some whereof I take notice of; as, 1st, the using of qun qiu, words without any clear and determinate signification: this whole sects in philosophy and religion are frequently guilty of, there being very few of them who, either out of affectation of singularity, or to research cover some weak part of their system, do not make use of some terms which it is plain have no clear and determinate ideas annexed to them. Besides these appropriated terms of thesis statement death penalty, parties, which never had any distinct meaning, there are others who use ordinary words of common language, without having in their minds any precise ideas they stand for; it is enough that they have learned the words that are common in the language of their country, which serving well enough to be produced in brainstorm for a research, talk, they dispense with themselves from being solicitous about any clear notions to is a good statement be signified by how to brainstorm them; and if men who have them often in their mouths should be examined what they mean by Reason or Grace , c., they would often be found to have in their minds no distinct ideas which these and the like words were the qun qiu dissertation, signs of. How To. 2nd. Hva Er Et Essay. Another abuse is inconstancy, or putting the same word as the sign sometimes of one idea, sometimes of brainstorm research, another, in the same discourse.
There is how write scholarship, nothing more ordinary in all controversies, where one can seldom miss to how to brainstorm research paper find the same sound often put for hva er et essay, different significations, and that not only in for a paper, the incidental parts of the discourse, but in those terms which are the most material in the debate, and on benjamin essays, which the how to brainstorm research paper, question turns. 3rd. To this may be added an affected obscurity, either in the use of old words, or the coining of new ones. To this nothing has so much contributed as the method and paper plagurism disclaimer, learning of the schools, where all has been adapted to and measured by dispute. This way of proceeding unavoidably runs all into multiplication and perplexity of terms. This perverse abuse of language, having under the esteemed name of subtility gained the reputation and rewards of true knowledge, how much it has hindered real improvements the world is now satisfied. 4th.
The next abuse of language is the taking words for things: this most concerns the names of substances, for brainstorm for a research paper, men having feigned to themselves peculiar and dissertation, groundless ideas, proportionably as they have thought fit to contrive or espouse some certain system of natural philosophy, have suited names to them, which, growing into familiar use, came afterwards among their followers to carry with them the opinion of reality, as if they were the how to brainstorm, necessary and unavoidable marks of things themselves. Thus, substantial forms and intentional species, and abundance of such other terms, have by their common and unquestioned use carried men into is a good thesis for the penalty the persuasion that there were such things, it being hard for brainstorm paper, them to believe that their fathers and masters, learned men and divines, should make use of franklin, names that stood for fancies only, that never had any real being in the world. Brainstorm For A. The supposing words to what is a death penalty stand for how to brainstorm for a research paper, the real essences of substances is an abuse which I have already mentioned. 5th. Another more general, though less observed, abuse of words is, to suppose their signification so clear and settled that a man cannot be mistaken what ideas they stand for; and hence men think it strange to ask or be asked the meaning of their words, when yet it is qun qiu, plain that many times the certain signification of a man's words cannot be any otherwise known but by his telling what precise idea he makes any word the sign of. 6th. Figurative speeches and all the artificial ornaments of how to for a research paper, rhetoric are truly an hva er et essay abuse of language also; but this, like the fair sex, has too prevailing beauties in it to how to paper suffer itself ever to be spoken against, and it is in vain to hva er et essay find fault with those arts of deceiving wherein men find a pleasure to be deceived. Brainstorm For A Research Paper. Chap.
9. That which has nourished disputes and spread errors in the world being chiefly the imperfection or abuse of words before mentioned, it would be of no small advantage to paper plagurism disclaimer truth and quiet, if men would apply themselves seriously to brainstorm for a research a more careful and hva er et essay, candid use of language, wherein I shall offer some easy and obvious cautions to those who have a mind to be ingenuous; for I am not so vain as to think of reforming so prevailing an abuse, wherein so many men imagine they find their account. Though I think nobody will deny, 1st, That every one should take care to use no word without a signification,#0151;no vocal sign without some idea he had in his mind, and would express by brainstorm for a paper it. 2nd. That the idea he uses a sign for should be clear and distinct; all the simple ideas it is made up of, if it be complex, should be settled. This, as it is necessary in all our names of how write scholarship, complex ideas, so is most carefully to be observed in moral names, which being compounded and decompounded of several simple ones, our ideas are not right as they should be, and consequently our words are full of uncertainty and obscurity, and neither others nor we ourselves know what we mean by them till we have so settled in our minds the complex idea we would have each word stand for, that we can readily enumerate all the particulars that make it up, and resolve it into all its component simple ones. 3rd. How To For A Research. These ideas must be accommodated as near as we can to the common signification of the word in its ordinary use. It is this propriety of speech which gives the stamp under which words are current, and essays, it is brainstorm paper, not for every private man to alter their value at pleasure. But because common use has left many if not most words very loose in their signification, and what is a good for the, because a man is how to research paper, often under a necessity of using a known word in some with a peculiar sense, therefore it is hva er et essay, often his duty to show the meaning of this or that term, especially where it concerns the how to, main subject of discourse or question.
This showing the meaning of our terms, to do it well must be suited to statement the several sorts of ideas they stand for. The best, and in many cases the only, way to make known the meaning of the name of a simple idea is by producing it by the senses. The only way of making known the meaning of the names of mixed modes, at least moral words, is by definition; and brainstorm research paper, the best way of making known the meaning of the names of most bodies is both by showing and by definition together; many of their distinguishing qualities being not so easily made known by words, and many of qun qiu, them not without much pains and preparation discoverable by our senses. Chap. 10. What words signify, and how much we are to for a beware that they impose not on us, I have shown, it being necessary to be premised to our consideration of knowledge, the business of the next book; only, before I conclude this, I take notice of one ordinary distinction of words, because I think it gives us some light into our ideas; vix. Abstract and franklin, concrete terms, concerning which we may observe, 1st, That no two abstract ideas ever affirmed one of how to, another. 2nd.
That simple ideas and modes have all of them abstract as well as concrete names; but substances only concrete, except some few abstract names of substances in vain affected by hva er et essay the schools, which could never get into common use of corporietas and animalitas , c. The first of these seems to me to show us that two distinct ideas are two distinct essences that cannot be affirmed one of another. The latter carries with it a plain confession that men have no ideas of the real essences of the how to research paper, sorts of substances, since they have put into their languages no names for them. Lib. IV. The two foregoing books were of ideas and words, this is of knowledge. Hva Er Et Essay. Chap.
1. The first chapter shows that knowledge is nothing but the perception of the agreement or disagreement of any two ideas. This agreement or disagreement, for the clearer explaining of this matter, is reduced to these four sorts: Identity, Coëxistence, Real Existence, Relation. 1st. It is the first and fundamental act of our understanding to research perceive the what is a good statement death penalty, ideas it has, to know each what it is, and perceive wherein it differs from any others; without this, the mind could neither have variety of thoughts nor discourse, judge or reason about them. By this faculty the mind perceives what idea it has when it sees a violet, and knows blue is not yellow. 2nd. Our ideas of substances, as I have showed, consist in certain collections of single ideas which the specific name stands for; and how to for a research paper, our inquiry, for the most part, concerning substances, is what other qualities they have; which is no more but this, what other ideas coëxist and are to be found united with those of our complex ideas. Thus, whether gold be fixed, is to inquire whether the power of abiding in the fire without wasting be an idea which coëxists in the same subject with those ideas of yellowness, weight, malleability, and fusibility, whereof my idea of gold is made up. The 3rd sort of agreement is, whether a real existence out of my mind agrees to any idea I have there.
4th. The last sort of agreement or disagreement of any ideas is in any other sort of relation between them. Thus, sweetness is not bitterness , is of identity. Iron is susceptible of plagurism disclaimer, magnetical impressions , is of coëxistence. God is , is of existence. Two triangles upon equal basis between two parallels are equal , is of relation. Chap.
2. According to the different way of perceiving the agreement or disagreement of any of our ideas, so is the evidence of our knowledge different. Sometimes the mind perceives the brainstorm for a, agreement or disagreement of two ideas immediately; thus it perceives that red is not yellow, that a circle is not a triangle, that three is hva er et essay, more than two, and equal to one and two; and this we may call intuitive knowledge . When the agreement or disagreement of any two ideas cannot be immediately perceived, but the mind makes use of the intervention of other ideas to show it, then (as the word imports) it is demonstration . Thus the mind not being able to bring the three angles of a triangle and two right ones so together as to be able immediately to perceive their equality, it makes use of some other angles to measure them by. To produce knowledge this way, there must be an intuitive knowledge of the how to for a, agreement or disagreement of the intermediate ideas in each step of the deduction, for without that there can be no demonstration, the agreement or disagreement of the hva er et essay, two ideas under consideration is not shown; for where any agreement or disagreement of any two ideas is not self-evident, i. e. cannot be immediately perceived, there it will always need a proof to show it. How To Brainstorm For A Research. This sort, which may be called rational or demonstrative knowledge , however certain, is not so clear and evident as intuitive , because here the memory must intervene to retain the qun qiu dissertation, connection of how to for a paper, all the parts of the demonstration one with another, and be sure that none is omitted in hva er et essay, the account, which in how to for a research paper, long deductions requires great attention to qun qiu avoid mistake. Why demonstration is for a research paper, generally thought to belong only to ideas of quantity, I shall not in this short epitome mention. These two sorts are all the knowledge we have of general truths. Of the existence of some particular finite beings we have knowledge by how write an essay our senses, which we may call sensitive knowledge . Brainstorm For A Paper. Chap.
3. From what has been said, it follows: 1st. That we can have no knowledge where we have no ideas. 2nd. That our intuitive knowledge reaches not so far as our ideas, because the greatest part of them cannot be so immediately compared as to discover the agreement or disagreement we seek. 3rd. Neither can rational and demonstrative knowledge make out the phd dissertation words, agreement or disagreement of how to brainstorm for a research paper, all those of our ideas wherein we fail of intuitive knowledge, because we cannot always find mediums to connect them intuitively together. 4th. Words. Sensitive knowledge reaching no further than the actual presence of particular things to brainstorm for a research paper our senses, is much narrower than either of the former.
That which I would infer from this is, that our knowledge is not only infinitely short of the whole extent of beings, if we compare this little spot of earth we are confined to, to that part of the universe which we have some knowledge of, which probably is, all of it, but a point in respect to what is utterly beyond our discovery, and consider the vegetables, animals, rational corporeal creatures (not to mention the ranks and orders of spirits), and other things with different qualities suited to senses different from ours, whereof we have no notion at all, which may be in them, we shall have reason to conclude that the things whereof we have ideas are very few in respect of those whereof we have none at all. In the next place, if we consider how few, how imperfect, and how superficial, those ideas are which we have of the things that lie nearest our examination, and hva er et essay, are best known to us; and lastly, if we consider how few they are of those few ideas we have, whose agreement or disagreement we are able to discover, we shall have reason to conclude that our understandings were not proportioned to brainstorm for a paper the whole extent of being, nor men made capable of how write an essay for a scholarship, knowing all things, but that it fails us in the greatest part of the inquiry concerning those ideas we have. 1st. As to brainstorm identity and diversity, it is true our intuitive knowledge is as large as our ideas themselves; but, 2nd, on the other side, we have scarce any general knowledge at all or the coëxistence of any ideas , because not being able to discover the causes whereon the franklin, secondary qualities of substances depend, nor any connection between such causes and our ideas, there are very few cases wherein we can know the coëxistence of any other idea with that complex one we have of any sort of substances, whereby our knowledge of substances comes to be almost none at all. 3rd. As to how to other relations of our ideas, how far our knowledge may reach is yet uncertain; this I think, morality, if rightly studied, is phd dissertation, capable of demonstration as well as mathematics. 4th. As to existence, we have an intuitive knowledge of our own, a demonstrative one of a God, and a sensible one of some few other things. I shall not here, in this short compendium I am giving of my thoughts, mention those particulars which I have set down to show up the narrowness of our knowledge; that which I have here said may, I suppose suffice to convince men, what we know bears no proportion to that which we are invincibly ignorant of. Besides the extent of our knowledge in respect of the sorts of things, we may consider another kind of its extent, which is in respect of its universality. When the how to brainstorm for a research, ideas are abstract, our knowledge about them is general: abstract ideas are the essays, essences of species, howsoever named, and are the foundations of universal and eternal verities.
Chap. 4. It will perhaps be said, that knowledge placed thus in the consideration of our ideas may be chimerical, and leave us ignorant of things as they really are in how to research, themselves, since we see men may often have very extravagant ideas; to which I answer, that our knowledge is real so far as our ideas are conformable to things, and no further. To be able to know what ideas are conformable to the realities of things, we must consider the how write for a, different sorts of ideas I have above mentioned. 1st. Simple ideas we cannot but know to be conformable to things, because the mind not being able to make any simple ideas to itself, those it has must needs be conformable to that power which is in things to produce them, which conformity is how to for a research paper, sufficient for real knowledge. What Good Thesis Statement For The. 2nd. All our complex ideas, but those of for a, substances, are conformable to the reality of things; and phd dissertation words, this we may certainly know, because they being archetypes made by the mind, and not designed to be copies of anything existing, things are intended in our discourses and reasonings about these ideas no further than as they are conformable to these ideas. How To For A Paper. 3rd. Our complex ideas of substances being designed to paper plagurism be copies of research, archetypes existing without us, we can be no further sure that our knowledge concerning any of them is real, than the real existence of things has made it evident that such a collection of simple ideas, as our complex one is made up of, can coëxist together; the reason whereof is, because not knowing the real constitution on which these qualities depend, we cannot but by experience know which of hva er et essay, them are, and which are not, capable to exist together in the same subject; and brainstorm research paper, if we put other than such that are capable to exist together into any complex idea, our knowledge concerning such an idea of substance will be only concerning a chimera of our own, and not of any real being. Chap.
5. According to this account of dissertation, knowledge, we may come to discover what truth is, which appears to be nothing else but the joining or separating of signs according as things themselves agree or disagree. The joining or separating I here mean is, such as is made by affirmation and negation, and is called proposition . Now the signs we use being of how to brainstorm for a paper, two sorts, viz. ideas and words; propositions also are of two sorts, viz. mental or verbal ; truth also is benjamin franklin essays, twofold, either real or barely verbal . Real truth in any proposition is when the terms are affirmed or denied as the ideas they stand for agree or disagree, and brainstorm research paper, as the ideas also themselves agree to their archetypes. Verbal truth is when the affirmation or negation is made according to benjamin franklin essays the agreement or disagreement of our ideas, but the brainstorm for a research, ideas themselves have no conformity with their archetypes. Chap. 6. Truth being for the most part conveyed to our understandings, or considered by us in propositions, it will be of moment to examine what propositions are capable to convey to our understandings the certain knowledge of phd dissertation, general truths. Brainstorm For A Research. 1st. Then I say, that in all general propositions, where the terms are supposed to stand for species constituted and determined by real essences distinct from the nominal, we are not capable of any certain knowledge, because not knowing that real essence, we cannot know what particular things have it, and so can never know what particular things are of that species. This frequently happens in propositions concerning substances in other things, not because in the species of other things there is no supposed real essence different from the nominal. 2nd. In all general propositions where the terms are substituted only in the place of the nominal essence or abstract idea, and so the species determined by that alone, there we are capable of certainty as far as the agreement or disagreement of such abstract ideas can be perceived; but this also reaches but a very little way in dissertation, substances, because the necessary coëxistence or inconsistency of any other ideas with any of those that make up one complex one of any sort of substances, is in very few cases discoverable.
Chap. 7. There are a sort of propositions which, passing under the brainstorm, title of maxims, are by some men received as innates, and by most esteemed as the foundations of knowledge; but if what we have said concerning self-evident or intuitive knowledge be well considered, we shall find that these dignified axioms are neither innate nor have any other self-evidence than a thousand other propositions, some whereof are known before them, and words, others altogether as clearly, and brainstorm research, therefore they are neither innate, nor be the foundations of all our knowledge or reasonings as they are thought to be. Paper Plagurism. Whatsoever is, is , and how to for a research, It is impossible for the same to be and not to be , it is granted are self-evident propositions; but he that considers the nature of the understanding and hva er et essay, the ideas in it, and that it is unavoidable for the understanding to know its own ideas, and to know those to be distinct that are so, must needs observe that these supposed fundamental principles of brainstorm, knowledge and reasoning are no more self-evident than that one is one, and benjamin franklin essays, red red, and that it is impossible one should be two, or red blue: of brainstorm for a research paper, these and the like propositions, we have as certain a knowledge as of those other called maxims, and benjamin, a much earlier; and can anybody imagine that a child knows not that wormwood is not sugar, but by virtue of this axiom? That it is impossible for the same thing to be and not to be. Intuitive knowledge extends itself to all our ideas in respect of brainstorm for a paper, identical agreeement or disagreement, therefore all propositions made concerning this sort of agreement or disagreement, whether in phd dissertation words, more or less general terms, so the ideas they stand for how to brainstorm for a, be but known, are all equally self-evident. As to the agreement or disagreement of coëxistence, we have very little intuitive knowledge, and therefore concerning that there are very few self-evident propositions and little talk of dissertation, axioms. How To Research Paper. In the research plagurism, third sort of agreement, viz. relation, the mathematicians have dignified several general propositions concerning equality with the for a, title of axioms, though these have no other sort of certainty than all other self-evident propositions; and though, when they are once made familiar to how write an essay for a the mind, they are often made use of to brainstorm show the absurdity of wrong reasoning and erroneous opinions in particular instances; yet the way wherein the for a scholarship, mind attains knowledge, is not by beginning and setting out from these general propositions, but in brainstorm research paper, the quite contrary method; it begins its knowledge in particulars, and thence gradually enlarges it to more general ideas. Chap. 8. Besides these there are other propositions, which are many of them certain, but convey no real truth to our knowledge, being barely about the signification of words.
1st. Where any part of any complex idea is predicated of the name of that complex idea, such a proposition is only about the signification of the terms, and such are all propositions wherein more comprehensive terms are predicated of less comprehensive, as genera of species or individuals. 2nd. Wherever two abstract terms are predicated one of another, there the proposition carries no real knowledge in it, but is barely about the import of names. Were such trifling propositions as these shut out of discourses, the way to what is a good thesis statement knowledge would be less perplexed with disputes than it is. Chap. 9. Universal propositions, that have certain truth or falsehood in them, concern essences only. The knowledge of existence goes no further than particulars of our own existences; it is plain we have such an how to for a paper intuitive knowledge, that nothing can be more evident. Chap. 10.
Of the existence of God there is an essay scholarship, demonstration, for which we need go no further than ourselves for how to brainstorm for a research, a proof, though God has given * * * * *. Chap. 11. Is A Good Thesis Statement Death Penalty. The existence of all other things can be known only by testimony of our senses; our knowledge reaches in how to brainstorm for a, this as far as our senses, and disclaimer, no further. For the existence of any other being having no necessary connection with any of the how to for a research, ideas I have in my memory, I cannot from them infer the necessary existence of any particular being, and can receive the knowledge of it only by the actual perception of my senses. Chap. 12. For the improvement of our knowledge, we must suit our methods to our ideas: in substances, where our ideas are but imperfect copies, we are capable of very little general knowledge, because few of our abstract ideas have a discoverable agreement or disagreement of phd dissertation words, coëxistence, and therefore in substances we must enlarge our knowledge by experiment and observation in particulars; but in brainstorm for a research paper, modes and relations, where our ideas are archetypes, and real as well as nominal essences of species, there we attain general knowledge only by research views of our own abstract ideas; and in them our inquiries not being concerning the agreement or disagreement of coëxistence, but of other relations more discoverable than that of coëxistence, we are capable of greater advances in knowledge: and that which is proposed for the improvement of it, is to settle in how to research, our minds clear and steady ideas, with their names or signs, and then to contemplate and pursue their connections, and agreements, and hva er et essay, dependencies: whether any method may be found out as useful in other modes as Algebra is in the ideas of quantity, for the discovery of their habitudes and relations, cannot, beforehand, be determined, and therefore not to be despaired of. In the mean time, I doubt not but that Ethics might be improved to brainstorm for a research paper a much greater degree of certainty, if men, affixing moral names to clear and settled ideas, could with freedom and indifferency pursue them. Phd Dissertation Words. Chap. 13.
Knowledge is not born with us, nor does it always force itself upon our understandings; animadversion and application is, in most parts of it, required, and that depends on the will; but when we have thoroughly surveyed, and to how to research our utmost traced our idea, it depends not then on our wills whether we will be knowing or ignorant. Chap. 14. The shortness of our knowledge, not reaching to all the concernment we have, is paper, supplied by that which we call judgment, whereby the brainstorm for a paper, mind takes ideas to agree or not agree; i. e. any proposition to be true or false, without perceiving a demonstrative evidence in the proofs. Chap. Words. 15. The ground on which such propositions are received for true, is what we call probability , and the entertainment the mind gives such propositions is called assent , belief , or opinion , which is the admitting any proposition to be true without certain knowledge that it is so. The grounds of probability are these two.#0151;1st.
The conformity of anything with our own knowledge, observation, or experience. 2nd. The testimony of others, vouching their observation and experience. Chap. 16. The variety of these in concurring or counter-balancing circumstances, affording matter for assent in how to brainstorm paper, several degrees of assurance or doubting, is too great to be set down in an extract.
Chap. 17. Error is not a fault of our knowledge, but a mistake of judgment, giving assent to what is phd dissertation words, not true; the causes whereof are these#0151; First. Want of proofs, whether such as may be or as cannot be had. Secondly. Want of ability to use them. Thirdly.
Want of will to use them. Brainstorm For A. Fourthly. Wrong measures of probability, which are these four#0151; Doubtful opinions taken for principles. Received hypotheses. Predominant passions. Authority. How Write An Essay. Chap. 18. Reason, that serves us to the discovery of both demonstration and probability, seems to how to brainstorm for a research paper me to have four parts#0151;1st. The finding out of proofs. 2nd.
The laying them in benjamin essays, their due order for the discovery of truth. Brainstorm For A. 3rd. In the perception of the more or less clear connection of the ideas in each part of the deduction. 4th, and phd dissertation, last of all, The drawing a right judgment and conclusion from the whole. By which it will appear that syllogism is not the great instrument of reason, it serving but only to the third of these, and that only, too, to show another's wrong arguing; but it helps not reason at all in the search of new knowledge, nor the discovery of yet unknown truths, and the proofs of them, which is the chief use of how to for a, that faculty, and not victory in dispute, or the silencing of wranglers.
Chap. 19. Faith is by qun qiu some men so often made use of in opposition to reason, that he who knows not their distinct bounds will be at a loss in his inquiries concerning matters of religion. Matters of reason are such propositions as may be known by the natural use of our faculties, and are deducible from ideas received from sensation or reflection. Matters of faith, such as are made known by supernatural revelation.
The distinct principles and evidence of these two, being rightly considered, show where faith excludes or overrules reason, and for a research, where not. 1. Original revelation cannot be assented to contrary to the clear principles of our natural knowledge, because, though God cannot lie, yet it is impossible that any one, to whom a revelation is is a thesis statement for the penalty, made, should know it to be from God more certainly than he knows such truths. 2. But original revelation may silence reason in any proposition, whereof reason gives but a probable assurance, because the assurance that it is how to for a, a revelation from God may be more clear than any probable truth can be. 3. If original revelation cannot, much less can traditional revelation be assented to, contrary to our natural clear and evident knowledge; because, though what God reveals cannot be doubted of, yet he to is a statement for the death penalty whom the brainstorm for a research, revelation is not originally made, but has only received it by research plagurism disclaimer the delivery or tradition of brainstorm for a research paper, other men, can never so certainly know that it was a revelation made by God, nor that he understands the words aright in which it is delivered to him. Dissertation. Nay, he cannot know that he ever heard or read that proposition which is supposed revealed to how to for a research paper another, so certainly as he knows those truths. Though it be a revelation that the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised, yet it not being revealed anywhere that such a proposition, delivered by an essay a certain man, is brainstorm for a, a revelation, the how write an essay scholarship, believing of such a proposition to be a revelation is not a matter of faith, but of how to paper, reason; and paper plagurism disclaimer, so it is brainstorm for a research, if the question be whether I understand it in the right sense.
According to these principles, I conclude all with a division of the sciences into three sorts#0151;1st. Fysikh , or the knowledge of things, whether bodies or spirits, or of any of their affections in their true natures; the end of this is bare speculation. 2nd. Praktikh , or the rules of what good thesis for the death, operation about things in our power, and principally those which concern our conduct; the end of this is action. 3rd. Shmiwtikh , or the how to for a paper, knowledge of signs, i. e. ideas and words, as subservient to the other two, which if well considered, would perhaps produce another kind of logic and critique than has yet been thought on. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at benjamin essays, http://www.philosophypages.com/referral/contact.htm.
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