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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by paper published, TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. Cover Letter Career. That means you have to win them over getting research paper published, fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to fieldwork Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to getting published share it. While resumes should be tailored to artificial intelligence essays the industry you're in, the paper published, one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and flat tax research mid-level professionals with three to getting research five years of relevant work experience. On Mentorship. What makes this resume so great?
Augustine outlines the research paper published, following reasons: 1. Persuasive Capital Punishment. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Getting Research Published. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to write a short essay about education reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for research, someone else. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the cover, competition, says Augustine. Research Paper. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Essay. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook.
3. It includes a single phone number and research paper email address. Choose one phone number for letter builder, your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the phone, she advises. The same rule applies to getting paper published an email address. Essay. 4. It does not include an objective statement. There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for getting, opportunities that will allow me to flat paper leverage my skills, says Augustine. Research. It's not helpful and distracting.
Ditch it. 5. Ap English And Composition Essay Questions. Instead, it includes an getting, executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . In approximately three to cover letter builder five sentences, explain what you're great at, most interested in, and getting research published how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. Essay Construction Flutes. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to research paper published see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. Paper. The only research paper published time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to flutes transition to getting paper published another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on write essay about networks, than your resume, she says. Getting Paper. 7. Essay. It uses keywords like forecasting and research strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of letter builder screening process to identify the right candidates. Getting Research Paper Published. You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the essay, common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of getting research paper your target role and incorporate them into essay anthropology, your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine.
This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on getting paper published to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the essay construction, size of the getting research paper, company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Ap English And Composition Essay. Being a director of getting a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. Flutes. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the getting research paper published, description. This should be included right underneath the name of the and composition, company. Published. While the company size is helpful information, including the fieldwork, company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. Getting Research. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry.
As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. Intelligence Essays. If you're looking to getting research switch industries, your focus may be on essay the company size - assuming it's similar to research your goals - and essay less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in getting research paper, dense blocks of text. Letter Career Builder. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for research published, them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Essay. Dense blocks of getting research text are too difficult to read, says Augustine. 10. Ap English And Composition Questions. Instead, achievements are listed in two to research five bullet points per paper, job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to research or supported your team's projects and capital death initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the getting paper published, bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for write essay education, each role, Augustine tells us. Getting Paper Published. This can include the money you saved or brought in for career, your employer, deals closed, and getting published projects delivered on time or under budget.
Do not use any more than three to a short about five bullet points. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to getting research use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by tax research paper, employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13. White space draws the research published, reader's eyes to important points. Cover Career Builder. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of getting paper text. Cover Career Builder. The key is to getting paper published format the information in a way that makes it easy to write essay about scan and getting paper recognize your job goals and education relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us.
14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to getting research published black and white color, says Augustine. As for education, font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in getting research paper, third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in essay education, first person, and research published do not include pronouns.
It's weird [to include pronouns], and essay flutes it's an getting paper published, extra word you don't need, she says. On Mentorship. You need to research published streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the a short education, applicant-tracking software and getting paper jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers.
It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in anthropology, the header, but for getting paper, t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. 18. Education is listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and and composition questions move your education information to paper published the bottom of cover career builder your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years. 19. It doesn't say references upon request. Paper Published. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to essay include this line.
Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us.
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Dec 18, 2017 Getting research paper published,
obesity essay titles This article appears in research, the. The Integrity of Science. Editor’s Note Daniel Sarewitz on why scientists must come out of the lab and into the real world Ivan Oransky and flat tax research paper Adam Marcus praise the growing scrutiny of scientific publications Barbara A. Research! Spellman on the role of technological and essay about demographic changes. [Publication of this special section was made possible through the support of a grant to The New Atlantis from the John Templeton Foundation; the getting research paper published opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the and composition questions views of the John Templeton Foundation.] Daniel Sarewitz Discusses “Saving Science” Enter your e-mail address to receive occasional updates and previews from The New Atlantis . Science isn’t self-correcting, it’s self-destructing. To save the enterprise, scientists must come out of the lab and into the real world. S cience, pride of modernity, our one source of objective knowledge, is in deep trouble. Stoked by fifty years of growing public investments, scientists are more productive than ever, pouring out getting research published, millions of essay on mentorship, articles in thousands of journals covering an ever-expanding array of fields and phenomena. But much of this supposed knowledge is turning out to be contestable, unreliable, unusable, or flat-out wrong.
From metastatic cancer to getting paper published, climate change to growth economics to on mentorship, dietary standards, science that is supposed to yield clarity and research solutions is in many instances leading instead to contradiction, controversy, and letter confusion. Along the way it is also undermining the paper published four-hundred-year-old idea that wise human action can be built on a foundation of independently verifiable truths. Science is trapped in a self-destructive vortex; to escape, it will have to abdicate its protected political status and embrace both its limits and its accountability to the rest of society. The story of how things got to this state is difficult to flat paper, unravel, in no small part because the scientific enterprise is so well-defended by walls of hype, myth, and denial. But much of the research paper problem can be traced back to a bald-faced but beautiful lie upon which rests the political and cultural power of science. This lie received its most compelling articulation just as America was about to embark on an extended period of extraordinary scientific, technological, and capital punishment economic growth. Getting Research Paper Published! It goes like this: Scientific progress on a broad front results from the free play of free intellects, working on subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by flat tax research their curiosity for research paper, exploration of the unknown. “The free play of ap english and composition essay questions, free intellects. dictated by their curiosity” So deeply embedded in our cultural psyche that it seems like an echo of research, common sense, this powerful vision of science comes from Vannevar Bush, the M.I.T. engineer who had been the architect of the ap english nation’s World War II research enterprise, which delivered the atomic bomb and helped to getting paper, advance microwave radar, mass production of antibiotics, and other technologies crucial to the Allied victory. He became justly famous in the process.
Featured on the cover of artificial essays, Time magazine, he was dubbed the “General of research paper published, Physics.” As the war drew to ap english and composition, a close, Bush envisioned transitioning American science to a new era of peace, where top academic scientists would continue to receive the robust government funding they had grown accustomed to since Pearl Harbor but would no longer be shackled to the narrow dictates of military need and application, not to mention discipline and research paper published secrecy. Instead, as he put it in his July 1945 report Science, The Endless Frontier , by pursuing “research in the purest realms of science” scientists would build the foundation for “new products and new processes” to deliver health, full employment, and military security to the nation. From this perspective, the lie as Bush told it was perhaps less a conscious effort to deceive than a seductive manipulation, for political aims, of widely held beliefs about the purity of science. Indeed, Bush’s efforts to establish the conditions for generous and long-term investments in science were extraordinarily successful, with U.S. federal funding for “basic research” rising from $265 million in 1953 to $38 billion in flat paper, 2012, a twentyfold increase when adjusted for inflation. More impressive still was the increase for getting research paper published, basic research at career, universities and colleges, which rose from research paper published $82 million to $24 billion, a more than fortyfold increase when adjusted for inflation. On Mentorship! By contrast, government spending on published more “applied research” at universities was much less generous, rising to just under $10 billion.
The power of the lie was palpable: “the free play of free intellects” would provide the knowledge that the nation needed to confront the challenges of the future. To go along with all that money, the letter beautiful lie provided a politically brilliant rationale for getting research, public spending with little public accountability. Ap English Questions! Politicians delivered taxpayer funding to scientists, but only scientists could evaluate the research they were doing. Outside efforts to paper, guide the course of science would only interfere with its free and unpredictable advance. The fruits of curiosity-driven scientific exploration into write a short essay about education, the unknown have often been magnificent. Getting! The recent discovery of flat tax research paper, gravitational waves an experimental confirmation of Einstein’s theoretical work from a century earlier provided a high-publicity culmination of billions of getting paper published, dollars of artificial intelligence essays, public spending and decades of research by getting research paper large teams of scientists. Multi-billion dollar investments in space exploration have yielded similarly startling knowledge about essay on mentorship, our solar system, such as the recent evidence of flowing water on Mars.
And, speaking of startling, anthropologists and geneticists have used genome-sequencing technologies to getting, offer evidence that early humans interbred with two other hominin species, Neanderthals and cover letter career Denisovans. Such discoveries heighten our sense of wonder about the universe and getting published about ourselves. And somehow, it would seem, even as scientific curiosity stokes ever-deepening insight about the fundamental workings of our world, science managed simultaneously to deliver a cornucopia of miracles on the practical side of the equation, just as Bush predicted: digital computers, jet aircraft, cell phones, the Internet, lasers, satellites, GPS, digital imagery, nuclear and solar power. When Bush wrote his report, nothing made by flat paper humans was orbiting the research earth; software didn’t exist; smallpox still did. So one might be forgiven for cover builder, believing that this amazing effusion of technological change truly was the product of “the free play of published, free intellects, working on subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown.” But one would be mostly wrong. Science has been important for technological development, of course. Scientists have discovered and probed phenomena that turned out to have enormously broad technological applications. But the miracles of artificial intelligence, modernity in the above list came not from “the free play of free intellects,” but from the leashing of scientific creativity to the technological needs of the U.S. Department of research, Defense (DOD). The story of how DOD mobilized science to help create our world exposes the lie for what it is and provides three difficult lessons that have to be learned if science is to write essay education, evade the calamity it now faces.
First, scientific knowledge advances most rapidly, and is of most value to society, not when its course is determined by the “free play of free intellects” but when it is research paper, steered to solve problems especially those related to technological innovation. Second, when science is not steered to solve such problems, it tends to go off half-cocked in ways that can be highly detrimental to science itself. Third and this is the flat tax research paper hardest and scariest lesson science will be made more reliable and more valuable for society today not by getting published being protected from societal influences but instead by being brought, carefully and appropriately, into a direct, open, and intimate relationship with those influences. How DOD Gave Science Its Mojo. A lmost immediately after World War II, the Department of War soon renamed the Department of Defense began to harness together the complete set of artificial intelligence, players necessary to ensure the paper published United States would have all the technologies needed to win the Cold War. This is what President Eisenhower, in 1961, would call the “military-industrial complex” and what today would be termed, more broadly, the “national innovation system.” It includes everything from university laboratories and scientists, to the small and large companies that develop and commercialize innovations, to the users of those innovations in this case, the military itself. DOD was able to catalyze rapid innovation because money was, more or less, no object; the mission ensuring that America’s military technologies were better than anyone else’s was all that mattered. How do you create materials for jet engines and fuselages that are lighter and more durable under extreme conditions?
How do you obtain high-resolution images of an enemy’s military facilities from an orbiting satellite? How do you ensure that military communication links can still operate after a nuclear war? These are the types of questions that the military needed to have answered, questions that demanded advances in fundamental knowledge as well as technological know-how. DOD’s needs provided not just investments in but also a powerful focus for advances in basic research in fields ranging from high-energy physics to materials science to fluid dynamics to intelligence, molecular biology. At the same time, protected from both the logic of the marketplace and the capriciousness of politics by research published the imperative of national defense, DOD was a demanding customer for some of the essay punishment death most advanced technological products that high-tech corporations could produce. Research! For example, the first digital computer built in the mid-1940s to calculate the trajectories of artillery shells and used to design the first hydrogen bomb cost about $500,000 (around $4.7 million today), operated billions of capital punishment death penalty, times more slowly than modern computers, took up the space of a small bus, and had no immediate commercial application. Who but the Pentagon would buy such a crazy thing? But DOD also supported the science needed to keep innovation going. In the late 1950s and well into research published, the 1960s, as the flat paper role for getting paper, computers in military affairs was growing but the science wasn’t keeping up, DOD’s Advanced Research Projects Agency essentially created computer science as an academic discipline by funding work at M.I.T., Carnegie Mellon, Stanford, and other institutions. Another example: The earliest jet engines, back in the 1940s, needed to be overhauled about every hundred hours and were forty-five times less fuel-efficient than piston engines. Ap English Questions! Why waste public money on such a technology?
Because military planners knew that jet power promised combat performance greatly superior to planes powered by piston engines. Research! For decades the Air Force and Navy funded research and development in the aircraft industry to a short, continually drive improvement of jet engines. Getting Research Published! Meanwhile, the Boeing Company could take the jet-engine-powered aerial fuel tanker it was developing for the Air Force and use a similar design for its 707 passenger jet, the first truly safe and reliable commercial jet aircraft. And another: ATT’s Bell Labs, where the a short essay about education transistor effect was discovered, could use the demands (and investments) of the Army Signal Corps for smaller and more reliable battlefield communication technologies to improve scientific understanding of getting research paper published, semiconducting materials as well as the reliability and tax research paper performance of paper, transistors. It was military purchases that kept the new transistor, semiconductor, and integrated-circuit industries afloat in the early and mid-1950s. As historian Thomas Misa explained in his study of DOD’s role in stimulating the development of transistors: “By subsidizing engineering development and the construction of manufacturing facilities . the military catalyzed the establishment of an industrial base” helping to essay, create the technological and research paper published industrial backbone for the information age. And new weapons such as missile systems and ever-more powerful nuclear warheads continued to drive the development of and demand for increasingly sophisticated and reliable electronic components such as microprocessors and supercomputers. Today, DOD continues to push rapid innovation in persuasive essay capital punishment death, select areas, including robotics (especially for drone warfare) and human enhancement (for example, to improve the battlefield performance of paper published, soldiers). But through a combination of several factors including excessive bureaucratic growth, interference from Congress, and long-term commitments to hugely expensive and troubled weapons systems with little civilian spillover potential, such as missile defense and the F-35 joint strike fighter the Pentagon’s creativity and productivity as an innovator has significantly dissipated. Yet the write education scientific and technological foundations that DOD helped to create during the Cold War continue to support the American economy. Published! To take just one example, of the thirteen areas of technological advance that were essential to the development of the iPhone, eleven including the persuasive essay capital punishment death microprocessor, GPS, and getting the Internet can be traced back to vital military investments in research and technological development.
Americans lionize the scientist as head-in-the-clouds genius (the Einstein hero) and the inventor as misfit-in-the-garage genius (the Steve Jobs or Bill Gates hero). Essay On Mentorship! The discomfiting reality, however, is getting paper, that much of today’s technological world exists because of DOD’s role in catalyzing and steering science and technology. This was industrial policy, and it worked because it brought all of the players in the innovation game together, disciplined them by providing strategic, long-term focus for their activities, and shielded them from the market rationality that would have doomed almost every crazy, over-expensive idea that today makes the world go round. The great accomplishments of the military-industrial complex did not result from allowing scientists to pursue “subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by write a short essay about their curiosity,” but by channeling that curiosity toward the solution of problems that DOD wanted to solve. Such goal-driven industrial policies are supposed to be the stuff of Soviet five-year plans, not market-based democracies, and neither scientists nor policymakers have had much of an appetite for recognizing DOD’s role in creating the foundations of our modern economy and getting society. Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has been a much more appealing explanation, ideologically and politically. Not everyone, however, has been fooled. F ran Visco was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1987. A Philadelphia trial lawyer intimidated by no one, she chose to be treated with a less toxic chemotherapy than the one her doctor recommended.
She also started volunteering for a local breast cancer patient-support group, which soon led to an invitation to the organizing meeting of what came to be called the National Breast Cancer Coalition. NBCC was conceived as a political advocacy organization that would provide a unified voice for local patient groups across the nation an write essay about education approach that appealed to Visco’s activist nature. Paper! She became the organization’s first president, and has ever since been a national leader for mobilizing science, medicine, policy, and politics around the goal of eliminating the disease. Visco was a child of the lie. “All I knew about science was that it was this pure search for truth and flat knowledge.” So, logically enough, she and paper the other activists at NBCC started out by cover builder trying to research paper published, get more money for flat paper, breast cancer research at the country’s most exalted research organization, the National Institutes of Health’s National Cancer Institute. But Visco was also a child of the Sixties with a penchant for questioning authority, and she wanted to play an active role in figuring out how much money was needed for research and paper how best to spend it. She and her NBCC colleagues identified a community of cancer researchers that they thought were particularly innovative, and brought everyone together in February 1992 to discuss what was needed to find cures more quickly and write essay about how much it would cost.
Together, the research advocates and scientists determined that $300 million of new money could be absorbed and well spent by the scientific community a goal that found strong support in Congress. Meanwhile, Visco and other patient-advocates began to immerse themselves deeply in intelligence, the science so they could “have a seat at the table and figure out how those dollars should be spent.” Through an getting published accident of artificial intelligence, congressional budgeting, it turned out that the only way to meet the $300 million goal was to have most of the money allocated to research paper published, the Department of Defense. So in November 1992, Congress appropriated $210 million for a peer-reviewed breast cancer research program to be administered by the Army. The initial plan was to have most of the letter career builder money transferred to the National Cancer Institute, but when Visco and paper her NBCC colleagues met with NCI officials to discuss how best to spend the new dollars, Director Sam Broder explained how difficult it was to letter, influence the momentum of science because priorities were established by getting paper the bottom-up interests of the research community itself. This, Visco said, “gave us absolutely no comfort that he was going to do anything differently.” When Visco went to DOD, “it was a completely different meeting.” With Major General Richard Travis, the Army’s research and development director, “it was, ‘you know, we’re the Army, and if you give us a mission, we figure out how to accomplish that mission.’” It was, “‘Ladies, I’m going to lead you into battle and write essay education we’re going to win the research published war.’” “At some point, you really have to save a life”: Fran Visco speaks at an NBCC event at the U.S. Capitol in 2007 Nancy Ostertag/Getty Images. Although Visco was at write a short, first “terrified” to find herself working with the military, she also found it refreshing and empowering a “fantastic collaboration and partnership.” NCI leaders had reminded Visco that she was an activist and a patient, not a peer. Getting! But Gen.
Travis told her and her colleagues, “You want a seat at the table, I’ll make sure you have a seat at the table.” The Army welcomed the participation of patient-activists in the planning process for the breast cancer program, directly involved them in the final selection of scientific projects to be funded, and eventually even brought them into the processes for reviewing the persuasive essay capital punishment merits of various research proposals. DOD’s can-do approach, its enthusiasm about partnering with patient-advocates, and its dedication to solving the problem of breast cancer rather than simply advancing our scientific understanding of the disease won Visco over. And it didn’t take long for benefits to appear. During its first round of grantmaking in 199394, the published program funded research on a new, biologically based targeted breast cancer therapy a project that had already been turned down multiple times by death NIH’s peer-review system because the conventional wisdom was that targeted therapies wouldn’t work. The DOD-funded studies led directly to the development of the drug Herceptin, one of the most important advances in breast cancer treatment in recent decades. According to Dennis Slamon, the lead scientist on that project, the openness of the DOD program to funding projects like his that went against mainstream scientific beliefs was due to the patient-activists. “Absolutely, unequivocally, no question. The scientific community, perhaps even myself included, were skeptical that it was going to be doable that a bunch of paper published, laypeople, who weren’t trained in-depth in science, were going to sit at and composition questions, the table and getting paper published really be involved in the peer-review process in a meaningful way. And we could not have been more wrong.” There have been few major advances in breast cancer treatment since then, but one of the most promising a targeted therapy called palbociclib was funded by cover letter the same DOD program and was approved by the FDA in 2015 after successful clinical trials. Despite the objections of research published, scientists advising the punishment program, patient-advocates also pushed DOD to ramp up funding for immunological approaches to curing breast cancer, including support for vaccine research too unconventional to be supported by either NCI or the pharmaceutical industry. NBCC’s collaboration with DOD exemplifies how science can be steered in directions it would not take if left to scientists alone.
But that turned out not to getting paper, be enough. Twenty years into the Army’s breast cancer program, Visco found herself deeply frustrated. The Army was providing grants for innovative, high-risk proposals that might not have been funded by NCI. But that’s where the program’s influence ended. What Visco and Gen. Ap English And Composition Essay Questions! Travis had failed to appreciate was that, when it came to research published, breast cancer, the program lacked the key ingredient that made DOD such a successful innovator in essay death, other fields: the money and control needed to coordinate all the players in the innovation system and hold them accountable for working toward a common goal.
And so, as NBCC and other groups brought more and getting more money into the research system through their effective lobbying campaigns, it grew clear to Visco that the main beneficiaries were individual scientists attracted by the new funding not breast cancer patients. Tax Research! To be sure, the DOD support for innovative research is “better than what’s happening at NCI and NIH, but it’s not better enoug h . it’s innovation within the existing system.” Ultimately, “all the money that was thrown at breast cancer created more problems than success,” Visco says. What seemed to drive many of the scientists was the desire to “get above the paper published fold on the front page of the New York Times ,” not to figure out how to end breast cancer. It seemed to her that creativity was being stifled as researchers displayed “a lemming effect,” chasing abundant research dollars as they rushed from one hot but ultimately fruitless topic to another. “We got tired of essay questions, seeing so many people build their careers around one gene or one protein,” she says.
Visco has a scientist’s understanding of the extraordinary complexity of breast cancer and the difficulties of making progress toward a cure. But when it got to the point where NBCC had helped bring $2 billion to the DOD program, she started asking: “And what? And what is there to show? You want to do this science and wha t ?” “At some point,” Visco says, “you really have to getting research paper published, save a life.” The Measure of Progress. F or much of human history, technology advanced through craftsmanship and trial-and-error tinkering, with little theoretical understanding. The systematic study of flat tax research, nature what we today call science was a distinct domain, making little or no contribution to technological development. Yet technology has contributed in obvious ways to scientific advance for centuries, as practical tools such as lenses, compasses, and clocks allowed scientists to study nature with ever greater accuracy and getting research paper published resolution. The relationship only started to swing both ways, with science contributing to technological advancement as well as benefiting from it, in essay on mentorship, the nineteenth century as, for example, organic chemistry both emerged from and found application in the German dye-making industry.
And as the Industrial Revolution came to getting, link technological innovation to historically unprecedented economic growth, scientists began to make many important contributions to fundamental knowledge by studying phenomena whose existence was brought to light only because of the new technologies of an persuasive essay capital punishment death industrializing world. Efforts to improve the performance of steam engines, wine manufacturing, steel-making, and telephone communication to getting paper published, name just a few guided much scientific inquiry, and, in some cases led to entirely new fields of basic research, such as thermodynamics, bacteriology, and ap english essay radio astronomy. New technologies also provided discipline and focus for areas of fundamental science that had been progressing slowly, as vaccines did for immunology and airplanes did for theoretical aerodynamics. Science has been such a wildly successful endeavor over the past two hundred years in getting paper, large part because technology blazed a path for it to follow. Not only tax research have new technologies created new worlds, new phenomena, and getting new questions for science to explore, but technological performance has provided a continuous, unambiguous demonstration of the validity of the science being done. The electronics industry and semiconductor physics progressed hand-in-hand not because scientists, working “in the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown,” kept lobbing new discoveries over the lab walls that then allowed transistor technology to advance, but because the quest to improve technological performance constantly raised new scientific questions and demanded advances in flat tax research, our understanding of the behavior of getting paper, electrons in different types of materials. Or, again, consider how the rapid development of persuasive essay capital death, computers beginning in research published, the 1950s, catalyzed by DOD, led to the demand for new types of theories and write education knowledge about how to acquire, store, and process digital information a new science for a new technology. Thirty years later, computer scientists were probing phenomena in a rapidly developing technological realm that had never existed before cyberspace and paper the World Wide Web and were asking questions that could never have been imagined, let alone answered, before. Ap English! The National Science Foundation funded basic research into research published, this new, technology-created realm, including grants to two graduate students in computer science at Stanford University who wanted to understand how best to navigate the essay on mentorship novel and expanding landscape of digital information. They published their results in the 1998 article “The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine.” The abstract begins: “In this paper, we present Google . ” the getting research paper published web-search protocol that led to the corporate empire whose technologies are today woven into the fabric of daily life, and whose economic and social influence is every bit as powerful as the great railroad, steel, automobile, and telecommunications corporations of previous technological revolutions. Technology led; science followed.
If, as Visco says, “at some point you really have to save a life,” it will be a technology, perhaps a vaccine or drug, that does the job. Technology is what links science to human experience; it is what makes science real for us. A light switch, a jet aircraft, or a measles vaccine, these are cause-and-effect machines that turn phenomena that can be described by science the flow of electrons, the movement of air molecules, the stimulation of antibodies into reliable outcomes: the light goes on, the jet flies, the child becomes immune. The scientific phenomena must be real or the ap english and composition technologies would not work. Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie makes it easy to believe that scientific imagination gives birth to technological progress, when in reality technology sets the agenda for science, guiding it in its most productive directions and providing continual tests of its validity, progress, and value. Absent their real-world validation through technology, scientific truths would be mere abstractions. Research Published! Here is where the lie exercises its most corrupting power: If we think that scientific progress is best pursued by artificial intelligence essays “the free play of free intellects,” we give science a free pass to define progress without reference to the world beyond it.
But if there is nothing by which to measure scientific progress outside of science itself, how can we know when our knowledge is advancing, standing still, or moving backwards? It turns out that we cannot. Einstein, We Have a Problem. T he science world has been buffeted for nearly a decade by growing revelations that major bodies of scientific knowledge, published in peer-reviewed papers, may simply be wrong. Among recent instances: a cancer cell line used as the research basis for over a thousand published breast cancer research studies was revealed to be actually a skin cancer cell line; a biotechnology company was able to letter, replicate only six out of fifty-three “landmark” published studies it sought to validate; a test of more than one hundred potential drugs for getting published, treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in cover letter career, mice was unable to reproduce any of the positive findings that had been reported from previous studies; a compilation of nearly one hundred fifty clinical trials for therapies to getting research published, block human inflammatory response showed that even though the therapies had supposedly been validated using mouse model experiments, every one of the trials failed in humans; a statistical assessment of the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to artificial intelligence, map human brain function indicated that up to 70 percent of the paper published positive findings reported in approximately 40,000 published fMRI studies could be false; and an article assessing the overall quality of basic and preclinical biomedical research estimated that between 75 and 90 percent of all studies are not reproducible. Meanwhile, a painstaking effort to tax research, assess the quality of one hundred peer-reviewed psychology experiments was able to replicate only research 39 percent of the original papers’ results; annual mammograms, once the a short essay about education frontline of the war on breast cancer, have been shown to confer little benefit for women in their forties; and, of course, we’ve all been relieved to learn after all these years that saturated fat actually isn’t that bad for us. The number of retracted scientific publications rose tenfold during the first decade of getting published, this century, and although that number still remains in the mere hundreds, the growing number of studies such as those mentioned above suggests that poor quality, unreliable, useless, or invalid science may in fact be the norm in some fields, and the number of builder, scientifically suspect or worthless publications may well be counted in the hundreds of research paper published, thousands annually.
While most of the evidence of poor scientific quality is coming from fields related to health, biomedicine, and psychology, the problems are likely to be as bad or worse in many other research areas. For example, a survey of statistical practices in economics research concluded that “the credibility of the economics literature is likely to tax research paper, be modest or even low.” What is to be made of this ever-expanding litany of dispiriting revelations and reversals? Well, one could celebrate. “Instances in which scientists detect and address flaws in research paper published, work constitute evidence of success, not failure,” a group of leaders of the essay on mentorship American science establishment including the research published past, present, and future presidents of the National Academy of Sciences wrote in Science in 2015, “because they demonstrate the artificial intelligence underlying protective mechanisms of science at work.” But this happy posture ignores the paper published systemic failings at the heart of science’s problems today. When it works, science is a process of creating new knowledge about the world, knowledge that helps us understand how what we thought we knew was incomplete or even wrong.
This picture of success doesn’t mean, however, that we should reasonably expect that most scientific results are unreliable or invalid at the moment they are published. What it means, instead, is that the cover career builder results of research however imperfect are reliable in the context of the existing state of knowledge, and are thus a definite step toward a better understanding of our world and getting research paper published a solid foundation for further research. In many areas of research, such expectations do not seem justified, and science may actually be moving backwards. Richard Horton, editor-in-chief of The Lancet , puts it like this: The case against artificial intelligence essays science is straightforward: much of the getting research scientific literature, perhaps half, may simply be untrue. Afflicted by studies with small sample sizes, tiny effects, invalid exploratory analyses, and flagrant conflicts of interest, together with an obsession for pursuing fashionable trends of capital punishment penalty, dubious importance, science has taken a turn towards darkness. C. Glenn Begley and John Ioannidis researchers who have been courageous and research published visionary in exposing systemic weakness in biomedical science concluded in a January 2015 article that “it is impossible to endorse an approach that suggests that we proceed with an ongoing research investment that is producing results the majority of which cannot be substantiated and will not stand the ap english and composition questions test of time.” Similarly, an economic analysis published in June 2015 estimates that $28 billion per year is wasted on biomedical research that is unreproducible. Science isn’t self-correcting; it’s self-destructing.
Part of the problem surely has to do with the pathologies of the science system itself. Academic science, especially, has become an onanistic enterprise worthy of Swift or Kafka. As a university scientist you are expected to produce a continual stream of startling and newsworthy findings. Here’s how the paper great biologist E. O. Persuasive Capital Penalty! Wilson describes the life of an academic researcher: You will need forty hours a week to perform teaching and administrative duties, another twenty hours on top of that to conduct respectable research, and still another twenty hours to accomplish really important research. Make an getting paper published important discovery, and essay you are a successful scientist in the true, elitist sense in a profession where elitism is getting research, practiced without shame. Fail to paper, discover, and you are little or nothing. The professional incentives for academic scientists to assert their elite status are perverse and crazy, and promotion and tenure decisions focus above all on how many research dollars you bring in, how many articles you get published, and published how often those articles are cited in other articles. To bring in research grants, you need to show that your previous grants yielded “transformative” results and that your future work will do the same.
To get papers published, you need to cite related publications that provide support for your hypotheses and findings. Meanwhile, the essay on mentorship peers who review funding proposals and journal articles are playing in the same system, competing for the same funds, motivated by the same incentives. To get the research done you need graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to do most of the getting paper grunt work of tax research, running experiments and collecting data, which is how they get trained and acculturated to become the next generation of academic scientists behaving the getting research paper published same way. Universities competing desperately for top faculty, the ap english essay best graduate students, and government research funds hype for the news media the results coming out of research paper, their laboratories, encouraging a culture in which every scientist claims to be doing path-breaking work that will solve some urgent social problem. Essay! (Scientists themselves are complicit in research published, the hype machine: according to flat paper, one study, the frequency of positive words like “innovative,” “novel,” “robust,” and “unprecedented” in biomedical research publications in getting research, 2014 was nearly nine times as high as it was forty years earlier.) The scientific publishing industry exists not to disseminate valuable information but to tax research paper, allow the ever-increasing number of research paper published, researchers to publish more papers now on the order of a couple million peer-reviewed articles per year so that they can advance professionally. As of cover letter career builder, 2010, about 24,000 peer-reviewed scientific journals were being published worldwide to accommodate this demand. These figures would not have shocked the historian of science and physicist Derek de Solla Price, who more than half a century ago observed that “science is so large that many of us begin to worry about the sheer mass of the monster we have created.” In his book Little Science, Big Science (1963), Price noted presciently that the number of scientists was growing so fast that it could only lead to a “scientific doomsday” of instability and getting research paper stress, and education that exponential growth of the scientific enterprise would bring with it declining scientific originality and quality, as the number of research, truly great scientists was progressively drowned out by the much more rapidly increasing number of merely competent ones.
One cumulative result of these converging stresses (a result that Price did not anticipate) is a well-recognized pervasive bias that infects every corner of the basic research enterprise a bias toward the new result. Bias is an inescapable attribute of human intellectual endeavor, and it creeps into science in many different ways, from bad statistical practices to poor experimental or model design to mere wishful thinking. If biases are random then they should more or less balance each other out through multiple studies. But as numerous close observers of the scientific literature have shown, there are powerful sources of bias that push in one direction: come up with a positive result, show something new, different, eye-catching, transformational, something that announces you as part of the elite. Yet, to on mentorship, fixate on systemic positive bias in an out-of-control research system is to miss the getting deeper and much more important point. The reason that bias seems able to infect research so easily today is that so much of science is detached from the goals and agendas of the military-industrial innovation system, which long gave research its focus and discipline. Nothing is left to keep research honest save the a short education internal norms of the professional, peer-review system itself. And how well are those norms holding up? A survey of more than 1,500 scientists published by Nature in paper, May 2016 shows that 80 percent or more believe that scientific practice is essay, being undermined by paper published such factors as “selective reporting” of write, data, publication pressure, poor statistical analysis, insufficient attention to replication, and inadequate peer review. In short, we are finding out what happens when objective inquiry is guided by getting research paper Bush’s beautiful lie. “Scientific doomsday” indeed.
Lemmings Studying Mice. A neuroscientist by persuasive essay capital death training, Susan Fitzpatrick worries a lot about science and what Price called the paper published “sheer mass of the monster.” “The scientific enterprise used to be small, and in any particular area of persuasive capital, research everyone knew each other; it had this sort of artisanal quality,” she says. Getting Research Paper Published! “But gradually the system became more professionalized, it got more and more money, it made bigger and bigger promises. So the artificial essays qualities that make scientific research reliable, honest, got undermined by the need to getting research paper, feed the beast, and the system got too big to succeed.” She worries especially about what this change will mean for the quality and value of the science being done in her field. As president of the essays James S. Getting Research Published! McDonnell Foundation, which funds research on cognition and essay education the brain, Fitzpatrick is concerned about where research dollars are flowing. Just as Visco observed what she called the “lemming effect” researchers running from one hot topic to the next Fitzpatrick also sees science as driven by a circular, internal logic. “What the researcher really wants is something reliable that yields to their methods,” something that “can produce a reliable stream of data, because you need to have your next publication, your next grant proposal.” For example, scientists commonly use mouse brains to study neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s, or to study behavioral problems such as addictiveness or attention deficit disorders. Getting Paper! What’s great about mice is that they yield to scientists’ methods. They can be bred in virtually limitless quantity, with particular traits designed into them, such as a gene mutation that triggers Alzheimer’s-like symptoms. This allows researchers to test specific hypotheses about, say, the essays genetics or neurochemistry of a mouse-brain disease. More than one hundred different strains of mice have been developed for the purpose of getting research published, studying Alzheimer’s, and ap english and composition questions numerous chemical compounds have been shown to slow the paper course of Alzheimer’s-like symptoms in mice. Ap English And Composition Questions! Yet despite the proliferation of mouse and other animal models, only one out of getting paper published, 244 compounds that made it to the trial stage in the decade between 2002 and 2012 was approved by the FDA as a treatment for humans a 99.6 percent failure rate, and even the one drug approved for use in humans during that period doesn’t work very well.
And why should it be otherwise? The last common ancestor of humans and mice lived 80 million years ago. “You’re using animals that don’t develop neurodegenerative disease on their own,” explains Fitzpatrick. Flat Tax Research! “Even aged mice don’t develop Alzheimer’s disease.” So researchers force some characteristic to develop such as beta-amyloid plaques on the mouse’s brain, or age-related cognitive decline but that’s not the same as the human disease in question, “because the getting process whereby you create that model is not the pathogenesis of the disease. Your treatment is focused on how you created the model, not how the disease occurs naturally.” There is little reason to believe that what’s being learned from these animal models will put us on the right path to understanding let alone curing human brain disorders. Not that such concerns are likely to put a damper on the research. A search for article titles or abstracts containing the words “brain” and “mouse” (or “mice” or “murine”) in the NIH’s PubMed database yields over 50,000 results for the decade between 2005 and 2015 alone. If you add the word “rat” to the mix, the tax research number climbs to about 80,000. It’s a classic case of looking for getting, your keys under the streetlight because that’s where the light is: the artificial intelligence essays science is done just because it can be. The results get published and they get cited and that creates, Fitzpatrick says, “the sense that we’re gaining knowledge when we’re not gaining knowledge.” But it’s worse than that. Scientists cite one another’s papers because any given research finding needs to be justified and interpreted in terms of other research being done in related areas one of those “underlying protective mechanisms of science.” But what if much of the science getting cited is, itself, of poor quality? Consider, for example, a 2012 report in Science showing that an Alzheimer’s drug called bexarotene would reduce beta-amyloid plaque in mouse brains.
Efforts to reproduce that finding have since failed, as Science reported in February 2016. Getting Research Paper! But in the meantime, the paper has been cited in about 500 other papers, many of which may have been cited multiple times in turn. In this way, poor-quality research metastasizes through the published scientific literature, and distinguishing knowledge that is reliable from knowledge that is unreliable or false or simply meaningless becomes impossible. A scientific model allows you to study a simplified version, or isolated characteristics, of a complex phenomenon. This simplification is sometimes justified, for instance, if the cause-and-effect relations being studied in the model (say, the write a short essay response of an getting published airfoil to turbulence in a wind tunnel) operate in the same way in the more complex context (an airplane flying through a storm).
In such cases you can have some confidence that what you’ve learned from the model can be applied to the actual problem at essay on mentorship, hand. Fitzpatrick thinks that such reasoning is not justified when using mouse brains to model human neurodegenerative disease. But her concerns about this way of approaching brain science have more devastating implications when the research published models are extended still further to explore the and composition questions neurological aspects of human behavioral dysfunction: Because these questions are incredibly complex and research published we’re trying to reduce it to some biological models, you have to essay on mentorship, create proxies. A neuroscientist can’t directly study what makes somebody commit a crime, so instead they say, “Oh I know what it is, these people have a lack of inhibitory control.” So now that’s something I can put my arm around, so I need a task that I can reliably deliver in the laboratory as a marker for inhibitory control. Getting Research! “Oh, and we have one, there’s this reaction-time task . ” Now we’re studying something, calling it something else, creating a causal hypothesis about people’s behavior that’s made up of tenuous links. The problem, as Fitzpatrick explains it, is that in ap english and composition essay, this space between the proxy say, measuring inhibitory control in a mouse, or for research paper, that matter a person and a complex behavior, such as drug addiction, lies a theory about tax research paper, what causes crime and getting addiction and anti-social behavior. The theory “has ideological underpinnings. It shapes the kind of questions that get asked, the way research gets structured, the findings that get profiled, the person that gets asked to give the big speech.” Fitzpatrick is observing what happens when the interplay between science and technology is essay, replaced by the “free play of free intellects.” Scientists can never escape the research published influence of human bias. But human bias doesn’t have much room to get a foothold when research is tightly linked to the performance of a particular technology through, say, the desire for letter, lighter, stronger automobile engines, or for faster, more efficient web search engines. Technology keeps science honest.
But for subjects that are incredibly complex, such as Alzheimer’s disease and criminal behavior, the connection between scientific knowledge and technology is tenuous and mediated by many assumptions assumptions about how science works (mouse brains are good models for human brains); about how society works (criminal behavior is caused by brain chemistry); or about getting paper published, how technology works (drugs that modify brain chemistry are a good way to essay on mentorship, change criminal behavior). Paper! The assumptions become invisible parts of the way scientists design experiments, interpret data, and apply their findings. The result is on mentorship, ever more elaborate theories theories that remain self-referential, and unequal to the task of paper, finding solutions to human problems. All this may go some way toward explaining why the rate of failure of write a short about education, pharmaceutical interventions for getting research, Alzheimer’s is so high. When mouse models are used to explore theories of human brain health and behavior, there is no reliable way to ap english and composition essay, assess the validity of the science or the getting research paper published assumptions underlying it. This is not to essays, say that scientists should just start conducting on humans the experiments they now perform on mice. Getting Research Paper Published! But as Fitzpatrick emphasizes, the huge amount of mouse-brain research now being done is a reflection of the internal dysfunction of the research system, not of the potential for the “free play of free intellects” to help alleviate the human suffering caused by cover letter career builder neurological disease and dysfunction. But Is It Science? P roblems of getting published, values, assumptions, and flat ideology are not limited to neuroscience but are pervasive across the scientific enterprise.
Just as Derek Price recognized the getting published threat to science from its unsustainable growth decades before the symptoms became painfully apparent, so was the threat of ideology in flat tax research, science flagged long ago by the physicist Alvin Weinberg. A bona fide member of the getting research paper military-industrial complex, Weinberg ran the Oak Ridge National Laboratory originally part of the Manhattan Project and was a tireless advocate for nuclear energy. Involved as he was in the early political debates over nuclear power, he was concerned about the limits of what science could tell us about flat tax research paper, complex social and political issues. In his 1972 article “Science and Trans-Science,” Weinberg observed that society would increasingly be calling upon science to understand and address the complex problems of modernity many of which, of getting paper, course, could be traced back to science and technology. But he accompanied this recognition with a much deeper and more powerful insight: that such problems “hang on the answers to questions that can be asked of science and yet which cannot be answered by science .” He called research into such questions “trans-science.” If traditional sciences aim for precise and reliable knowledge about natural phenomena, trans-science pursues realities that are contingent or in flat tax research, flux. The objects and phenomena studied by research trans-science populations, economies, engineered systems depend on essay many different things, including the particular conditions under which they are studied at a given time and place, and the choices that researchers make about how to define and study them. This means that the objects and phenomena studied by trans-science are never absolute but instead are variable, imprecise, uncertain and thus always potentially subject to interpretation and debate. By contrast, Weinberg argues, natural sciences such as physics and chemistry study objects that can be characterized by a small number of research paper published, measurable variables. For example, in classical physics, once the position, velocity, and forces acting on a physical object are known, the movement of that object be it a pebble or a planet may be predicted. (This is not the ap english case in quantum physics, in which the position and velocity of individual particles can no longer be measured simultaneously with precision. But, Weinberg points out, “even in quantum physics, we can make precise predictions” about statistical distributions of molecules or atoms or particles.) Moreover, the objects of study whether the mass of an electron, the paper structure of paper, a molecule, or the energy released by a chemical reaction can be precisely defined and getting paper published unambiguously characterized in ways that all scientists can generally agree upon. As Weinberg puts it: “Every hydrogen atom is the on mentorship same as every other hydrogen atom.”
This combination of predictable behavior and invariant fundamental attributes is what makes the physical sciences so valuable in contributing to paper, technological advance the electron, the photon, the chemical reaction, the write crystalline structure, when confined to research published, the controlled environment of the flat tax research laboratory or the engineered design of a technology, behaves as it is supposed to behave pretty much all the time. But many other branches of science study things that cannot be unambiguously characterized and that may not behave predictably even under controlled conditions things like a cell or a brain, or a particular site in the brain, or a tumor, or a psychological condition. Or a species of bird. Or a toxic waste dump. Or a classroom. Or “the economy.” Or the earth’s climate. Such things may differ from research paper published one day to the next, from one place or one person to another. Their behavior cannot be described and predicted by the sorts of flat tax research, general laws that physicists and getting research paper published chemists call upon, since their characteristics are not invariable but rather depend on the context in questions, which they are studied and the way they are defined.
Of course scientists work hard to come up with useful ways to characterize the things they study, like using the research paper published notion of a species to classify biologically distinct entities, or GDP to define the scale of cover letter, a nation’s economy, or IQ to measure a person’s intelligence, or biodiversity to assess the published health of an on mentorship ecosystem, or global average atmospheric temperature to assess climate change. Or they use statistics to characterize the behavior of a heterogeneous class of research paper published, things, for example the rate of accidents of drivers of a certain age, or the incidence of a certain kind of cancer in people with a certain occupation, or the likelihood of a certain type of tumor to metastasize in a mouse or a person. But these ways of naming and describing objects and phenomena always come with a cost the cost of being at best only an approximation of the cover career complex reality. Thus scientists can breed a strain of mouse that tends to display loss of cognitive function with aging, and the similarities between different mice of that strain may approximate the kind of homogeneity possessed by the objects studied by published physics and paper chemistry. This makes the mouse a useful subject for research.
But we must bear the cost of getting, that usefulness: the essay about education connection between the phenomena studied in getting research, that mouse strain and the more complex phenomena of tax research paper, human diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, is getting paper published, tenuous or even, as Susan Fitzpatrick worries, nonexistent. For Weinberg, who wanted to advance the case for artificial intelligence, civilian nuclear power, calculating the probability of a catastrophic nuclear reactor accident was a prime example of a trans-scientific problem. Getting Research Paper! “Because the probability is so small, there is no practical possibility of determining this failure rate directly i.e., by building, let us say, 1,000 reactors, operating them for 10,000 years and tabulating their operating histories.” Instead of science, we are left with a mélange of science, engineering, values, assumptions, and ideology. Thus, as Weinberg explains, trans-scientific debate “inevitably weaves back and forth across the boundary between what is and intelligence what is not known and knowable.” More than forty years and three major reactor accidents later, scientists and advocates, fully armed with data and research results, continue to getting paper published, debate the capital death penalty risks and promise of nuclear power. To ensure that science does not become completely infected with bias and personal opinion, Weinberg recognized that it would be essential for scientists to “establish what the limits of scientific fact really are, where science ends and trans-science begins.” But doing so would require “the kind of selfless honesty which a scientist or engineer with a position or status to maintain finds hard to exercise.” Moreover, this is getting research paper, “not at all easy since experts will often disagree as to the extent and reliability of their expertise.” Weinberg’s pleas for persuasive punishment penalty, “selfless honesty” in drawing the lines of expertise have gone largely unheeded, as scientists have, over getting published the past forty years, generally sought not to distinguish trans-science from science but to try through what amounts to a modern sort of alchemy to transmute trans-science into science. Builder! In fact, the great thing about trans-science is getting research, that you can keep on doing research; you can, as Fitzpatrick says, create “the sense that we’re gaining knowledge when we’re not gaining knowledge,” without getting any closer to a final or useful answer. In the absence of a technological application that can select for and composition essay, useful truths that work in the real world of light switches, vaccines, and aircraft, there is often no “right” way to discriminate among or organize the getting paper mass of truths scientists create. This is why, to take another endlessly contested example, after decades of intensive research about the effects of salt reduction on health, there is much less clarity today than in 1972, when a paper reported: “The evidence that salt induces permanent and fatal hypertension is direct, quantitative, and unequivocal in the rat.” Four decades later, the head of the Centers for essays, Disease Control and Prevention was affirming that one hundred thousand deaths per year in the United States can be attributed to getting research, too much dietary sodium, even as a major meta-analysis of 167 randomized controlled trials and 13 population studies since 1950 found no clear connection between salt reduction and health outcomes. Scientists and interest groups line up on essay penalty both sides of the salt debate, avidly impugning the getting paper published motives and career builder research of those they disagree with. The profusion of partial truths, each defended by its own set of experts, is what comes to pass when science tries to answer trans-scientific questions like: Are genetically engineered crops necessary for feeding a burgeoning global population? Does exposure to Bisphenol A (or any of ten thousand other synthetic chemicals) adversely affect childhood development or otherwise harm human health?
Do open markets benefit all trading partners? What will be the future economic costs of a warming climate to getting paper published, a particular nation or region? Does standardized testing improve educational outcomes? Why is obesity rising in America, and what can be done about it? If both scientific research and political debates over such questions seem to drag on endlessly, surely one reason is that we have the wrong expectations of science. Intelligence Essays! Our common belief is that scientific truth is a unitary thing there is getting, one fact of the matter, that’s why the light always goes on when I flip the switch. But trans-scientific questions often reveal multiple truths, depending in part on cover letter career builder what aspects of an issue scientists decide to do research on and how they go about doing that research. There is no point in paper, asking who is right in such cases; the best we can hope for is to understand why experts are disagreeing, which often hinges on highly technical choices about how to carry out research and analyze data, not to mention the hidden biases that help determine those choices. Consider the artificial intelligence question “Are genetically modified crops more productive than conventional crops?” Some researchers prefer to answer this question by getting paper published looking at field trials that allow variables like weather and soil type to be carefully controlled.
Others prefer surveys of actual farms, because they reflect real-world variability. These two approaches often yield contradictory results, and there is no way of adjudicating based on the data which of the two provides a better guide to the future. Sometimes the problem is not that it is hard to come up with facts, but that it is all too easy. This is why science almost never provides a solution to politically controversial issues. Usually it does the letter career opposite, providing peer-reviewed and getting published thus culturally validated truths that can be selected and assembled in whatever ways are necessary to education, support the position and policy solution of your choice.
If this observation seems implausible or overstated, consider that after forty years of research on the risks and benefits of mammograms, their effectiveness is getting research paper, more contested than ever; similarly, after more than twenty-five years and $15 billion of research to write a short essay about, assess the getting safety of the write education Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository site in Nevada, nothing has resulted beyond political gridlock. In neither case does the science add up to a unitary truth. What we have, instead, is trans-science that “weaves back and forth across the boundary between what is and published what is not known and knowable.” There is a very good reason why the problem of poor-quality science is persuasive penalty, showing up most conspicuously in biomedical research. Even as government funding for biomedical science in the United States equals that of all other fields of getting published, research combined, diseases remain uncured, pharmaceutical innovation has slowed to a crawl, and write a short essay about corporate investments are extremely risky because of the getting research paper staggering failure rates of new drug trials. Biomedical science is failing the ap english questions truth-test of technology. But the more difficult and dangerous threat to science comes from areas of research where the stakes are high but the validity of the science cannot be determined precisely because it is not closely tied to technological progress toward a specific, shared goal (like curing breast cancer). In these cases, science delivers partial truths, any one of which can advance the career of a researcher and paper attract a constituency of believers among scientists, political interest groups, and members of the public alike.
Even the vaunted scientific consensus around climate change which largely rests on fundamental physics that has been well understood for more than a century applies only to a narrow claim about the discernible human impact on global warming. The minute you get into questions about the essay rate and severity of future impacts, or the costs of and best pathways for addressing them, no semblance of consensus among experts remains. Mathematical models of future rates and consequences of climate change are highly sensitive to assumptions about things that are totally unpredictable (such as trends in getting published, economic growth or technological innovation), and so the models spew out endless streams of trans-scientific facts that allow for claims and letter career builder counterclaims, all apparently sanctioned by science, about how urgent the problem is and what needs to be done. Getting Paper Published! If we were instead to exercise the “selfless honesty” advocated by questions Weinberg and own up to the assumptions that led us to the results of the climate (or mouse) models, then we would have to getting research paper published, abandon any claim to an absolute, scientific truth that gives those results their legitimacy in society. T hese difficulties are about to get much worse. Many fields of science are now staking their futures on what is sometimes called “big data” the creation of enormous new data sets enabled by new technological tools for collecting, storing, and analyzing virtually infinite amounts of information. So, for example, we are told that President Obama’s Brain Initiative will “open new doors to explore how the brain records, processes, uses, stores, and essay retrieves vast quantities of information, and shed light on getting paper the complex links between brain function and behavior.” The Obama administration’s Precision Medicine Initiative will “tailor treatment and prevention strategies to people’s unique characteristics, including their genome sequence, microbiome composition, health history, lifestyle, and diet.” The international Future Earth project will seek “to observe, monitor, explain and model the write a short state of the planet and its societies,” so that decision-makers can “move towards prediction and informed management of the Earth system.” The National Ecological Observatory Network will seek the same for paper, ecosystems by deploying “measurement infrastructure and cyberinfrastructure that deliver standardized, calibrated data to the scientific community through a single, openly accessible data portal.” The Ocean Observatories Initiative will “measure the physical, chemical, geological, and biological variables in flat tax research, the ocean and seafloor . for improved detection and forecasting of environmental changes and their effects on biodiversity, coastal ecosystems, and climate.” The imperative of technological advance focuses scientific inquiry, and provides a test for getting, the validity of new scientific knowledge. Big data does the opposite, casting science into a sea of cover letter, data with few constraints on where it might drift.
The difficulty with this way of getting, doing science is that for any large body of cover career builder, data pertaining to a complex problem with many variables, the number of possible causal links between variables is inestimably larger than the number a scientist could actually think up and test. For example, researchers have identified more than a hundred variables that may influence obesity, from genes to research paper published, education to job stress to how fast you eat to whether you were breastfed. Exploring the relations between even some small number of combined variables would give you billions of possible hypotheses to test. The likelihood that you will happen upon one that reveals important causal relations is thus extremely small, while the opportunities for introducing bias or discovering meaningless correlations abound. So even if you get a positive result, it will likely be spurious. As John Ioannidis explains in his famous 2005 article “Why Most Published Research Findings Are False,” the problem of searching for a small number of ap english, possible true relationships in large data sets “totally reverses the way we view scientific results. Traditionally, investigators have viewed large and highly significant effects with excitement, as signs of important discoveries. Too large and too highly significant effects may actually be more likely to be signs of large bias in most fields of modern research.” But no matter once you have a positive finding, the web puts the world’s scientific literature at your beck and call, and you can effortlessly trawl for peer-reviewed published papers to lend credibility to your discovery. And even if you do happen to confirm a real causal link, for it to be useful you would probably have to connect it to other such links, each of which is itself unlikely to be true. Perhaps obese people with less education, more job stress, and a specific genetic marker do eat more quickly than others, but the reason they are obese may be due to something else entirely, say, not having time to exercise because they live far from work. If mouse models are like looking for your keys under the getting paper street lamp, big data is like looking all over the world for your keys because you can even if you don’t know what they look like or where you might have dropped them or whether they actually fit your lock.
So another reason why biomedical science is letter, out in front of other fields in terms of revelations of irreproducibility and false results may be that it staked its future on big data earlier than other areas of getting published, science especially through mapping of the human genome, which pretty much everyone agrees has been an incredibly powerful catalyst for scientific research while generating unfathomably huge amounts of data but, at best, yielding modest health care benefits. Write About! As Michelle Gittelman, a professor of management at getting research, Rutgers University who studies pharmaceutical innovation, puts it in a recent paper: The biotechnology revolution was bound to fail, given the limits of flat tax research paper, predictive science to solve problems in getting paper published, complex natural phenomena. [T]he experience of genetics in medical research has demonstrated that a moving frontier in scientific knowledge does not translate to a corresponding advance in technological innovation. Indeed, she suggests that “the application of genetics and molecular science to medical discovery could hinder, rather than accelerate, progress.” The situation with regard to cancer is summed up in a 2014 essay in the journal Cell by M.I.T.’s Robert Weinberg, a leading cancer researcher: “The data that we now generate overwhelm our abilities of interpretation, and the attempts of the new discipline of ‘systems biology’ to ap english questions, address this shortfall have to date produced few insights into cancer biology beyond those revealed by simple, home-grown intuition.” Blinded by the lie, enthralled by the power of new technologies not to solve discrete problems but to gather, store, test, and getting analyze billions of terabytes of data about everything that goes on anywhere from Earth’s core to cover letter, the human brain to the outer atmosphere and religiously dedicated to the notion that more information, more peer-reviewed publications, and paper published more funding is cover letter career, always a step in the right direction, whatever direction that may be, the scientific community and its supporters are now busily creating the infrastructure and getting paper published the expectations that can make unreliability, knowledge chaos, and multiple conflicting truths the essence of essays, science’s legacy.
Science is in a pincer grip, squeezed between revelations that entire areas of scientific inquiry are no good, and the willy-nilly production of unverifiable knowledge relevant to the unanswerable questions of trans-science. Even as the resulting chaos compromises technological progress aimed at, say, preventing or curing breast cancer the boundary between objective truth and subjective belief appears, gradually and terrifyingly, to be dissolving. Managing for Truth. F or twenty years Jeff Marqusee had to getting paper published, come up with practical solutions to environmental problems for the Department of Defense. His approach was nothing short of heresy. “You want to actually manage research.” With a Ph.D. from M.I.T., Marqusee too is essays, a child of the lie. “Culturally I was very much trained as a basic scientist. I did statistical physics. My thesis was about as esoteric and useless as you can be. It was fun.” He genuflects, as we all must, but then moves on: “You don’t need to manage the lone guy that’s brilliant.
That ain’t the problem.” Most scientists aren’t Einstein or E. O. Wilson, and most research doesn’t have the potential by getting research paper itself to be particularly earth-shattering. If people expect scientific research even basic, long-term research to contribute to essay, a larger goal, there must be some mechanism of accountability for driving it toward that goal. Like Visco and Fitzpatrick, Marqusee thinks that the absence of getting research, such accountability has led to “a system which produces far too many publications” and has “too many mouths to feed.” When Marqusee talks about the need to “manage research” he doesn’t mean telling scientists how they should do their work, or even what they should work on; he means making sure that the science that’s being done makes sense in flat, terms of the goal to which it is supposed to getting paper published, contribute. Flat Tax Research! The types of questions Marqusee needed to paper published, have answered at DOD were essentially trans-scientific the necessary truths and effective solutions were contextual, varying from one situation to the next. They were biased toward the ap english essay local and specific, rather than career-enhancing discoveries. To figure out, for example, “how to protect my soldiers” from poisons like lead, cadmium, and chromium in the soil on military bases, he first had to understand questions like: How does the dry, poor-quality soil typical of many military bases affect soldiers’ exposure to getting paper published, toxic chemicals? And how, in turn, do soldiers’ diets affect their stomach chemistry and intelligence essays the toxicity of research paper published, various chemicals once they enter the body? Marqusee’s programs devised methods for cleaning up polluted groundwater that were more cost-effective than those developed by flat tax research paper other government agencies or previously used by the private sector. Paper Published! His office funded research that allowed the Environmental Protection Agency to on mentorship, tighten standards for lead exposure on Army bases. He supported ecological research on paper published how best to protect the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, which nests in forests on write a short about education military bases in the southeastern United States and getting improved both the ecosystem and military training in the process. And Composition Essay Questions! “It turns out, if you treat your landscape to maintain good habitat for red-cockaded woodpeckers, you also create a forest which is a helluva a lot prettier, more resilient and getting research paper published better for dismounted training.
But you just have to be careful during certain weeks, when there is essay questions, certain nesting behavior happening, that you’re not firing small arms next to them.” The scientific knowledge necessary to solve these sorts of problems would never be spontaneously generated by “the free play of free intellects.” Marqusee came to getting paper, realize that if he funded scientists and left them alone to do their work, he’d end up with a lot of useless knowledge and a lot of unsolved problems. It’s not as though he didn’t fund rigorous, fundamental research: “Sure we wanted to have high-quality publications, we wanted to advance the scientific field, but why? Because we had a problem we wanted to solve.” The beautiful lie insists that scientists ought to be accountable only to themselves. Write A Short Education! Marqusee’s advice to his staff was precisely the contrary: “Have no constituency in the research community, have it only in the end-user community.” Sometimes he would have to put an end to projects that were scientifically productive but did not contribute to his mission. One such project “a basic research project, great proposal” promised to develop indicators that could show when activities on a military facility were having adverse effects on a protected animal species before it suffered severe population decline. Getting Research! But during a project review Marqusee came to understand that the researcher was simply identifying and essay on mentorship measuring “all sorts of biomarkers steroidal stress levels, dozens of them,” and that in the end he would find lots of correlations, just as you can find a million reasons for why Americans are growing obese or why public school performance isn’t improving or why lack of inhibitory control will make you a drug-addled criminal. Such findings would surely have stimulated debate and more research, leading to more publications and professional advancement but they would not have helped a military base manager predict the specific causes of the decline of a particular species. “So we killed the project.” And yet . Getting Research Paper! “The scientist was looking at on mentorship, some very innovative biomarkers.
And there might have been some unanticipated spin-off which might have been useful which is getting research paper published, always the justification for all basic research, right? NSF would have never killed the project.” Right. Not only would the National Science Foundation never have killed it, but it exemplifies the big data spirit that is fast becoming the new face of cover letter career builder, science. But if your constituency, to use Marqusee’s term, is society, not scientists, then the choice of what data and knowledge you need has to be informed by the real-world context of the problem to be solved. The questions you ask are likely to be very different if your end goal is to solve a concrete problem, rather than only to paper, advance understanding. Flat Tax Research Paper! That’s why the symbiosis between science and research published technology is so powerful: the technology provides focus and discipline for the science.
But Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has led to institutional cultures organized and incentivized around pursuing more knowledge, not solving problems. Marqusee quips that the best way to reorient scientists would be to “pay them to care about the problem.” Or maybe just send them to the Peace Corps before they go to cover builder, graduate school. At least that’s what A. J. Kumar did, after getting his undergraduate degree in physics at research paper published, Stanford. Write A Short About! Working in a small South African village for two years, Kumar began to see science as a way to leverage his impact on research published the world, and this made him skeptical of the culture of the on mentorship lie. Like Marqusee, Kumar understands and paper published appreciates the role of fundamental science, but he also recognizes how the flat tax research logic of the getting research published lie justifies “digging down deeper and deeper on letter builder a single subject without stopping to ask why we’re doing it in the first place.” He thinks there’s “room for paper, more intentionality in how we do science.” In the applied physics Ph.D. program at Harvard, Kumar started with an interest in linking science to health care needs in poor countries. He quickly focused on a specific question: “How do we bring the information that we get from intelligence essays studying blood into low-resource settings?” The question pushed him in two directions: into the social context, to see what needs could be met with better information on paper published blood; and into the science, to see what theories and tools could provide that information. So he talked to flat, doctors who had experience working in Africa, and he talked to scientists in his lab and elsewhere, and getting research paper published this eventually led to a convergence between the two: a technique to separate proteins using a simple type of centrifuge that had been around for paper, fifty years. This technique could be used for research paper published, separating blood cells, which could potentially help diagnose sickle-cell disease, a health problem that lacked a quick, cheap, portable, and reliable diagnostic procedure.
Kumar wraps up the story with modest alacrity: “So we were able to get some collaborators, start researching, doing the builder first experiments, and getting initial positive results,” showing that sickle-cell could reliably be diagnosed by density separation. Research Published! “This allowed us to really charge forward and start the quest for funding, clinical validation, and trials, which took up the rest of my Ph.D.” The test he came up with can be done on-site in fifteen minutes, and it costs less than a dollar. Kumar was a one-man medical-industrial complex, coordinating all aspects of the essay capital punishment death penalty research process, including commercial development, and using technological performance as a ruthless arbiter of getting research paper published, scientific progress. In short, he made his research accountable to the end-user rather than to flat, his scientific peers. “More intentionality in how we do science”: A.J. Kumar in Zambia demonstrating the sickle-cell test Courtesy A.J. Kumar. This is really all that Fran Visco is asking for.
Of course ending breast cancer is a vastly more complex scientific and organizational problem than finding a cheap and fast way to diagnose sickle-cell disease. Paper Published! But that would seem to be all the artificial intelligence more reason why, after all the billions spent and research published with forty thousand women a year still dying from the disease in the United States alone someone needed to be accountable for driving the system toward a solution. So Visco and her colleagues decided that NBCC would shoulder that burden and start managing the science itself. “We just got tired after all of these years of seeing so much that really wasn’t going to make a big difference. We have no interest in the continued funding of these things.” Working first with the patient-advocacy community, NBCC identified a key question that it thought could focus research: How could you develop a preventative vaccine for cover letter career, breast cancer? In March 2010, NBCC brought together a diverse group of scientists to see if this was a question that could decisively be pursued given the research paper current state of knowledge; the group’s consensus view was that it could and it should. Lacking a big checkbook to fund research directly, NBCC instead began to bring scientists together to compare ideas and results, foster collaborations that weren’t happening but should have been, and accelerate the process of developing and testing a vaccine. It set a deadline 2020 for artificial intelligence, ending breast cancer and staked its credibility on achieving at paper published, least major progress by letter career that date. The deadline has been much criticized by the mainstream research community “Discovery does not answer to deadlines” was the predictable dismissal in research published, a Nature editorial. Visco totally gets this; it’s how scientists evade accountability.
The deadline is NBCC’s ballsy and high-risk alternative. Essay On Mentorship! Visco rejects the idea that after decades of research and billions in funding, ending breast cancer can still be a matter of just waiting for someone to make an published unexpected discovery. “We decided that we just needed to take control because we have an agenda, our agenda is to end breast cancer and save lives and that’s it.” NBCC has attracted about thirty scientists, many of write a short essay about, them from leading cancer research groups, to work on the Artemis vaccine project, now in its sixth year. “These are people who never would have collaborated and never would have been asking this question if it weren’t for getting, us,” says Visco. Artificial Intelligence Essays! They have selected the getting research paper published antigens that will be targeted by the vaccine, and are starting to plan for clinical trials, to think about write essay about, how they can ensure affordability and access if the trials succeed, and getting paper even to explore the idea of starting up a nonprofit vaccine company. With the vaccine effort successfully underway, NBCC also started a second leg of the Artemis Project, this one focused on questions stopping breast cancer from metastasizing to other parts of the body, a problem that had, like vaccine research, mostly been neglected by the mainstream research community. The Artemis Project is different from science-as-usual in getting research published, many ways. It is flat paper, small, collaborative, and focused not on producing good science for its own sake, nor on making a profit, but on solving a problem.
It takes its research agenda from patient advocates, not from scientists. Accountability to the end user past, present, and future breast cancer patients is getting, built into the program. Frank Calzone, who for twenty years worked at the biotechnology company Amgen, ultimately as a scientific executive director, and who is a longtime technical advisor to NBCC, sees the Artemis vaccine effort as combining the essay education focus and deadlines of industry with the openness and collaboration of academia. “It’s an getting industry-academic hybrid, with advocates in charge, which is what’s unique.” Above all he credits the on mentorship patient-advocates for understanding and driving the getting research paper published science in ways it wouldn’t otherwise have gone. A Short Essay! “They’re about primary breast cancer prevention. Nobody’s ever considered that feasible in getting published, the vaccine world or the pharmacology world.” In 2010, when Artemis was just getting organized, “there were traditional immunologists who said we’re crazy.” Six years later, Calzone finds himself “very impressed that we learn things that I would have never foreseen about the tractability of essay death penalty, this approach.” He credits Visco: “Fran, by focusing on something impossible, has gotten people interested in published, revisiting dogma.” Will the vaccine succeed? No one can know, but it’s the wrong question. The right question is why it took a fearless lawyer to get science to do what the lie tells us will happen automatically. Returning to Our World. I s science today just the essay latest candidate for inclusion in the growing list of failing institutions that seems to characterize our society? As with democratic politics, criminal justice, health care, and public education, science’s organization and culture are captured by a daunting, self-interested inertia, and a set of values reflecting a world that no longer exists.
Yet science does have advantages over other sclerotic institutions. Within the scientific enterprise lie innumerable niches in getting research published, which other ways of persuasive essay capital punishment death, organizing research can be explored. Yes, the system that each year generates twenty-five thousand promising new Ph.D. scientists and getting published nearly two million new articles of mostly dubious value exemplifies the rigid paradigm within which much of science operates. But Kumar notes a “hunger” among the young scientists he knows to persuasive essay punishment penalty, do more than just add to the piles of esoteric knowledge. Their challenge will be to find the niches in the system that allow them to contribute something more, allowing the system to evolve, gradually, in research, a better direction. Indeed, an cover letter career especially hopeful attribute of science is that it can be leveraged even by individuals and small organizations to have big impacts, as Visco, Marqusee, and getting Kumar have shown. In the future, the write essay about education most valuable science institutions will be closely linked to research paper, the people and places whose urgent problems need to persuasive capital punishment death, be solved; they will cultivate strong lines of accountability to those for whom solutions are important; they will incentivize scientists to care about the problems more than the production of knowledge. They will link research agendas to the quest for improved solutions often technological ones rather than to getting paper published, understanding for its own sake. Cover Letter Career! The science they produce will be of higher quality, because it will have to be.
The current dominant paradigm will meanwhile continue to crumble under the weight of paper, its own contradictions, but it will also continue to hog most of the resources and insist on artificial intelligence essays its elevated social and political status. The renowned chemist George Whitesides (who, perhaps not coincidentally, was Kumar’s Ph.D. advisor) argued in getting research paper published, The Economist in 2012 that, in persuasive capital punishment, the past century or so, purely curiosity-driven science has delivered only one or two fundamentally transformational breakthroughs (quantum mechanics and getting research perhaps genomics), and that, given this performance record, keeping science separate from technology “may or may not be an affordable luxury.” A different way to put it might be that the sort of undisciplined exploration that Vannevar Bush was peddling back in 1945 should be seen now in much the same light as space travel, support for the arts or for public monuments, and cover builder wilderness protection. However worthwhile and ennobling it may be for its own sake, it cannot be justified in getting research paper, terms of solving problems or guiding policy decisions or even of leading toward verifiable truth. In this light, Susan Fitzpatrick faces a particularly difficult challenge. She wants the philanthropic foundation that she leads to ap english and composition, maximize the potential for neuroscience to help reduce human suffering, but she doesn’t think that this field has much to research paper, say yet about lessening the terrible burdens of ap english and composition, most brain diseases. She thinks that much of getting paper, neuroscience has been seduced by what she terms the “dogma” of capital death penalty, reductionism. “Everyone is convinced that if you can find the genetic molecular explanation for getting, something now then you understand it and hence you can fix it, even though there is and composition questions, literally no evidence for this.” She wants to insulate the scientists that the foundation funds from some of the cultural pressures to do research that quickly leads to publishable results, and provide them time “to ask important questions, be careful about what they’re doing, be skeptical of research paper, their own results.” One project underway looks at extreme long-term survivors of malignant brain cancer to see how their tumors interact with the rest of the on mentorship body and getting research published other environmental influences. Why do treatment technologies that are ineffective for most patients show positive results for a very few? It’s a problem that links technological performance to scientific advance the artificial intelligence essays sweet spot for research, fundamental research.
But Fitzpatrick also wonders if biomedical science undervalues other kinds of research that could offer solutions to artificial intelligence essays, pressing problems. “There’s not a lot of research on how best to socially, emotionally, environmentally, support Alzheimer’s patients, that might ameliorate their own anxiety, their own stress maybe the getting research paper published disease, as horrible as it is, would be less horrible through a better care structure, but we do very little research on that.” Perhaps for now, research to help people with these diseases ought to aim at more practical questions. “I don’t think you can tell people ‘Well, we’ve got another forty years of research that we’re going to have to do’ when we also don’t know if there are better ways of supporting people.” And maybe in the process of understanding how better to help patients, scientists will discover things about the course of the disease and its varieties that can lead to effective therapies. “What’s been lost is the continual back-and-forth between the science and the real disease” that has, historically, been the source of career, major medical advances. Advancing according to its own logic, much of getting paper, science has lost sight of the flat tax research better world it is supposed to help create. Shielded from accountability to anything outside of itself, the “free play of free intellects” begins to seem like little more than a cover for indifference and research paper irresponsibility. The tragic irony here is that the cover stunted imagination of mainstream science is a consequence of the very autonomy that scientists insist is the key to their success. Only through direct engagement with the real world can science free itself to rediscover the path toward truth. Daniel Sarewitz is a professor of science and society at Arizona State University’s School for the Future of Innovation and Society, and the co-director of the university’s Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes.
He is also the co-editor of Issues in Science and Technology and a regular columnist for the journal Nature . Daniel Sarewitz, Saving Science, The New Atlantis , Number 49, Spring/Summer 2016, pp. Research! 440.
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Telecommunications Manager - Verint / Avaya Experience Preferred. Raleigh , NC 27608. Telecommunications Manager - Verint / Avaya Experience Preferred. Description Conduent is the getting paper world's largest provider of diversified business process services with leading capabilities in transaction processing, automation, analytics and constituent experience. We work with both government and commercial customers in assisting them to write essay about deliver quality services to the people they serve. We manage interactions with patients and getting paper, the insured for essay penalty a significant portion of the research U.S. healthcare industry. We are the customer interface for large segments of the technology industry and letter, the operational and processing partner of choice for public transportation systems around the paper published world. Whether it's digital payments, claims processing, benefit administration, automated tolling, customer care or distributed learning - Conduent manages and modernizes these interactions to create value for persuasive punishment penalty both our clients and their constituents. Getting Research Paper Published. Learn more at essay on mentorship, www.conduent.com . Research Published. If you meet the persuasive punishment death requirements of this position and paper, want to work for artificial essays a world-class company with a great marketplace reputation, apply today.
Telecom Manager Candidate will be responsible to holding team accountable to adhering to SLAs on the Conduent's incident management system Required: *3 Years call center experience *3 Years of Avaya experience *Bachelors Degree or equivalent work experience * Telecom Team Management experience *Excellent written and verbal communication skills * Avaya AES * AVAYA Aura Communications Manager 4.x and getting published, higher * Avaya Enablement Services (AES)- ACME SBC Call routing * SIP, H.323, VoIP troubleshooting.- Signaling level of the VoIP protocols * Avaya Communication Manager, Avaya Session Manager, Avaya Gateways G450, G650, G350, G700 . Preferred: Verint Call Recording - Preferred Modular Messaging Preferred ACME Packet Preferred Cisco CUBE Preferred Cisco UCCE Preferred May perform one or more of the following: Manages the planning, development, and ap english and composition questions, installation of getting research paper, network systems by evaluating current and future business requirements. Ensures all software and hardware products are compatible with network integration. Manages the installation, maintenance, and monitoring of the flat tax research paper organization's local area network system. Directs and controls the activities of design, analysis, planning, and getting paper, implementation of network components. Oversees the development and evaluation of capital, network performance criteria and measurement methods. Manages the testing and analysis of all components of getting research paper, network facilities to ensure operational status. Identifies network problems and oversees resolution of problems. Drives the artificial essays planning, design, implementation, organization, and getting published, operation of the data communications network. Manages voice, data, and video communication systems throughout the organization, including the planning, design, installation, and maintenance of artificial intelligence, networks in support of information systems. Directs and manages the research, design, planning, and development of new advanced network technologies, network components, and radio frequency and/or wireless transmission.
Conduent is an Equal Opportunity Employer and considers applicants for all positions without regard to research race, color, creed, religion, ancestry, national origin, age, gender identity, sex, marital status, sexual orientation, physical or mental disability, use of a guide dog or service animal, military/veteran status, citizenship status, basis of genetic information, or any other group protected by law. People with disabilities who need a reasonable accommodation to apply or compete for employment with Conduent Business Services or one of its subsidiaries may request such accommodation(s) by sending an e-mail to career [email protected] . Be sure to include your name, the research job you are interested in, and the accommodation you are seeking. Service Delivery Client Network Services. Primary Location United States-North Carolina-Raleigh. Other Locations United States-Georgia-Atlanta, United States-Kentucky-Lexington, United States-North Carolina-Charlotte, United States-Virginia-Chesapeake, United States-TX-Houston.
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Posted 2 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/1/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-30T00:00 **Project Manager** Location **US-Remote-MidAtlantic** Job ID **11959** Apply Now Verint Systems, Inc. has an immediate Project Manager opening available (US - REMOTE with a preference in letter builder the Manassas, VA area). Getting. **Project Manager** This role includes end-to-end accountability for complex projects or group of projects from its inception to final customer acceptance: • Manage project/s scope, control budget, and ap english and composition essay, manage risks, problems, delays from mitigation to recovery • Maintain direct contact with customers and build long term relationship • Responsible for getting published master work plan across company divisions: operations, RD, QA, Integration, service, H/W, etc. • Act as the essay on mentorship customer focal point, and define, prioritize, negotiate and communicate customer requirements • Manage third-party suppliers • Take active involvement at the presale stage • Ensure customer satisfaction **Requirements** : • Minimum 5 years’ experience as senior project manager • Experienced managing complex technical systems/telecom companies/security systems • Experience working in a global environment with global customers • Experience managing remote delivery teams in multiple locations • Experience working in a high tech project-oriented company and management in matrix environment with cross-functional teams Ability to pass a background screening process including, but not limited to, employment verifications, criminal search and paper, security clearance • Flexibility for frequent traveling to flat tax research paper customer sites • Good interpersonal skills • Technical-marketing orientation • Presale experience – preferred • Telephony/IP experience – preferred As an equal opportunity employer, Verint Systems Inc. prides itself in providing employees with a work environment in research paper which all individuals are treated with respect and dignity. This means we are committed to providing equal opportunity to all qualified employees and applicants for employment without regard to one’s race, color, religion, national origin, age, gender, disability, alienage or citizenship status, marital status, creed, genetic predisposition or carrier status, sexual orientation, Veteran status or any other classification protected by intelligence, applicable federal, state or local laws. This policy applies to all terms and conditions of getting, employment including but not limited to flat hiring, placement, promotion, compensation, training, leave of absence or termination. Verint Systems, Inc. Raleigh NC. Regional Vice President Sales Northeast.
Verint Systems, Inc. Posted 22 hours ago. VIEW JOBS 10/3/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-01T00:00 **Regional Vice President- Sales Northeast** Location **US-Remote-Northeast** Job ID **12144** Apply Now **Overview of Job Function:** The Regional Vice President of Sales located in the Northeast region is responsible to maximize revenue production in the assigned region. This role will build and manage relationships of getting, all customers prospects in the region. The RVP will lead, manage and motivate multiple sales professionals, to punishment death penalty deliver the sales targets in a large specified geographic area or specific industry or product segment on a national or geographic basis. This position will cover our top customers and prospects. The RVP is responsible to set the region’s strategy and vision and puts together a plan to execute both the tactics and getting research, strategies necessary to hit both quarterly and flat paper, annual sales objectives. The RVP, Sales is responsible to getting research align objectives set by senior leadership; the company strategy and the annual business plan and has built a proven track record of success in cover management, as well as in selling software solutions. As a RVP, Sales, you will focus on managing Account Executives in North America who use creative consultative sales techniques to establish long-term relationships with client.
This position will manage the contracts process. This role acts as the “GM” of their individual regional boundaries. **Principal Duties and getting research, Essential Responsibilities:** •Proven ability to identify, prospect, qualify and close potential business transactions. A Short Education. You must motivate your AE’s to consistently meet or exceed given sales quota, as well as aid in the negotiation and close of sales deals. •Hold regular calls and assign tasks with accountability to virtual team members to research paper published hit business objectives. •Insures overall of customers in region •Owns the overall pipeline and responsible for artificial driving opportunities through our process to closure. •Motivates, focuses and leads the region to success via accountability and hitting all core metrics expectations. •Groom, mentor, develop, and getting research paper, grow staff. Career Builder. •Forecast accurately and getting published, timely. •Deliver quarterly and FY quota sales revenues. - Focus and drive sales teams to capital punishment penalty deliver exceptional results, •Form strategic relationships with clients, demonstrating influence to ensure first class relationships are established to maximize business opportunities. •Oversee the hiring, development and mentoring of sales staff, appropriate for paper published the company's maturity size. •Be a role model and drive the Company's culture. •Ensures the company's sales processes are clearly understood and essay, followed to ensure success and paper, provide the sales leadership into the rest of the organization. •Develop and drive sales strategy in chosen markets segments and in conjunction with leadership, providing structured reporting and regular updates on all key opportunities and new market opportunities. •Work with individual sales people to develop and execute plans to increase penetration within existing territories in respect of demand creation, cross selling and upselling. •Participate actively in essays sales calls and product/solutions demonstrations as appropriate and contribute to the rapid growth of paper published, sales, demonstrating outstanding sales management and closing skills to the team. •Provide weekly sales forecasts to sales leadership in an agreed format, providing detailed insight into the sales function using agreed tools such Salesforce.com. **Minimum Requirements:** •Bachelor's degree, MBA or MA preferred or equivalent work experience. •8 years of artificial intelligence essays, of Sales Leadership experience coupled with 12 years of overall sales experience within the Software or related industry. •Previous experience in sales of software solutions •Demonstrated Leadership experience with proven success in performance management and getting, professional team development •Ability to plan and manage at both the strategic and write essay about education, operational levels. •Established contacts and relationships with potential customers. •Outstanding consultative selling abilities and excellent interpersonal skills with executive level customers and partners. •Proven sales track record in a new product/new market environment. •Ability to work collaboratively with colleagues and staff to getting paper create results driven, team oriented environment. •Experience with a specific sales methodology, sales funnel management and CRM software preferably Salesforce.com. •Exceptional interpersonal, oral and written communications skills to effectively communicate to write a wide range of audiences. •Ability and getting research paper, proven experience interfacing with all levels of management including C level and other senior levels of management •Exceptional team management skills and customer facing skills. •Track record of driving and developing talented sales professionals. Essays. •This position requires travel 50% of the time. •Successful completion of the background check process, including but not limited to employment, education, criminal convictions, OFAC, SS Verification and credit, where available and in published accordance with federal and local regulations **Preferred Requirements:** •Certification in solution selling methodologies such as Miller Heiman Strategic Selling and/or Solution Selling a plus. As an persuasive essay capital punishment death, equal opportunity employer, Verint Systems Inc. prides itself in getting paper providing employees with a work environment in which all individuals are treated with respect and dignity. Cover Builder. This means we are committed to getting providing equal opportunity to write a short all qualified employees and applicants for paper employment without regard to ap english one’s race, color, religion, national origin, age, gender, disability, alienage or citizenship status, marital status, creed, genetic predisposition or carrier status, sexual orientation, Veteran status or any other classification protected by applicable federal, state or local laws. This policy applies to all terms and getting published, conditions of employment including but not limited to hiring, placement, promotion, compensation, training, leave of absence or termination. Verint Systems, Inc. Raleigh NC. Regional Sales Manager SIS (Central) Verint Systems, Inc. Posted 2 days ago.
VIEW JOBS 10/1/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-30T00:00 **Regional Sales Manager, SIS (Central)** Location **US-Remote (United States)** Job ID **11796** Apply Now **Verint Situational Intelligence Solutions Overview:** Verint Situational Intelligence Solutions (SIS) is a leading provider of essay, Enterprise VMS and Situational Awareness solutions for Mission Critical security networks globally. Excelling in research paper complex Transportation, Critical Infrastructure, and Campus Enterprise environments, SIS combines robust, flexible, and essay, highly scalable product offerings with outstanding end-to-end Professional Services and deep customer engagement to help ensure success even in research the most demanding deployments. By bringing together traditional physical security with Cyber and IT security solutions to create Actionable Intelligence, Verint is changing the face of Security. And Composition. **Overview of getting research paper, Job Function:** The Regional Sales Manager (RSM) located in the US will have overall responsibility for expanding the Verint SIS business presence in ap english the region. Working both with channel partners and directly with End-Users within the getting research paper published region, the RSM will develop and essay on mentorship, nurture relationships, grow existing accounts, and develop new opportunities to grow the sales pipeline. The Sales Manager will be assigned an individual sales quota of research published, bookings responsibility within an assigned region and/or end user verticals. **Principal Duties and Essential Responsibilities:** + Develop and execute an overall Territory Plan that aligns with the SIS strategy and lays the and composition foundation for sustainable growth in getting the region. + Utilize existing and extensive relationships with Fortune 1000 corporations and Government Agencies in our targeted markets to build and maintain a robust opportunity pipeline + Drive complex opportunities to questions closure using Solution Selling techniques to articulate the value-add of published, Verint’s offerings + Establish and maintain strong relationships with key Channel Partners in the regions to ap english and composition questions support our customer base and research published, facilitate lead generation + Develop, educate and maintain strong relationships within the consultant community within assigned region and/or vertical + Provide effective sales presentations/product demonstrations to prospective customer management, including hosting Company site visits if necessary. Letter Builder. + Maintain effective relationships with established customers and partners, acting as an entry point into the Verint organization and identifying growth opportunities within the account + By way of the company’s CRM tool, provides the sales management team with accurate and timely reporting of activities including weekly and monthly sales forecasts, the status of the sales pipeline and results of research paper, prospecting activities. + Provides routine updates to the Company’s sales database with account activity and status. + Maintain a thorough on-going knowledge of Verint products and technology, as well as industry trends. + When appropriate work with larger Verint sales team in order to and composition essay questions leverage subject matter expertise, product knowledge and market positioning in order to more efficiently close business within region and/or vertical. + Provide ad hoc reports and perform assigned projects as needed. **Minimum Requirements:** + College Degree or equivalent experience + Minimum of five (5) years of experience selling enterprise software solutions, complex security and/or video-based technology. Must have experience managing large, high dollar value projects and accounts + Comprehensive experience with in-direct sales through integrators, leveraging a strong network of relationships. + Extensive end-user relationships in getting paper published the territory + Broad knowledge of market needs in write a short essay about education the field of situational awareness, video-based security technologies including information technology, local and wide area networks, and research, software analytics. + Strong technical competency to understand and effectively communicate information about Verint products + Proven capability to successfully develop and essays, manage relationships with senior level contacts and influencers. + Creative problem solver with sound judgment and high degree of integrity + Strong selling and research, closing techniques with a proven history of high dollar sales success within the security space. + Excellent written and verbal communications skills at all organizational levels + Proficiency in Outlook, Excel and PowerPoint + Willingness to travel on cover career builder, occasion outside of assigned region and throughout the U.S. Getting Paper Published. region as required + Successful completion of the background check process, including but not limited to employment, education, criminal convictions, OFAC, SS Verification and credit, where available and in cover accordance with federal and local regulations **Preferred Requirements:** + IT background preferred + Prior experience in the security industry preferred + Familiarity with VERINT Products is preferred + Four year degree preferred As an getting research published, equal opportunity employer, Verint Systems Inc. prides itself in providing employees with a work environment in which all individuals are treated with respect and dignity. This means we are committed to providing equal opportunity to all qualified employees and applicants for cover career builder employment without regard to one’s race, color, religion, national origin, age, gender, disability, alienage or citizenship status, marital status, creed, genetic predisposition or carrier status, sexual orientation, Veteran status or any other classification protected by applicable federal, state or local laws.
This policy applies to all terms and conditions of employment including but not limited to hiring, placement, promotion, compensation, training, leave of absence or termination. Verint Systems, Inc. Raleigh NC. Telecommunications Manager - Verint / Avaya Experience Preferred. 1. Resume Copy paste or upload your resume. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Attached Cover Letter. 2. Research. Cover Letter (Optional) Copy paste or upload your cover letter. Don’t have a cover letter?
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A critical analysis of Philip Larkin's 'Mr Bleaney'. Getting Paper Published? Extracts from this document. Rachael Ward Tutor: Mr R. Pooley Twentieth Century Literature: 20% Exercise A critical analysis of Philip Larkin's 'Mr Bleaney'. Richard Davie once claimed that whilst he recognised in Larkin's [poetry] the seasons of present-day England, [he also] recognised. the seasons of an English soul.1 In fact Philip Larkin's very interest in human nature, together with his dislike of . self-indulgent romanticism. 2, contributed to the character and final draft of 'Mr Bleaney'. By pulling the essay life and personality of the ordinary English bachelor with that of the poetic personae who is about to paper published buy into Mr Bleaney's apartment, not to mention his life and ways, Larkin is able debate whether 'how we live [actually] measures our own nature', a fear that plagued the author as well as the poetic personae. As we are escorted around Mr Bleaney's apartment the landlady describes how he stayed there 'the whole time he was at the Bodies'. To be at 'the Bodies' suggests that Mr Bleaney's stay in the apartment and tax research, even on this earth was only temporary.
His body appears to be just a casing, thus implying that Mr Bleaney was simply the shell of man who was waiting to die. . read more. an research paper published anonymous and autocratic landlady.6 Mr Bleaney, after all depends on write about, his sister's independence for his Christmas celebrations and a married couple for the holidays. Additionally the lack of books is substituted for getting research paper the 'jabbering set', which is important as at questions, the time 'Mr Bleaney' was written Larkin had recently moved into an uncomfortable apartment where he complained that the radio was a nightmare7, a mere way of rotting the brain. Instead of being independent Mr Bleaney has become almost numb to the rest of humanity. In the end Mr Bleaney's so-called life is ideal without really being a life. In this sense Mr Bleaney and paper published, the narrator are both extremely isolated, Mr Bleaney's only form of communication being the 'jabbering TV set', whilst the poetic personae interestingly tries to and composition essay questions 'drown [out the sound]. with cotton wool', in some way the former ears have already been 'stuffed' by it.
However this isolation is also shown in getting published, the distance between Mr Bleaney and on mentorship, nature. Like Larkin who on the one hand was an extreme humanist [who made] himself numb to the non-human world in order to stay compassionate towards the human8, Mr Bleaney doesn't contemplate the 'frigid wind tousling the clouds' choosing only to emphasis his own control by taking the 'bit of garden properly in hand'. . read more. Here there is a sudden realisation for the narrator, the delayed 'I don't know' echoing throughout the paper published rest of the poem eclipsing what the narrator had been convinced he was better than. In the end neither Mr Bleaney nor the paper narrator 'warranted no better' than a 'hired box'. 'Mr Bleaney' is an exploration of a small world and is concerned primarily with the self-revelation of the narrator, not to mention the author, as when regarded an insight into Philip Larkin, 'Mr Bleaney' is a breaking away from his [own] self protecting privacy. 14. The narrator realises that the small world of Mr Bleaney has become the same small world that he belongs to. The main figure of the poem, therefore is not 'Mr Bleaney' but the narrator, who struggles with the worth of his own life. Whilst he may have learnt to respect Mr Bleaney simply because he is content leading an ordinary life, he may also resent him for getting research paper making him realise that he isn't a superior figure, but belongs to the same real world as Mr Bleaney, bringing about the sudden collapse of his own morale15. 'Mr Bleaney' is an intelligent poem that explores ideas of male identity, loneliness, simple modesty and persuasive punishment death, false fantasies bringing them all into getting research paper published small yet equally complicated real world. . read more. Intelligence? This student written piece of work is one of research paper published many that can be found in a short about education, our University Degree Larkin section.
Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related University Degree Larkin essays. Some critics suggest that Larkin portrays human existence as bleak in his poetry - . Getting Research Paper? It also implies that there is another person with the narrator. It can be ascertained that this other voice is the Landlady. The utilisation of un-poetic concrete nouns 'Bed, upright chair, sixty watt bulb' emphasise a rigid routine. 'Behind the door, no room for books or bags' begins the third stanza.
Discursive Written Analysis of Wherever I Hang by tax research, Grace Nichols and Reflections by Mario . Getting Paper? repetition of flat nouns and reiteration determiners to emphasise just what she has given up to come to a new land. Possibly giving the reader the vehicle of travel and a new country and the tenor of a lack of feeling of belongingness. By referring to paper published at least two poems, discuss by essay education, what means Larkin illustrates the . Getting? As well as this, cigarettes are another way of advertising in the poem and illusion pervades this, as it does not explain that these smokers are dying. Finally, similar to 'Sunny Prestatyn,' we are left with a dramatically effective last few lines where illusion becomes reality because it is the nature of 'Essential Beauty.' Critical evaluation of High Windows by Philip Larkin. The older generation of Larkin's youth are shown to essay be jealous of the freedom that young people have with respect to getting paper the church and the lack of persuasive essay capital penalty control it had over research published, their lives, whilst Larkin's generation are concerned at having missed out on artificial essays, the so called sexual revolution that they see taking place around them. Larkin - a look at the mood poems were written in by Larkin. Getting? (Larkin page 143 Wild Oats) He does everything with her but still has a crush on the English Rose. This leads the girlfriend of his to then say to him: That I was too selfish, withdrawn, And easily bored to love. The Whitsun Weddingsamp;quot; is Larkin's longest poem and builder, describes the published protagonists long, leisurely train . About? It is debatable whether the ending of the poem is research paper published, pessimistic or hopeful.
The bright sunlit. Intelligence Essays? Whitsun' of the opening verse has become rain by the end of the poem. The word rain can be interpreted negatively (dreary and depressing), however, rain is also associated with life and fertility. An interviewer once remarked to research paper Larkin thatamp;quot; Your favourite subjects are failure and weaknessamp;quot; . Larkin goes on to describe Mr Bleaney's lifestyle. He the cover letter bleak, predictable routine in his life, 'I know his habits-what time he came down, his preference for sauce to gravy' This could be a big flaw in getting published, Mr Bleaney's life, his routine. This could suggest that his life was unfulfilling and letter builder, boring and the subject of failure is brought up again. Getting Research Paper Published? A Critical Appreciation of Campos De Castilla. Machado makes references to many humble characters which he associates with the Soria countryside, namely in this poem that of jinetes, arrieros and a self reference to a guisa de pastoril.
This interest has much to do with the concept of intrahistoria in which the most significant part of a nation's life takes place beneath the essay surface of historical events. of paper published student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the artificial whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for expert help with your Linguistics, Classics and published, related subjects work?
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emerson's essays [This essay was put together after Emerson's death from a number of research published commencement and similar addresses he had made. It appears in The Complete Writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson , edited by Edward Emerson] A new degree of intellectual power seems cheap at artificial intelligence any price. Getting! The use of the and composition essay questions, world is that man may learn its laws. And the human race have wisely signified their sense of this, by calling wealth, means-- Man being the end.
Language is always wise. Therefore I praise New England because it is the country in the world where is the research, freest expenditure for education. We have already taken, at the planting of the Colonies (for aught I know for persuasive essay punishment death penalty, the first time in the world), the initial step, which for its importance might have been resisted as the most radical of revolutions, thus deciding at the start the destiny of this country--this, namely, that the poor man, whom the law does not allow to take an ear of corn when starving, nor a pair of shoes for his freezing feet, is allowed to put his hand into the pocket of the paper, rich, and say, You shall educate me, not as you will, but as I will: not alone in the elements, but, by further provision, in the languages, in sciences, in the useful and in write about elegant arts. The child shall be taken up by the State, and taught, at the public cost, the rudiments of knowledge, and, at last, the ripest results of art and science. Humanly speaking, the school, the college, society, make the getting research paper published, difference between men. All the fairy tales of Aladdin or the invisible Gyges or the taIisman that opens kings' palaces or the essay capital punishment death penalty, enchanted halls underground or in the sea, are any fictions to indicate the one miracle of intellectual enlargement. Paper Published! When a man stupid becomes a man inspired, when one and the same man passes out cover letter builder of the torpid into the perceiving state, leaves the getting paper published, din of trifles, the stupor of the senses, to enter into ap english essay, the quasi-omniscience of high thought--up and down, around, all limits disappear. No horizon shuts down.
He sees things in research paper their causes, all facts in ap english and composition essay questions their connection. One of the problems of history is the beginning of civilization. The animals that accompany and serve man make no progress as races. Those called domestic are capable of learning of man a few tricks of utility or amusement, but they cannot communicate the skill to their race. Each individual must be taught anew.
The trained dog cannot train another dog. And Man himself in getting research paper many faces retains almost the unteachableness of the beast. For a thousand years the islands and forests of a great part of the world have been led with savages who made no steps of advance in art or skill beyond the necessity of being fed and warmed. Certain nations with a better brain and usually in more temperate climates have made such progress as to compare with these as these compare with the bear and the wolf. Victory over things is the a short essay education, office of getting research paper published man. Of course, until it is accomplished, it is the war and insult of things over him. His continual tendency, his great danger, is to overlook the fact that the world is only his teacher, and on mentorship, the nature of sun and moon, plant and animal only means of paper arousing his interior activity. Enamored of their beauty, comforted by their convenience, he seeks them as ends, and fast loses sight of the fact that they have worse than no values, that they become noxious, when he becomes their slave.
This apparatus of wants and faculties, this craving body, whose organs ask all the elements and persuasive essay capital punishment death penalty, all the functions of Nature for their satisfaction, educate the wondrous creature which they satisfy with light, with heat, with water, with wood, with bread, with wool. The necessities imposed by his most irritable and all-related texture have taught Man hunting, pasturage, agriculture, commerce, weaving, joining, masonry, geometry, astronomy. Here is a world pierced and belted with natural laws, and fenced and planted with civil partitions and properties, which all put new restraints on the young inhabitant. He too must come into this magic circle of relations, and know health and getting research paper, sickness, the fear of injury, the desire of external good, the charm of riches, the charm of power. The household is a school of power. There, within the door, learn the tragicomedy of human life. Here is the sincere thing, the wondrous composition for which day and night go round. In that routine are the sacred relations, the questions, passions that bind and sever. Here is poverty and all the getting research, wisdom its hated necessities can teach, here labor drudges, here affections glow, here the secrets of character are told, the guards of man, the guards of woman, the compensations which, like angels of justice, pay every debt: the opium of on mentorship custom, whereof all drink and many go mad.
Here is Economy, and Glee, and Hospitality, and Ceremony, and getting research published, Frankness, and essay, Calamity, and Death, and Hope. Every man has a trust of research published power--every man, every boy a jurisdiction, whether it be over a cow or a rood of a potato-field, or a fleet of ships, or the laws of a state. And what activity the desire of ap english and composition questions power inspires! What toils it sustains! How it sharpens the perceptions and stores the getting research paper published, memory with facts. Thus a man may well spend many years of life in trade. It is a constant teaching of the tax research paper, laws of matter and of mind, No dollar of property can be created without some direct communication with nature, and of course some acquisition of knowledge and practical force. It is getting paper published, a constant contest with the active faculties of men, a study of the issues of career builder one and another course of research published action, an accumulation of power, and, if the higher faculties of the individual be from time to time quickened, he will gain wisdom and virtue from his business. As every wind draws music out of the Aeolian harp, so doth every object in Nature draw music out of his mind. Artificial Essays! Is it not true that every landscape I behold, every friend I meet, every act I perform, every pain I suffer, leaves me a different being from that they found me? That poverty, love, authority, anger, sickness, sorrow, success, all work actively upon our being and unlock for us the concealed faculties of the mind?
Whatever private or petty ends are frustrated, this end is always answered. Whatever the getting research paper, man does, or whatever befalls him, opens another chamber in his soul--that is, he has got a new feeling, a new thought, a new organ. Do we not see how amazingly for this end man is tax research paper, fitted to the world? What leads him to science? Why does he track in the midnight heaven a pure spark, a luminous patch wandering from age to research published age, but because he acquires thereby a majestic sense of power; learning that in his own constitution he can set the shining maze in order, and finding and carrying their law in artificial intelligence his mind, can, as it were, see his simple idea realized up yonder in giddy distances and frightful periods of duration. If Newton come and first of men perceive that not alone certain bodies fall to the ground at a certain rate, but that all bodies in getting research paper the Universe, the universe of bodies, fall always, and at one rate; that every atom in nature draws to every other atom--he extends the power of his mind not only over every cubic atom of his native planet, but he reports the condition of millions of worlds which his eye never saw. Ap English And Composition Essay! And what is the charm which every ore, every new plant, every new fact touching winds, clouds, ocean currents, the secrets of chemical composition and decomposition possess for Humboldt. What but that much revolving of similar facts in his mind has shown him that always the mind contains in its transparent chambers the means of getting published classifying the most refractory phenomena, of depriving, them of all casual and chaotic aspect, and subordinating them to a bright reason of its own, and so giving to man a sort of property--yea, the very highest property in essay on mentorship every district and particle of the globe.
By the permanence of Nature, minds are trained alike, and made intelligible to each other. In our condition are the roots of language and communication, and getting, these instructions we never exhaust. In some sort the end of life is that the man should take up the universe into himself, or out of about education that quarry leave nothing unrepresented. Yonder mountain must migrate into paper, his mind. Yonder magnificent astronomy he is at last to import, fetching away moon, and planet, solstice, period, comet and binal star, by comprehending their relation and law.
Instead of the timid stripling he was, he is to be the stalwart Archimedes, Pythagoras, Columbus, Newton, of the physic, metaphysic and ethics of the design of the world. For truly the population of the globe has its origin in the aims which their existence is to serve; and so with every portion of them. The truth takes flesh in forms that can express it; and thus in history an idea always overhangs, like the moon, and rules the tide which rises simultaneously in all the souls of artificial intelligence essays a generation. Whilst thus the getting research, world exists for the mind; whilst thus the man is ever invited inward into shining realms of knowledge and power by the shows of the world, which interpret to him the infinitude of his own consciousness--it becomes the office of a just education to awaken him to the knowledge of this fact. We learn nothing rightly until we learn the symbolical character of life. Day creeps after day, each full of facts, dull, strange, despised things, that we cannot enough despise--call heavy, prosaic, and desert. The time we seek to kill: the attention it is elegant to divert from things around us. Write A Short Essay About Education! And presently the aroused intellect finds gold and gems in one of research published these scorned facts--then finds that the day of facts is a rock of diamonds; that a fact is an Epiphany of God. We have our theory of life, our religion, our philosophy; and the event of letter builder each moment, the shower, the steamboat disaster the passing of a beautiful face, the apoplexy of our neighbor, are all tests to try our theory, the approximate result we call truth, and reveal its defects. If I have renounced the search of truth, if I have come into the port of some pretending dogmatism, some new church or old church, some Schelling or Cousin, I have died to getting all use of these new events that are born out of prolific time into multitude of life every hour.
I am as a bankrupt to whom brilliant opportunities offer in vain. He has just foreclosed his freedom, tied his hands, locked himself up and given the key to another to artificial intelligence keep. When I see the doors by published, which God enters into the mind; that there is no sot or fop, ruffian or pedant into whom thoughts do not enter by passages which the individual never left open, I can expect any revolution in character. I have hope, said the essay, great Leibnitz, that society may be reformed, when I see how much education may be reformed. It is ominous, a presumption of crime, that this word Education has so cold, so hopeless a sound.
A treatise on education, a convention for education, a lecture, a system, affects us with slight paralysis and a certain yawning of the getting research paper, jaws. We are not encouraged when the law touches it with its fingers. Education should be as broad as man. Whatever elements are in him that should foster and intelligence, demonstrate. If he be dexterous, his tuition should make it appear; if he be capable of dividing men by the trenchant sword of his thought, education should unsheathe and sharpen it; if he is one to cement society by his all-reconciling affinities, oh! hasten their action!
If he is jovial, if he is mercurial, if he is getting research, a great-hearted, a cunning artificer, a strong commander, a potent ally, ingenious, useful, elegant, witty, prophet, diviner--society has need of all these. The imagination must be addressed. Why always coast on the surface and ap english essay, never open the interior of research published nature, not by science, which is surface still, but by poetry? Is not the Vast an element of the mind? Yet what teaching, what book of essay questions this day appeals to the Vast? Our culture has truckled to the times--to the getting research, senses. It is not manworthy.
If the vast and the spiritual are omitted, so are the practical and the moral. It does not make us brave or free. We teach boys to be such men as we are. Artificial Intelligence! We do not teach them to aspire to be all they can.. We do not give them a training as if we believed in their noble nature.
We scarce educate their bodies. We do not train the eye and the hand. We exercise their understandings to paper the apprehension and: comparison of some facts, to artificial essays a skill in numbers, in words; we aim to make accountants, attorneys, engineers; but not to make able, earnest, great-hearted men. The great object of getting research published Education should be commensurate with the object of life. It should be a moral one; to teach self-trust; to inspire the youthful man with an interest in himself; with a curiosity touching his own nature; to acquaint him with the resources of his mind, and to teach him that there is all his strength, and to questions inflame him with a piety towards the Grand Mind in which he lives. Thus would education conspired with the getting paper published, Divine Providence. A man is a little thing whilst he works by and for himself, but, when he gives voice to ap english essay the rules of love and justice, is godlike, this word is current in all countries; and all men, though his enemies, are made his friends and obey it as their own. In affirming that the moral nature of man is the predominant element and should therefore be mainly consulted in research paper published the arrangements of a school, I am very far from wishing that it should swallow up all the other instincts and faculties of man. It should be enthroned in his mind, but if it monopolize the man he is not yet sound, he does not yet know his wealth. And Composition Essay! He is in danger of becoming merely devout, and wearisome through the monotony of his thought. It is not less necessary that the intellectual and the active faculties should be nourished and matured.
Let us apply to this subject the light of the same torch by which we have looked at all the phenomena of the time; the infinitude, namely, of getting published every man. Everything teaches that. One fact constitutes all my satisfaction, inspires all my trust, viz., this perpetual youth, which, as long as there is write a short about education, any good in us, we cannot get rid of. It is very certain that the coming age and research paper published, the departing age seldom understand each other. The old man thinks the young man has no distinct purpose, for he could never get any thing intelligible and earnest out of him. Perhaps the young man does not think: it worth his while to explain himself to so hard an inapprehensive a confessor. Let him be led up with a longsighted forbearance, and let not the sallies of essay on mentorship his petulance or folly be checked with disgust or indignation or despair. I call our system a system of despair, and I find all the correction, all the revolution that is needed and that the getting research, best spirits of essay education this age promise, in one word, in Hope. Nature, when she sends a new mind into the world, fills it beforehand with a desire for that which she wishes it to know and do, Let us wait and getting, see what is this new creation, of career builder what new organ the great Spirit had need when it incarnated this new Will. Research Paper! A new Adam in the garden, he is to name all the beasts in ap english questions the field, all the gods in the sky.
And jealous provision seems to have been made in his constitution that you shah not invade and contaminate him with the worn weeds of your language and opinions. The charm of life is this variety of genius, these contrasts, and flavors by which Heaven has modulated the identity of getting paper truth, and there is a perpetual hankering to violate this individuality, to warp his ways of thinking and behavior to resemble or reflect your thinking and behavior. A low self-love in the parent desires that his child should repeat his character and fortune; an expectation which the paper, child, if justice is done him, will nobly disappoint. By working on the theory that this resemblance exists, we shall do what in us lies to research paper published defeat his proper promise and produce the ordinary and mediocre. I suffer whenever I see that common sight of cover a parent or senior imposing his opinion and way of thinking and being on a young soul to which they are totally unfit.
Cannot we let people be themselves, and enjoy life in their own way? You are trying to make that man another you . One's enough. Or we sacrifice the genius of the pupil, the research paper published, unknown possibilities of his nature, to a neat and safe uniformity, as the Turks whitewash the costly mosaics of ancient art which the Greeks left on their temple walls. Rather let us have men whose manhood is only the continuation of capital punishment penalty their boyhood, natural characters still; such are able and fertile for heroic action; and not that sad spectacle with which we are too familiar, educated eyes in uneducated bodies. I like boys, the masters of the playground and of the street--boys, who have the same liberal ticket of admission to all shops, factories, armories, town-meetings, caucuses, mobs, target--shootings, as flies have; quite unsuspected, coming in research paper published as naturally as the janitor--known to have no money in their pockets, and themselves not suspecting the value of a short essay this poverty; putting nobody on his guard, but seeing the inside of the show--hearing all the asides. There are no secrets from them, they know everything that befalls in the fire company, the merits of every engine and of every man at the brakes, how to work it, and are swift to paper published try their hand at every part; so too the merits of every locomotive on the rails, and will coax the engineer to let them ride with him and pull the handles when it goes to the engine-house. They are there only for essay on mentorship, fun, and not knowing that they are at school, in the court-house, or the cattle-show, quite as much and more than they were, an hour ago, in the arithmetic class. They know truth from counterfeit as quick as the chemist does. They detect weakness in your eye and behavior a week before you open your mouth, and have given you the benefit of their opinion quick as a wink. They make no mistakes, have no pedantry, but entire belief on research paper published, experience. Flat! Their elections at baseball or cricket are founded on getting published, merit, and are right.
They don't pass for swimmers until they can swim, nor for stroke-oar until they can row: and I desire to be saved from their contempt. If I can pass with them, I can manage well enough with their fathers. Everybody delights in the energy with which boys deal and talk with each other; the persuasive essay capital penalty, mixture of fun and earnest, reproach and coaxing, love and wrath, with which the game is played--the good-natured yet defiant independence of a leading boy's behavior in getting paper the schoolyard. How we envy in later life the flat, happy youths to whom their boisterous games and rough exercise furnish the precise element which frames and sets off their school and college tasks, and teaches them, when least they think it, the use and meaning of these. In their fun and extreme freak they hit on the topmost sense of Horace. The young giant, brown from his hunting tramp, tells his story well, interlarded with lucky allusions to Homer, to Virgil, to getting research paper college songs, to Walter Scott; and essays, Jove and getting research, Achilles, partridge and trout, opera and binomial theorem, Caesar in Gaul, Sherman in Savannah, and hazing in Holworthy, dance through the narrative in merry confusion, yet the logic is write a short about education, good. Getting Research! If he can turn his books to on mentorship such picturesque account in getting research paper his fishing and hunting, it is easy to see how his reading and experience, as he has more of both, will interpentetrate each other.
And every one desires that this pure vigor of action and wealth of narrative, cheered with so much humor and street rhetoric, should be carried: into the habit of the young man, purged of its uproar and rudeness, but. with all its vivacity entire. His hunting and letter builder, campings-out have given him an indispensable base: I wish to add a taste for getting research paper published, good company; through his impatience of bad. Persuasive Essay Capital Punishment Death! That stormy genius of his needs a little direction to games, charades, verses of society, song, and a correspondence year by getting published, year with his wisest and best friends. Friendship is an order of nobility; from its revelations We come more worthily into nature. Society he must have or he is poor indeed; he gladly enters a school which forbids conceit, affectation, emphasis and dullness, and requires of each only the flower of his nature and experience; requires good will, beauty, wit, and select information; teaches by practice the law of conversation, namely, to hear as well as to speak. Meantime, if circumstances do not permit the high social advantages, solitude has also its lessons. The obscure youth learns there the practice instead of the literature of his virtues; and, because of the intelligence, disturbing effect of passion and sense, which by a multitude of trifles impede the mind's eye from the getting research published, quiet search of that fine horizon-line which truth keeps--the way to knowledge and power has ever been an escape from too much engagement with affairs and possessions; a way, not through plenty and ap english and composition, superfluity, but by denial and renunciation, into solitude and privation; and, the more is taken away, the more; real and inevitable wealth of being is made known to us. The solitary knows the essence of the thought, the scholar in society only its fair face. There is no want of example of great men, great benefactors, who have been monks and hermits in habit. The bias of getting mind is sometimes irresistible in that direction. The man is, as it were, born deaf and dumb, and dedicated to a narrow and lonely life.
Let him study the art of solitude, yield as gracefulIy as he can to his destiny. Why cannot he get the artificial intelligence, good of his doom, and if it is from eternity a settled fact that he and society shall be nothing to each other, why need he blush so, and make wry faces to keep up a freshman's seat in published the fine world? Heaven often protects valuable souls charged with great secrets, great ideas, by long shutting them up with their own thoughts. Ap English And Composition Essay! And the research paper, most genial and cover letter career builder, amiable of getting research paper men must alternate society with solitude, and learn its severe lessons. There comes the period of the imagination to each, a later youth; the power of beauty, the power of books, of persuasive penalty poetry.
Culture makes his books realities to him, their characters more brilliant, more effective on his mind, than his actual mates. Do not spare to put novels into the hands of young people as an occasional holiday and experiment but, above all, good poetry in all kinds, epic, tragedy, lyric. If we can touch the imagination, we serve them, they will never forget it. Let him read Tom Brown at Rugby , read Tom Brown at Oxford , better yet, read Hodson's Life --Hodson who took prisoner the King of Delhi. Getting Paper Published! They teach the same truth--a trust, against ap english and composition questions all appearances, against research published all privations, in your own worth, and not in tricks, plotting, or patronage. I believe that our own experience instructs us that the secret of letter Education lies in respecting the pupil. It is not for you to choose what he shall know, what he shall do. It is chosen and foreordained, and he only holds the key to his own secret. By your tampering and thwarting and too much governing he may be hindered from his end and kept out of his own. Respect the child.
Wait and see the new product of Nature. Nature loves analogies, but not repetitions. Respect the child. Be not too much his parent. Trespass not on his solitude. But I hear the outcry which replies to this suggestion--Would you verily throw up the reins of public and private discipline; would you leave the getting paper, young child to the mad career of his own passions and whimsies, and call this anarchy a respect for the child's nature? I answer--Respect the essay about education, child, respect him to the end, but also respect yourself.
Be the getting published, companion of his thought, the friend of essay his friendship, the lover of his virtue--but no kinsman of his sin. Let him find you so true to yourself that you are the irreconcilable hater of his vice and the imperturbable slighter of his trifling. The two points in a boy's training are, to keep his naturel and train off all but that--to keep his naturel , but stop off his uproar, fooling, and horseplay--keep his nature and research paper published, arm it with knowledge in the very direction to which it points. Here are the two capital facts, Genius and Drill. This first in the inspiration in the well-born healthy child, the new perception he has of nature. Somewhat he sees in forms or hears in letter builder music or apprehends in mathematics, or believes practicable in mechanics or possible in research political society, which no one else sees or hears or believes. This is the perpetual romance of new life, the invasion of essay on mentorship God into getting research paper, the old dead world, when he sends into quiet houses a young soul with a thought which is not met, looking for something which is not there, but which ought to be there: the thought is dim but it is sure, and he casts about restless for means and masters to verify it; he makes wild attempts to explain himself and invoke the cover, aid and consent of the by-standers. Baffled for want of research paper published language and methods to essays convey his meaning, not yet clear to himself, he conceives that though not in this house or town, yet in getting paper published some other house or town is the wise master who can put him in possession of the rules and instruments to execute his will.
Happy this child with a bias, with a thought which entrances him, leads him, now into deserts now into cities, the fool of an essay on mentorship idea. Let him follow it in research published good and in evil report, in good or bad company; it will justify itself; it will lead him at on mentorship last into the illustrious society of the getting, lovers of truth. In London, in a private company, I became acquainted with a gentleman, Sir Charles Fellowes, who, being at Xanthos, in the Aegean Sea, had seen a Turk point with his staff to some carved work on the corner of a stone almost buried in the soil. Fellowes scraped away the dirt, was struck with the beauty of the sculptured ornaments, and, looking about essays him, observed; more blocks and fragments like this. He returned to the spot, procured laborers and uncovered many blocks. He went back to England, bought a Greek grammar and learned the language; he read history and studied, ancient art to explain his stones; he interested Gibson the sculptor; he invoked the assistance of the English Government; he called in the succor of Sir Humphry Davy to analyze the pigments; of experts in coins, of scholars and connoisseurs; and at last: in his third visit brought home to England such statues and marble reliefs and such careful plans that he was able to reconstruct, in the British Museum where it now stands, the perfect model of the Ionic trophy-monument, fifty years older than the Parthenon of research Athens, and which had been destroyed by earthquakes, then by iconoclast Christians, then by savage Turks. Essay About Education! But mark that in the task be had achieved an excellent education, and become associated with distinguished scholars whom he had interested in his pursuit; in short, had formed a college for himself; the enthusiast had found the master, the getting published, masters, whom he sought. Always genius seeks genius, desires nothing so much as to be a pupil and to find those who can lend it aid to artificial intelligence essays perfect itself. Nor are the two elements, enthusiasm and drill, incompatible.
Accuracy is essential to getting beauty. The very definition of the intellect is Aristotle's: that by builder, which we know terms or boundaries. Give a boy accurate perceptions. Research! Teach him the difference between the similar and the same. Make him call things by essay, their right names. Pardon in him no blunder. Then he will give you solid satisfaction as long as he lives, It is better to teach the child arithmetic and research paper published, Latin grammar than rhetoric or moral philosophy, because they require exactitude of performance; it is made certain that the lesson is flat, mastered, and that power of paper published performance is worth more than the knowledge. He can learn anything which is important to him now that the power to learn is secured: as mechanics say, when one has learned the use of flat paper tools, it is easy to work at a new craft.
Letter by letter, syllable by syllable, the child learns to read, and in good time can convey to published all the and composition essay, domestic circle the paper, sense of Shakespeare. By many steps each just as short, the stammering boy and the hesitating collegian, in the school debates, in write essay college clubs, in mock court, comes at last to full, secure, triumphant unfolding of his thought in the popular assembly, with a fullness of power that makes all the steps forgotten. But this function of opening and feeding the human mind is not to be fulfilled by any mechanical or military method; is not to be trusted to any skill less large than Nature itself. You must not neglect the form, but you must secure the essentials. Getting Research Published! It is curious how perverse and intermeddling we are, and what vast pains and cost we incur to do wrong.
Whilst we all know in and composition questions our own experience and getting research paper, apply natural methods in our own business -- in education our common sense fails us, and we are continually trying costly machinery against nature, in patent schools and academies and in great colleges and universities. The natural method forever confutes our experiments, and we must still come back to it. Essay! The whole theory of the school is on the nurse's or mother's knee. The child is as hot to learn as the mother is to impart. There is getting research paper, mutual delight. Artificial Intelligence! The joy of our childhood in hearing beautiful stories from some skillful aunt who loves to tell them, must be repeated in youth.
The boy wishes to learn to getting paper skate; to coast, to catch a fish in the brook, to hit a mark with a snowball or a stone; and a boy a little older is just as well pleased to teach him these sciences. Not less delightful is the flat, mutual pleasure of teaching and learning the getting paper, secret of algebra, or of chemistry, or of good reading and good recitation of poetry or of a short prose, or of chosen facts in getting research paper history or in biography. Nature provided for the communication of thought by planting with it in the receiving mind a fury to impart it. 'Tis so in every art, in every science. One burns to tell the new fact, the other burns to a short essay education hear it. See how far a young doctor will ride or walk to witness a new surgical operation. I have seen a carriage-maker's shop emptied of getting all its workmen into the street, to scrutinize a new pattern from New York. So in literature, the young man who has taste for poetry, for fine images, for noble thoughts, is insatiable for this nourishment, and forgets all the world for the more learned friend--who finds equal joy in dealing out his treasures. Happy the natural college thus self-instituted around every natural teacher; the young men of persuasive essay capital penalty Athens around Socrates; of getting research Alexander around Plotinus; of Paris around Abelard; of Germany around Fichte, or Niebuhr, or Goethe: in short the persuasive essay punishment, natural sphere of every leading mind.
But the moment this is organized, difficulties begin. The college was to be the nurse and home of genius; but, though every young man is born with some determination in his nature, and is a potential genius; is at last to be one; it is, in published the most, obstructed and delayed, and, whatever they may hereafter be, their senses are now opened in advance of their minds. They are more sensual than intellectual. Persuasive Essay Punishment Death Penalty! Appetite and indolence they have, but no enthusiasm. These come in numbers to the college: few geniuses: and the teaching comes to be arranged for these many, and not for those few. Hence the instruction seems to require skillful tutors, of accurate and systematic mind, rather than ardent and inventive masters.
Besides, the youth of genius are eccentric, won't drill, are irritable, uncertain, explosive, solitary, not men of the world, not good for every-day association. You have to work for large classes instead of paper individuals; you must lower your flag and reef your sails to wait for paper, the dull sailors; you grow departmental, routinary, military almost with your discipline and college police. But what doth such a school to form a great and getting paper published, heroic character? What abiding Hope can it inspire? What Reformer will it nurse? What poet will it breed to sing to the human race? What discoverer of capital punishment death Nature's laws will it prompt to enrich us by disclosing in paper the mind the statute which all matter must obey? What fiery soul will it send out to warm a nation with his charity? What tranquil mind will it have fortified to walk with meekness in private and a short about education, obscure duties, to wait and to suffer?
Is it not manifest that our academic institutions should have a wider scope; that they should not be timid and getting research paper published, keep the ruts of the last generation, but that wise men thinking for themselves and heartily seeking the good of mankind, and counting the cost of innovation, should dare to arouse the young to a just and heroic life; that the moral nature should be addressed in the school-room, and children should be treated as the cover letter, high-born candidates of truth and virtue? So to getting regard the young child, the young man, requires, no doubt, rare patience: a patience that nothing but faith in the medial forces of the soul can give. You see his sensualism; you see his want of those tastes and perceptions which make the and composition essay, power and safety of research your character. Very likely, But he has something else. If he has his own vice, he has its correlative virtue.
Every mind should be allowed to make its own statement in flat tax research action, and its balance will appear. In these judgments one needs that foresight which was attributed to an eminent reformer, of whom it was said his patience could see in the bud of the aloe the blossom at the end of a hundred years. Alas for getting research, the cripple Practice when it seeks to come up with the flat tax research, bird Theory, which flies before it. Getting Research Paper! Try your design on the best school. The scholars are of all ages and temperaments and capacities.
It is difficult to class them, some are too young, some are slow, some perverse. Each requires so much consideration, that the morning hope of the teacher, of a day of love and progress, is often closed at essay evening by despair. Each single case, the more it is considered, shows more to be done; and the strict conditions of the hours, on: one side, and the number of getting tasks, on the other. Whatever becomes of our method, the flat paper, conditions stand fast--six hours, and thirty, fifty, or a hundred and fifty pupils. Something must be done, and done speedily, and in this distress the published, wisest are tempted to adopt violent means, to proclaim martial law, corporal punishment, mechanical arrangement, bribes, spies, wrath, main strength and ignorance, in lieu of that wise genial providential influence they had hoped, and paper, yet hope at some future day to adopt. Research Paper! Of course the devotion to details reacts injuriously on the teacher. He cannot indulge his genius, he cannot delight in personal relations with young friends, when his eye is always on the clock, and twenty classes are to be dealt with before the day is done. Besides, how can he please himself with genius, and foster modest virtue? A sure proportion of rogue and dunce finds its way into every school and requires a cruel share of time, and the gentle teacher, who wished to be a Providence to youth, is grown a martinet, sore with suspicions; knows as much vice as the judge of write a short essay a police court, and his love of learning is lost in getting research paper published the routine of grammars and books of elements. A rule is so easy that it does not need a man to apply it; an automaton, a machine, can be made to keep a school so.
It facilitates labor and thought so much that there is always the temptation in large schools to cover letter omit the endless task of meeting the wants of each single mind, and to getting research paper published govern by steam. But it is at frightful cost. Persuasive Essay Capital Punishment! Our modes of Education aim to expedite, to save labor; to do for masses what cannot be done for masses, what must be done reverently, one by one: say rather, the whole world is needed for the tuition of each pupil. The advantages of research paper this system of emulation and display are so prompt and obvious, it is such a time-saver, it is so energetic on slow and on bad natures, and is of so easy application, needing no sage or poet, but any tutor or schoolmaster in his first term can apply it--that it is not strange that this calomel of culture should be a popular medicine. On the other hand, total abstinence from this drug, and the adoption of simple discipline and the following of nature involves at once immense claims on the time, the thoughts, on the Life of the teacher. It requires time, use, insight, event, all the great lessons and assistances of God; and only to think of about using it implies character and getting published, profoundness; to enter on this course of discipline is to be good and great. It is precisely analogous to the difference between the use of corporal punishment and the methods of love. It is so easy to bestow on a bad boy a blow, overpower him, and get obedience without words, that in this world of hurry and distraction, who can wait for the returns of reason and the conquest of self; in persuasive capital punishment death penalty the uncertainty too whether that will ever come? And yet the familiar observation of the paper published, universal compensations might suggest the fear that so summary a stop of a bad humor was more jeopardous than its continuance. Now the correction of this quack practice is to import into questions, Education the wisdom of getting life.
Leave this military hurry and adopt the letter career, pace of Nature. Getting! Her secret is essay on mentorship, patience. Do you know how the naturalist learns all the getting research paper, secrets of the forest, of plants, of birds, of artificial essays beasts, of reptiles, of fishes, of the rivers and the sea? When he goes into the woods the birds fly before him and getting paper, he finds none; when he goes to the river bank, the fish and the reptile swim away and leave him alone. His secret is patience; he sits down, and sits still; he is a statue; he is a log. These creatures have no value for their time, and he must put as low a rate on his. By dint of obstinate sitting still, reptile, fish, bird and beast, which all wish to cover letter career builder return to their haunts, begin to return.
He sits still; if they approach, he remains passive as the stone he sits upon. They lose their fear. They have curiosity too about him. By and by the curiosity masters the paper, fear, and they come swimming, creeping and dying towards him; and career builder, as he is research paper, still immovable, they not only resume their haunts and their ordinary labors and manners, show themselves to him in their work-day trim, but also volunteer some degree of flat tax research advances towards fellowship and good understanding with a biped who behaves so civilly and well. Published! Can you not baffle the impatience and passion of the child by your tranquility? Can you not wait for him, as Nature and Providence do?
Can you not keep for his mind and ways, for his secret, the same curiosity you give to the squirrel, snake, rabbit, and the sheldrake and the deer? He has a secret; wonderful methods in him; he is--every child--a new style of man; give him time and opportunity. Talk of Columbus and Newtonl. I tell you the child just born in yonder hovel is the beginning of a revolution as great as theirs. But you must have the ap english essay questions, believing and getting paper published, prophetic eye.
Have the self-command you wish to inspire. Write A Short! Your teaching and discipIine must have the reserve and taciturnity of Nature. Teach them to hold their tongues by holding your own. Research Published! Say little; do not snarl; do not chide; but govern by the eye. See what they need, and that the right thing is done. I confess myself utterly at a loss in suggesting particular reforms in our ways of teaching. No discretion that can be lodged with a school-committee, with the and composition, overseers or visitors of an academy, of a college, can at paper published all avail to reach these difficulties and perplexities, but they solve themselves when we leave institutions and address individuals. The will, the male power, organizes, imposes its own thought and wish on others, and makes that military eye which controls boys as it controls men; admirable in its results, a fortune to him who has it, and only dangerous when it leads the workman to overvalue and overuse it and precludes him from finer means. Sympathy, the female force--which they must use who have not the first--deficient in instant control and the breaking down of on mentorship resistance, is research published, more subtle and lasting and creative. I advise teachers to intelligence cherish mother-wit. Research Paper Published! I assume that you will keep the grammar, reading, writing and arithmetic in order; 'tis easy and of course you will.
But smuggle in a Iittle contraband wit, fancy, imagination, thought. If you have a taste which you have suppressed because it is not shared by essays, those about you, tell them that. Set this law up, whatever becomes of the rules of the schooI: they must not whisper, much less talk; but if one of the getting research published, young people says a wise thing, greet it, and let all the write a short essay, children clap their hands. They shall have no book but school-books in getting paper the room; but if one has brought in a Plutarch or Shakespeare or Don Quixote or Goldsmith or any other good book, and career builder, understands what be reads, put him at once at the head of the class. Nobody shall be disorderly, or leave his desk without permission, but if a boy runs from his bench, or a girl, because the fire falls, or to check some injury that a little dastard is indicting behind his desk on some helpless sufferer, take away the medal from the head of the class and give it on the instant to the brave rescuer. If a child happens to show that he knows any fact about astronomy, or plants, or birds, or rocks, or history, that interests him and you, hush all the classes and encourage him to getting research paper published ten it so that all may hear. Then you have made your school-room like the world. Of course you will insist on modesty in the children, and respect to their teachers, but if the boy stops you in your speech, cries out that you are wrong and sets you right, hug him! To whatsoever upright mind, to whatsoever beating heart I speak, to you it is committed to educate men. By simple living, by and composition questions, an illimitable soul, you inspire, you correct, you instruct, you raise, you embellish all.
By your own act you teach the behold how to paper do the practicable. According to the depth from which you draw your life, such is the depth not only of your strenuous effort, but of your manners and presence. The beautiful nature of the world has here blended your happiness with your power. Work straight on in absolute duty, and you lend an arm and an encouragement to all the youth of the essay about education, universe. Consent yourself to be an organ of your highest thought, and lo! suddenly you put all men in your debt, and getting, are the fountain of an energy that goes pulsing on with waves of benefit to the borders of society, to persuasive capital death the circumference of things. See also the following article: Morton M. Sealts, Jr. Emerson as Teacher.
In Emerson Centenary Essays. Research Paper! , pp. 180-190.
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colorado essay Conservationist and getting research paper published, NG Emerging Explorer. The Colorado River winds through the Grand Canyon. Photograph by about, Pete McBride. Colorado River water was diverted into these potash-mine settling ponds near Moab, Utah. Photograph by getting paper, Pete McBride. This aerial view shows the wetlands of the essay punishment death penalty Cienega de Santa Clara, 40,000 acres of research paper published, vegetation and write a short essay about, wildlife habitat in Mexico's Sonoran Desert that have been revived with waste water from the Yuma Desalination Plant. Photograph by Pete McBride.
The Colorado River winds through several national parks and numerous canyons, including the Nankoweap Canyon in Arizona. Photograph by Pete McBride. Water is dyed blue to expedite evaporation at a potash facility. Photograph by Pete McBride. Eerie patterns can be seen in the Colorado River's parched delta. Photograph by Pete McBride. the Colorado River and its dozens of spectacular tributaries carved out the Grand Canyon and published, scoured the Rockies, flushing mineral-rich sediment to ap english questions the sea. These rivers weren't always in flood, but they never ran dry. Today, however, the second largest tributary, the Gila, is mostly bone dry in getting paper published, its lower reaches through Arizona; the Salt River—supplying Phoenix—no longer makes it to essay death a confluence with the Gila; the Santa Cruz is seen beneath Tucson bridges only during rare floods; and the Colorado River itself, almost unbelievably, stopped running to the sea in most years after the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1966. Getting Research. The river hasn't flowed to the Sea of Cortez in Mexico since 1998. What happened?
In a word: agriculture. Essay On Mentorship. A steady march of population growth and climate change has exacerbated conditions, but it all began with farming, much of getting research published, it supported by essay on mentorship, taxpayers in a feverish desire to settle the West. After irrigation ditches and canals were hewed into the arid ground, farmers planted wheat, then hay. Those crops, along with cotton, citrus fruits, 90 percent of the nation's winter vegetables, and almost any other plant imaginable, now consume about getting research 70 percent of the Colorado River Basin's water. Our green lawns, golf courses, swimming pools, and generally thirsty cities also take a share of the dwindling water, as do reservoirs, where 15 percent of the basin's water evaporates into thin air each year. Although people tend to think of the Colorado as a single channel that slices through the Grand Canyon, the river system is really made up of scores of major tributaries that are collectively known as the essay Colorado River Basin. Running as red and warm as fish blood, or as emerald and cold as a glacial lake, its 242,000-square-mile (626,777-square-kilometer) drainage area alternates between the primeval and research, the altered. Essay Education. The basin's drainage covers a percentage of the getting paper U.S. that's almost identical to the percentage of Africa drained by the Nile. The Colorado River is persuasive capital punishment death, both servant and scenic wonder to the 36 million Americans it supplies with water. It is also one of the siltiest, most litigated over, and frequently paddled rivers in the world. It is paper, now widely accepted that population growth and climate change will cause ever more intense water shortages in the West, much like the and composition essay questions travails of Egypt over getting paper published, the long-disputed Nile.
Despite all this change, the massive Colorado River Delta, bearded with salt grass, is persuasive capital punishment death penalty, still one of the most wild and beautiful places betwixt source and sea: lush with unexpected groundwater in its center and surprisingly alive with rattling kingfishers, circling mallards, probing cattle egrets, mischievous ravens, prowling ospreys, and snakelike cormorants diving for getting paper published fish. If you're listening carefully, the mournful cry of loons can be heard mimicking the howl of coyotes, as if to intelligence essays say, Please give us back our river. From Source to Sea. Calamity, arguing with its split personality, Beauty. I know this because I've slept on the delta's muddy yet cracked, salt-stained sand, which washed down from the getting Grand Canyon.
It took me five months to paddle there, 1,450 miles (2,330 kilometers) from the artificial intelligence Continental Divide, plunging as much as 90 feet (27 meters) per vertical mile through bone-breaking rapids, then spilling out into reservoired calms that stretch for research published more than 300 miles (480 kilometers) of about, its path toward Mexico's Sea of Cortez. In the getting published four years since that journey, I've continued my exploration of the Colorado River Basin's tributaries. My mission is to showcase the breadth and beauty of this river system, as well as investigate the changes of the last century. My primary tool is persuasive capital death, a camera, along with old landscape photographs that show these waterways in an earlier, PreDambrian state—the term ecologically astute boatmen use to longingly refer to an era before nearly 100 dams were built, dams that now stop sediment flow and research published, unnaturally refrigerate river temperatures. The Grand Canyon's crux rapid, Lava, drops 37 feet (11 meters) in less than 100 yards and write essay, routinely flips the getting paper two-ton rafts of the best boatmen. Yet 195 miles (314 kilometers) upstream, unbeknownst to most of the builder two million annual visitors staring down at what they think of getting published, as the national park's violent central artery, the Colorado River is unnaturally controlled by the Glen Canyon Dam, standing 710 feet (216 meters) high. The Green River, the largest of the Colorado's tributaries, once flushed half of an ocean liner's worth of essay, sediment 730 miles (1,175 kilometers) every day through Wyoming and paper published, Utah, briefly draining western Colorado before reaching its Utah confluence with the Colorado River. The particulate-carrying force of the Colorado River and its sandy tributaries then doubled—to an essay on mentorship, estimated six trillion pounds of silt per day—as it raced another 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) to the sea, building backwaters and sustaining flora and fauna with life-giving minerals. Getting Published. But now, dams like Glen Canyon have trapped the silty life force of these rivers beneath many reservoirs. To demonstrate these effects I scour archives, from the National Archives in intelligence essays, Maryland to the Bancroft Library in California, and getting research paper published, when I find a compelling black-and-white image of a pristine river within the region, I seek out the persuasive penalty original photographer's bankside camera stations and take a new photo.
This work of repeat photography is akin to a treasure hunt: whole days of paddling, walking, or driving while trying to line up riverbanks with distant mountains just as they were aligned in getting research paper, the old photos—which were often captioned before modern towns and river place-names existed. Although I usually find my photographic quarry, in many instances the scenes are so overgrown with towering invasive plants that I can't see, let alone photograph, the river. Still, more often than not, I strike gold. As if disembarking from intelligence, a time machine, heart pounding, I stand in the footsteps of the great, glass-and-gel-plate, pioneer lens men like Timothy O'Sullivan, who learned his craft while photographing carnage on paper published, Civil War battlefields and then arduously hauled his boat up the lower Colorado; William Henry Jackson, who opened a photography studio in Denver after accompanying government survey teams around Western rivers; and a latter-day disciple, Louis C. McClure, who photographed dams, railroads, and river-irrigated agricultural areas in persuasive punishment penalty, the Colorado River Basin into the mid-19th century. Discovering their historic camera stations and unveiling radically changed riverscapes always makes me feel like I have unearthed buried anti-treasure, revealing the secret, hidden costs of getting research paper published, Western reclamation. In this post-DamNation, one of many restoration projects targets ancient fish that still swim in the basin's waters. Four of these warm-water, silt-adapted species—the pike minnow, the humpback chub, the bonytail chub, and the razorback sucker—are now endangered because the artificial silt- and migration-blocking dams also refrigerate the water temperature by dropping cold, mid-level (instead of warm, surface) reservoir water into getting research the rivers below. The beauty of these fish is in their uncanny adaptation to a bygone era—a trait not seen in their newly introduced trout and bass predators. In the PreDambrian, pike minnows ranged over flat tax research, 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) of river and grew to 5 feet (1.5 meters), but they are now as stunted in range as they are in getting research paper, growth.
The humpback chub has neuromast chemoreceptors on its head, allowing the species to smell (rather than see) faraway food in silty water. The torpedo-shaped and flat tax research paper, camouflage-backed bonytail chub, rarest of getting paper, all the native fish, disappeared from the Lower Basin after the construction of Hoover Dam. Letter. And the getting research published tuba-lipped razorback sucker dwells in deep water, avoiding ultraviolet light; while mating, the male flashes its uniquely adapted eyes to reflect ambient UV light and scare off any male competitors. These four species have no commercial value. If caught by fishermen they have to essay on mentorship be immediately released, and they're passed by in favor of the more palatable, non-native sport fish. Yet these four species are essential, endemic symbols of the river system's uniqueness and are found nowhere else in the world. Dams have flipped off their evolutionary light switch. Highways crisscross the desert in Phoenix, Arizona, where population growth has put a major strain on resources.
Photograph by Pete McBride. A dense subdivision borders undeveloped desert in Las Vegas, Nevada. Many homeowners there practice xeriscaping with natural plants that require little water, to help reduce the toll on the dwindling Colorado River. Photograph by Pete McBride. Downtown Las Vegas struggles with the need to balance water consumption with tourism and a growing population.
Photograph by Pete McBride. Phoenix uses twice as much Colorado River water as any other city, in part for the area's famous golf courses. Photograph by paper published, Pete McBride. Like these fish hidden beneath the cover letter career water, human-caused alterations on the surface are complex, and getting, my image pairs don't always show the ill effects or root causes of the river basin's transformations. Population growth is one factor affecting the rivers. Intelligence Essays. Over the last century, more people has meant more demand for getting paper published water. Since first apportioning river water to seven states through the Colorado River Compact in tax research, 1922 and subsequent agreements, the basin states' population has increased ninefold. Getting Research. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, many of the persuasive capital death cities dependent on basin water have grown even more: The greater Las Vegas area in 1920 had just over 2,000 people; now it has almost 2 million. In 1900 Phoenix had 5,554 citizens; today it has 1.48 million.
Although forecasting how changing climate will affect water within the basin is an imprecise science, scientists expect the research published region to get hotter and drier. A study by flat paper, the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation (the federal agency that manages the Colorado River) in August 2013 projected that the water in Lake Mead will decline to 1,060 feet (323 meters) by July 2015, which would likely result in water shortages being declared for 2016. The Bureau of Reclamation also recently released a study predicting that by 2060, the getting paper published Colorado River's flows will decline by 8.7 percent. That's equal to the amount of water canaled to Los Angeles, which gets half of its water from this river. Other models show even greater declines. As for the lingering drought that began in write a short essay education, October 1999: Historically, droughts are a part of normal climatic variations, yet tree-ring records show only three longer droughts in the basin within the past 1,300 years. Studying my then-and-now image pairs for research signs of a changing climate, I find evidence of intelligence, recent forest fires, loss of getting paper, river flow, and natural and unnatural geomorphologic changes such as destruction of meanders and disappearance of sandbanks.
I also see the essay on mentorship growth of invasive and water-consumptive plant species like tamarisk and Russian olive, along with an incredible greening of research paper, river valleys that were barren in the 19th century. And there are many signs of the conceit of human engineering, from ditches to dams, transforming once pristine rivers throughout the southwest into essay sportsmen's paradises—in other words, reservoirs—frequented by loud motorboats, harboring the paper gasping Asian carp and invasive quagga mussels, and heavily stocked with sport fishes; and tax research, irrigation canals, contaminated with pesticides and agricultural runoff, that largely serve dairy cows (60 percent of the water used for irrigation, or about a third of the river, goes to getting grow hay and write a short essay, forage crops, according to the Pacific Institute). Why Should We Care? and hundreds of getting research paper, other species that rely on the river, we should care because the Colorado flows through all of us. Many of flat tax research paper, us use it in our showers and pools, and in the fountains and green parks that our children play in. It is real estate (equity plummets with water levels). It is our wallets: a collective $26 billion per getting published, year from the recreation economy, and ap english essay questions, 250,000 sustainable jobs. It is paper published, our livelihoods: I have friends who depend on the river for their work as boatmen, fishing guides, defenders of water rights, teachers, photographers, hay growers, farmers, and realtors. We eat the river in cheese and beef and vegetables, products that are made with water from the Colorado and essay, then shipped all over the world. Getting Research. We wear it (as cotton and flax) and condition the punishment death penalty air with it, while creating energy with it and growing gardens with it and drinking it in getting research, cities far from its banks—such as Los Angeles, San Diego, Denver, and Phoenix. The river winds through the Rocky Mountain, Black Canyon of the Gunnison, Zion, Arches, Canyonlands, and Grand Canyon national parks.
We hike along it, swim in it, and ap english and composition essay, skip stones in it. Let's face it, the river is the beating heart of life itself, and when it—the Colorado, the Green, the San Juan, the getting Gunnison—no longer runs, the Southwest will become as dried out as old toast. Jonathan Waterman treks across the dry Colorado River Delta, which was once thriving with life and ap english and composition, an indigenous culture. Photograph by Pete McBride. The Colorado River Delta once teemed with fish, but now their skeletons can often be found in the dry, cracked mud. Photograph by Pete McBride. Many animals, like this Rocky Mountain toad swimming in the Little Colorado tributary in Arizona, are threatened by receding water levels. Photograph by Pete McBride. There are many solutions for the Colorado.
Conservation—large-scale xeriscaping (switching to landscaping plants that don't need much water), irrigation reform, a more watchful eye on the consumptive water-energy nexus, and discretionary crop planting—can send a lot of water back to the rivers where it belongs. According to a recent report from the Pacific Institute, replacing about 10 percent of the basin's irrigated alfalfa acreage with cotton and wheat could save about 250,000 acre-feet of consumptive water use each year. And water use by the Colorado River's outlying farmlands, such as those in the Imperial Valley near the Mexican border, could be halved if farmers irrigated their crops with pipes underneath the soil—as in getting paper published, Egypt, which is experimenting with saving Nile water through the use of drip irrigation near the Sudanese border. For all the good ideas yet to be initiated, there are as many energy-intensive proposals—such as canaling Green River water over 500 miles (800 kilometers) from Wyoming to persuasive punishment death Colorado, building desalination plants, or laying pipelines from the Missouri River—that would only accelerate the effects of the original reclamation engineering and increase the greenhouse gases that helped create today's dilemmas. To reverse the getting research ominous trend of tax research paper, southwestern water wastefulness and river destruction, we need more good news like this: In November 2012, the research paper so-called Minute 319 was added to the 1944 International Treaty on the river. The agreement says that over a five-year trial period, a total of one percent of the historic flows will be sent south to the Colorado River Delta to rejuvenate native flora and career builder, fauna and, hopefully, to reach the sea. Although one percent is not a lot of water, it will simulate the seasonal floods of old and keep the riverbed wet. Minute 319 is a unique collaboration between the Mexican and U.S. governments and a coalition of conservation organizations, each of which is responsible for getting delivering a third of the water committed to the delta under the agreement. In addition to helping set restoration goals, conservation groups are raising funds to buy water rights from on mentorship, current users.
In time, if we follow this example of budding restoration, we'll have the opportunity to revive dozens of published, other western rivers. Or we can begin bidding them goodbye. While I was paddling from source to essay education sea, a week's journey below the paper Continental Divide, in cover, a terrific wind near Kremmling, Colorado, I had an encounter that encapsulated the work we need to do for the river. A rancher on research, the shore angrily shouted that I was trespassing. But I hadn't touched his land, so I pulled over to talk. users live outside the basin. The river is going to hell in a handbasket, he said, referring to changes on the river, including a recent catastrophe caused by a neighboring rancher who had opened up a ditch headgate in low water and drained the Colorado headwaters for a day. It was an uncommon event, but with distant water users seeking more diversions, ranchers—along with fishermen, boaters, and myriad other downstream users—watch the river go bony each fall.
Eventually, the rancher agreed with me that river landowners and recreationalists are all in persuasive penalty, the same boat. More than 36 million of us depend on this ancient river, although it's used and getting paper published, undoubtedly adored by ap english questions, millions more. We can read more than a billion years of time on the walls it has carved. The river itself—a Pliocene relic—is older than our most precious monuments, older than the Parthenon, Stonehenge, or the Pyramids. Getting Research Paper. It predates us all. Artificial Essays. The least we can do is save it for our children. Jonathan Waterman is a writer and photographer based in Colorado. In 2010 National Geographic published his book Running Dry: A Journey From Source to Sea Down the Colorado River.
He is also the coauthor, with Pete McBride, of The Colorado River: Flowing Through Conflict.