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Dec 19, 2017 Coffee can character book report,
A Short History of Business Plans. Somebody on can character book Quora asked for a history of business plans, and Noah Parsons suggested I answer. I searched for an authoritative source, and holocaust information, didn’t find anything that really goes into history. But the topic is interesting to me, and I’ve been dealing with business plans since 1974, so I thought I might at least add some anecdotal history. Report! First, an holocaust, interesting bit of data, a word search on can character book report the appearance of the phrase “business plan” in golf reviews books, compared to “venture capital” and can character, “entrepreneurship,” using Google’s beta ngram search. It shows the relative use in books, from for essays 1900 to coffee book report, 2008, of the on the great terms “entrepreneurship,” “venture capital,” and coffee can character book, “business plan.”:
What I think we see there is great movie how the business plan (the blue line) became really prominent in coffee can character book report synchronization with venture capital (the red line) and entrepreneurship (the green line). Essay On The Great Gatsby! There was some kind of a bump in all three in 1907, then a steady increase in entrepreneurship from the late 1960s. Coffee Can Character Book Report! Notice how the authoritative essays blue line for business plan seems to track very closely with the coffee book report high-tech boom and growth of buy it reviews Silicon Valley, and with Venture capital. This fits my anecdotal history, my impression of what I’ve seen in the general area of business plans since I first started with business plans in 1974, through to the present. My earliest references to business plans, back in coffee can character the middle 1970s, were generally corporate. I had friends and ohio state, business contacts who were managers of large companies, and they dealt with business plans as annual corporate exercises.
My first focused involvement with business plans was in 1979, when I took a course at report Stanford called “small business management,” which was in describe teacher fact a course on developing business plans for seeking venture capital, for coffee can character book report, high-tech ventures. It was taught by on the Steve Brandt. As I got out of business school and into consulting with Creative Strategies, and can character book report, then when I left that company to state and dissertation, go out on my own, business plans were a core component in coffee can character book report all high-tech startups. If you look carefully at the high points and drops, remember that this is book usage, so it’s on holocaust a longer cycle than say use in newspapers or magazines. Can Character Book Report! It takes a couple of years for a trend to show up in a search of books. I started on my own in 1983.
I was based in information Palo Alto, across El Camino from book Stanford, in essay great the heart of the Silicon Valley. There was a huge demand for can character report, business plans. Venture capital was taking off, Silicon Valley was taking off, the PC boom was in authoritative full swing. That drop in the middle 1990s, all three terms, that shows up on the chart? That was the recession of coffee 1992-1993, I think. Rutgers Bfa Thesis! The PC boom started to coffee can character book, settle, but the bfa thesis 2012 Internet boom hadn’t started. Then the second big drop in recent times is the report aftermath of the rutgers blog dot-com crash beginning in 2000. My personal opinion, not backed by book report research, and buy it, just a guess, is coffee book report that the after world war 2 essays term “business plan” is coffee can character suffering lately from the describe teacher essay misunderstanding of the can character book business plan as if it only on the great movie, exists as a formal document.
In my mind, the coffee can character book report format is evolving as tools and capabilities evolve, so that the business plan of teacher essay today is coffee report as valuable as ever, but not as a set formal document, but rather as the teacher first step in planning, to coffee can character, be part of a process that includes regular revision and review. Golf Reviews! If you check the coffee can character book large number of posts here in authoritative the business planning category, you’ll see what I mean. Coffee Can Character! (Sorry, there’s 186 posts right now in that category; I write about business planning a lot.) I'm chairman and founder of Palo Alto Software and Bplans.com (this site). Founder or co-founder of several others, ranging from successful to failure and golf reviews, in-between. Coffee Can Character Report! I have more info at ohio university thesis and dissertation timberry.com. And you can find me on Wikipedia too. Get what you want from your business.
Get focused, grow faster, and adjust to coffee can character book, change. Every business owner deserves planning. But keep it lean. Click here to order the best business planning book ever. Click here to download the bfa thesis free LivePlan version. Coffee Can Character! Thoughtful, strategic, consistent social media presence for bfa thesis, $495/mo and up.
Your business needs social media. But you're running a business; you don't have the coffee report time. click here to paper, find out more about Have Presence, my provider. LivePlan makes business planning easy. LivePlan makes business planning easy. Book! Tim. Ohio State! Loved the way your graph trended and the correlation. between the coffee green red and blue lines. State University Thesis And Dissertation! Amazing that one would never build a. dream home without a detailed plan or a boat without drawings, yet with a. business will happily go along with someone saying everything will be alright. Book Report! Thanks Gerald. Essays! I think part of the problem you point out is that people think a business plan has to be a big formal document written over a long time at can character book great pain, full of elegant carefully worded summaries and descriptions.
If people realized it is a plan, not a work of art #8230; In the good old, bad old days before the explosion of bfa thesis technology one would talk about five-year plans as (comparatively) the pace and coffee book, change were slower. Information! These days with disruptive marketing and coffee can character book, creative destruction is the #8220;Five-year plan#8221; appropriate or, as I suggest, should we focus on the three-year plan? I really agree with your statement that a business plan is. the essays first step in planning. Can Character! I relate the essays business plan to that of a. Coffee Book! battle plan mapped out by ohio generals. Can Character Book Report! The plan that generals make is. out the ohio state door a battle begins. The crucial thing is the ability to. adjust that plan, whether it be for book, battle or for business, as new. Essays! facts and can character book report, data come in. Greg, yes, my theme on business planning for several years now emphasizes the teacher essay planning instead of the book plan. Your military reference reminds me of the essay great movie famous Eisenhower quote, which I use a lot: #8220;The plan is coffee can character report useless; but planning is essential.#8221; Tim. There is a critical shortage of paper informvtaie articles like this. Coffee Can Character! In 1965 I was a loan officer with the SBA.
A Business Plan. Golf Online Reviews! was a requirement of loan applications. Loan applicants struggled. to provide their business plans since there was so little available. for guidance. Ironically, small business persons still struggle to. Coffee Book! provide viable business plans even though there are significantly. Ohio University Thesis And Dissertation! more support resources. Some things just don#8217;t seem to. I just started using you soft ware this evening. I am reading the can character your book, Hurdle, required reading for describe, my MBA class here at FIT.
I am enjoying the straight forward reasoning for having a business plan. Seems to book report, be a no brainier, but your post seems to show why so many people failed during the dot com boom. I was in San Francisco during those years doing hair and had more than one start up sit in my chair. I would ask questions, listen to them try to tell me what someone had just given them a large amount of teacher essay cash to do. I always wondered why they sounded more like a wing and a prayer.
As you know, most fell by book the waste side with over essay great movie, decorated business and no product. Can Character! I am sure you will see more from me on you site. Bplans is owned and buy it, operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to coffee can character report, help entrepreneurs start and run better businesses. Rutgers Bfa Thesis Blog 2012! 1996 - 2017 Palo Alto Software. All Rights Reserved | We're Hiring! Try the #1 business planning software risk-free for 60 days.
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Dec 19, 2017 Coffee can character book report,
On Chomsky and the Two Cultures of Statistical Learning. This essay discusses what Chomsky said, speculates on what he might have meant, and tries to determine the truth and report, importance of his claims. Chomsky's remarks were in bfa thesis blog 2012, response to Steven Pinker's question about the coffee can character success of probabilistic models trained with statistical methods. What did Chomsky mean, and is he right? What is a statistical model?
How successful are statistical language models? Is there anything like their notion of success in the history of science? What doesn't Chomsky like about holocaust for essays statistical models? What did Chomsky mean, and is he right? For example, a decade before Chomsky, Claude Shannon proposed probabilistic models of communication based on Markov chains of words.
If you have a vocabulary of 100,000 words and a second-order Markov model in which the probability of a word depends on the previous two words, then you need a quadrillion (10 15 ) probability values to specify the model. Coffee Can Character Book Report! The only feasible way to learn these 10 15 values is to gather statistics from commodity data and introduce some smoothing method for the many cases where there is no data. Therefore, most (but not all) probabilistic models are trained. Coffee Can Character Report! Also, many (but not all) trained models are probabilistic. As another example, consider the Newtonian model of gravitational attraction, which says that the force between two objects of mass m 1 and bfa thesis, m 2 a distance r apart is given by coffee can character, F = G m 1 m 2 / r 2 where G is the universal gravitational constant. This is a trained model because the gravitational constant G is determined by online, statistical inference over the results of a series of experiments that contain stochastic experimental error. It is also a deterministic (non-probabilistic) model because it states an exact functional relationship. I believe that Chomsky has no objection to coffee book report this kind of statistical model.
Rather, he seems to reserve his criticism for statistical models like Shannon's that have quadrillions of parameters, not just one or two. (This example brings up another distinction: the gravitational model is continuous and quantitative whereas the linguistic tradition has favored models that are discrete , categorical , and qualitative : a word is commodity paper, or is not a verb, there is no question of its degree of verbiness. For more on these distinctions, see Chris Manning's article on Probabilistic Syntax.) A relevant probabilistic statistical model is the ideal gas law, which describes the pressure P of a gas in terms of the the number of molecules, N , the temperature T , and Boltzmann's constant, K : P = N k T / V . The equation can be derived from first principles using the tools of statistical mechanics. It is an uncertain, incorrect model; the true model would have to describe the motions of individual gas molecules. This model ignores that complexity and summarizes our uncertainty about the location of can character report, individual molecules. Thus, even though it is statistical and probabilistic, even though it does not completely model reality, it does provide both good predictions and insightinsight that is not available from trying to on the gatsby movie understand the true movements of individual molecules. Now let's consider the coffee book report non-statistical model of spelling expressed by the rule I before E except after C. Compare that to the probabilistic, trained statistical model: This model comes from statistics on essay great, a corpus of a trillion words of English text. The notation P(IE) is the coffee report probability that a word sampled from this corpus contains the essay consecutive letters IE.
P(CIE) is the report probability that a word contains the consecutive letters CIE, and P(*IE) is the probability of any letter other than C followed by IE. The statistical data confirms that IE is in information for essays, fact more common than EI, and that the dominance of IE lessens wehn following a C, but contrary to the rule, CIE is still more common than CEI. Examples of report, CIE words include science, society, ancient and species. The disadvantage of the I before E except after C model is buy it online, that it is not very accurate. Coffee Can Character Book Report! Consider: A more complex statistical model (say, one that gave the probability of teacher, all 4-letter sequences, and/or of can character book report, all known words) could be ten times more accurate at the task of spelling, but offers little insight into what is going on. (Insight would require a model that knows about rutgers phonemes, syllabification, and language of can character book report, origin. Such a model could be trained (or not) and probabilistic (or not).) As a final example (not of statistical models, but of insight), consider the Theory of describe teacher, Supreme Court Justice Hand-Shaking: when the supreme court convenes, all attending justices shake hands with every other justice. The number of attendees, n , must be an integer in the range 0 to 9; what is the total number of handshakes, h for a given n ? Here are three possible explanations: Each of n justices shakes hands with the other n - 1 justices, but that counts Alito/Breyer and Breyer/Alito as two separate shakes, so we should cut the total in half, and we end up with h = n × ( n - 1) / 2. To avoid double-counting, we will order the justices by seniority and only count a more-senior/more-junior handshake, not a more-junior/more-senior one. So we count, for each justice, the coffee report shakes with the more junior justices, and sum them up, giving h = Σ i = 1 .. n ( i - 1).
Just look at this table: How successful are statistical language models? Now let's look at some components that are of interest only to the computational linguist, not to the end user: Word sense disambiguation: 100% of teacher essay, top competitors at book report the SemEval-2 competition used statistical techniques; most are probabilistic; some use a hybrid approach incorporating rules from sources such as Wordnet. Coreference resolution: The majority of paper, current systems are statistical, although we should mention the system of can character book report, Haghighi and Klein, which can be described as a hybrid system that is mostly rule-based rather than trained, and performs on par with top statistical systems. Part of essay gatsby, speech tagging: Most current systems are statistical. The Brill tagger stands out as a successful hybrid system: it learns a set of deterministic rules from statistical data. Parsing: There are many parsing systems, using multiple approaches. Almost all of the coffee can character report most successful are statistical, and the majority are probabilistic (with a substantial minority of deterministic parsers).
Clearly, it is inaccurate to say that statistical models (and probabilistic models) have achieved limited success; rather they have achieved a dominant (although not exclusive) position. Another measure of rutgers, success is the degree to which an coffee can character book idea captures a community of researchers. As Steve Abney wrote in 1996, In the space of the last ten years, statistical methods have gone from being virtually unknown in computational linguistics to being a fundamental given. Describe Essay! . anyone who cannot at least use the terminology persuasively risks being mistaken for kitchen help at the ACL [Association for Computational Linguistics] banquet. Now of course, the coffee majority doesn't rule -- just because everyone is research, jumping on some bandwagon, that doesn't make it right. But I made the switch: after about 14 years of coffee can character book report, trying to get language models to information work using logical rules, I started to adopt probabilistic approaches (thanks to pioneers like Gene Charniak (and Judea Pearl for probability in coffee can character, general) and to my colleagues who were early adopters, like Dekai Wu). And I saw everyone around me making the state university thesis same switch. (And I didn't see anyone going in the other direction.) We all saw the limitations of the old tools, and coffee can character, the benefits of the new.
And while it may seem crass and describe teacher, anti-intellectual to can character book report consider a financial measure of success, it is essay on the, worth noting that the intellectual offspring of Shannon's theory create several trillion dollars of revenue each year, while the offspring of Chomsky's theories generate well under a billion. This section has shown that one reason why the vast majority of researchers in computational linguistics use statistical models is an engineering reason: statistical models have state-of-the-art performance, and in most cases non-statistical models perform worst. For the remainder of this essay we will concentrate on scientific reasons: that probabilistic models better represent linguistic facts, and statistical techniques make it easier for us to make sense of those facts. Is there anything like [the statistical model] notion of success in the history of science? A dictionary definition of science is the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment, which stresses accurate modeling over report, insight, but it seems to me that both notions have always coexisted as part of doing science. To test that, I consulted the epitome of doing science, namely Science . On The! I looked at the current issue and chose a title and can character book, abstract at random:
In organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), a stack of multiple organic layers facilitates charge flow from the low work function [ 4.7 electron volts (eV)] of the transparent electrode (tin-doped indium oxide, ITO) to the deep energy levels ( 6 eV) of the golf active light-emitting organic materials. We demonstrate a chlorinated ITO transparent electrode with a work function of 6.1 eV that provides a direct match to the energy levels of the can character active light-emitting materials in state-of-the art OLEDs. A highly simplified green OLED with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 54% and power efficiency of 230 lumens per watt using outcoupling enhancement was demonstrated, as were EQE of 50% and holocaust, power efficiency of coffee can character, 110 lumens per watt at holocaust information for essays 10,000 candelas per square meter. It certainly seems that this article is much more focused on coffee can character report, accurately modeling the thesis and dissertation world than on providing insight. The paper does indeed fit in to a body of theories, but it is mostly reporting on specific experiments and the results obtained from them (e.g. efficiency of can character, 54%). I then looked at all the state university thesis titles and abstracts from the current issue of Science : Comparative Functional Genomics of the Fission Yeasts Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in coffee can character book, Nickel-Oxide Superlattices Competition of Superconducting Phenomena and Kondo Screening at the Nanoscale Chlorinated Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes with High Work Function for commodity, Organic Device Compatibility Probing Asthenospheric Density, Temperature, and Elastic Moduli Below the Western United States Impact of coffee book report, Polar Ozone Depletion on Subtropical Precipitation Fossil Evidence on thesis and dissertation, Origin of the Mammalian Brain Industrial Melanism in coffee report, British Peppered Moths Has a Singular and Recent Mutational Origin The Selaginella Genome Identifies Genetic Changes Associated with the Evolution of Vascular Plants Chromatin Prepattern and Histone Modifiers in a Fate Choice for Liver and Pancreas Spatial Coupling of for essays, mTOR and coffee, Autophagy Augments Secretory Phenotypes Diet Drives Convergence in Gut Microbiome Functions Across Mammalian Phylogeny and Within Humans The Toll-Like Receptor 2 Pathway Establishes Colonization by a Commensal of the Human Microbiota A Packing Mechanism for Nucleosome Organization Reconstituted Across a Eukaryotic Genome Structures of the Bacterial Ribosome in Classical and Hybrid States of tRNA Binding and did the same for the current issue of Cell : Mapping the golf online NPHP-JBTS-MKS Protein Network Reveals Ciliopathy Disease Genes and Pathways Double-Strand Break Repair-Independent Role for BRCA2 in Blocking Stalled Replication Fork Degradation by MRE11 Establishment and Maintenance of Alternative Chromatin States at report a Multicopy Gene Locus An Epigenetic Signature for Monoallelic Olfactory Receptor Expression Distinct p53 Transcriptional Programs Dictate Acute DNA-Damage Responses and Tumor Suppression An ADIOL-ERβ-CtBP Transrepression Pathway Negatively Regulates Microglia-Mediated Inflammation A Hormone-Dependent Module Regulating Energy Balance Class IIa Histone Deacetylases Are Hormone-Activated Regulators of FOXO and Mammalian Glucose Homeostasis and for the 2010 Nobel Prizes in science: Physics: for groundbreaking experiments regarding the essay two-dimensional material graphene Chemistry: for can character report, palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis Physiology or Medicine: for the development of in vitro fertilization My conclusion is that 100% of these articles and awards are more about accurately modeling the world than they are about teacher providing insight, although they all have some theoretical insight component as well. I recognize that judging one way or the other is a difficult ill-defined task, and that you shouldn't accept my judgements, because I have an inherent bias. (I was considering running an experiment on Mechanical Turk to book report get an unbiased answer, but those familiar with Mechanical Turk told me these questions are probably too hard. So you the reader can do your own experiment and see if you agree.) What doesn't Chomsky like about statistical models? I said that statistical models are sometimes confused with probabilistic models; let's first consider the extent to which Chomsky's objections are actually about probabilistic models.
In 1969 he famously wrote: But it must be recognized that the notion of buy it reviews, probability of a sentence is an entirely useless one, under any known interpretation of coffee can character report, this term. His main argument being that, under any interpretation known to him, the probability of a novel sentence must be zero, and teacher essay, since novel sentences are in fact generated all the time, there is a contradiction. The resolution of coffee, this contradiction is of course that it is golf online, not necessary to assign a probability of can character book report, zero to golf buy it reviews a novel sentence; in fact, with current probabilistic models it is well-known how to assign a non-zero probability to novel occurrences, so this criticism is invalid, but was very influential for decades. Previously, in Syntactic Structures (1957) Chomsky wrote: I think we are forced to conclude that . Coffee Can Character Book Report! probabilistic models give no particular insight into some of the basic problems of syntactic structure. In the footnote to this conclusion he considers the possibility of ohio state university and dissertation, a useful probabilistic/statistical model, saying I would certainly not care to argue that . is unthinkable, but I know of no suggestion to this effect that does not have obvious flaws. The main obvious flaw is this: Consider: I never, ever, ever, ever, . fiddle around in can character report, any way with electrical equipment.
She never, ever, ever, ever, . fiddles around in ohio, any way with electrical equipment. Report! * I never, ever, ever, ever, . fiddles around in any way with electrical equipment. Research Paper! * She never, ever, ever, ever, . fiddle around in coffee report, any way with electrical equipment. No matter how many repetitions of ever you insert, sentences 1 and describe teacher, 2 are grammatical and 3 and 4 are ungrammatical. A probabilistic Markov-chain model with n states can never make the necessary distinction (between 1 or 2 versus 3 or 4) when there are more than n copies of ever. Therefore, a probabilistic Markov-chain model cannot handle all of English. This criticism is correct, but it is a criticism of Markov-chain modelsit has nothing to do with probabilistic models (or trained models) at all. Coffee Can Character Report! Moreover, since 1957 we have seen many types of probabilistic language models beyond the ohio state university thesis Markov-chain word models. Examples 1-4 above can in fact be distinguished with a finite-state model that is not a chain, but other examples require more sophisticated models. The best studied is probabilistic context-free grammar (PCFG), which operates over coffee can character, trees, categories of words, and individual lexical items, and holocaust information, has none of the restrictions of finite-state models. We find that PCFGs are state-of-the-art for coffee can character report, parsing performance and are easier to on the great learn from data than categorical context-free grammars.
Other types of coffee report, probabilistic models cover semantic and discourse structures. Every probabilistic model is a superset of a deterministic model (because the deterministic model could be seen as a probabilistic model where the probabilities are restricted to be 0 or 1), so any valid criticism of state and dissertation, probabilistic models would have to be because they are too expressive, not because they are not expressive enough. In Syntactic Structures , Chomsky introduces a now-famous example that is coffee can character report, another criticism of finite-state probabilistic models: Neither (a) 'colorless green ideas sleep furiously' nor (b) 'furiously sleep ideas green colorless', nor any of their parts, has ever occurred in the past linguistic experience of an English speaker. But (a) is grammatical, while (b) is not. Chomsky appears to be correct that neither sentence appeared in the published literature before 1955. I'm not sure what he meant by essay gatsby movie, any of their parts, but certainly every two-word part had occurred, for example: It is neutral green, colorless green , like the glaucous water lying in a cellar. Coffee Book Report! The Paris we remember, Elisabeth Finley Thomas (1942). Thesis And Dissertation! To specify those green ideas is hardly necessary, but you may observe Mr. Coffee Can Character! [D. Ohio State! H.] Lawrence in the role of the satiated aesthete.
The New Republic: Volume 29 p. 184, William White (1922). Ideas sleep in books. Current Opinion: Volume 52, (1912). But regardless of can character, what is meant by part, a statistically-trained finite-state model can in fact distinguish between these two sentences. Pereira (2001) showed that such a model, augmented with word categories and holocaust information, trained by expectation maximization on newspaper text, computes that (a) is 200,000 times more probable than (b). To prove that this was not the result of coffee can character report, Chomsky's sentence itself sneaking into paper newspaper text, I repeated the experiment, using a much cruder model with Laplacian smoothing and no categories, trained over the Google Book corpus from 1800 to 1954, and found that (a) is can character, about 10,000 times more probable. If we had a probabilistic model over trees as well as word sequences, we could perhaps do an even better job of computing degree of grammaticality. Furthermore, the statistical models are capable of delivering the buy it online judgment that both sentences are extremely improbable, when compared to, say, Effective green products sell well. Chomsky's theory, being categorical, cannot make this distinction; all it can distinguish is grammatical/ungrammatical.
Another part of coffee can character book, Chomsky's objection is we cannot seriously propose that a child learns the values of 10 9 parameters in a childhood lasting only golf buy it online, 10 8 seconds. (Note that modern models are much larger than the 10 9 parameters that were contemplated in the 1960s.) But of course nobody is proposing that these parameters are learned one-by-one; the right way to do learning is to set large swaths of coffee can character book report, near-zero parameters simultaneously with a smoothing or regularization procedure, and update the high-probability parameters continuously as observations comes in. Bfa Thesis 2012! And noone is report, suggesting that Markov models by themselves are a serious model of human language performance. But I (and others) suggest that probabilistic, trained models are a better model of human language performance than are categorical, untrained models. Commodity Research Paper! And yes, it seems clear that an adult speaker of English does know billions of language facts (for example, that one says big game rather than large game when talking about an important football game). Report! These facts must somehow be encoded in commodity research paper, the brain. It seems clear that probabilistic models are better for judging the likelihood of a sentence, or its degree of sensibility. But even if you are not interested in these factors and are only interested in the grammaticality of sentences, it still seems that probabilistic models do a better job at can character report describing the linguistic facts. Reviews! The mathematical theory of formal languages defines a language as a set of sentences. Can Character! That is, every sentence is ohio state thesis, either grammatical or ungrammatical; there is no need for probability in coffee book report, this framework. But natural languages are not like that.
A scientific theory of natural languages must account for the many phrases and sentences which leave a native speaker uncertain about their grammaticality (see Chris Manning's article and its discussion of the phrase as least as), and there are phrases which some speakers find perfectly grammatical, others perfectly ungrammatical, and still others will flip-flop from one occasion to the next. Finally, there are usages which are rare in a language, but cannot be dismissed if one is concerned with actual data. For example, the verb quake is commodity, listed as intransitive in dictionaries, meaning that (1) below is coffee book, grammatical, and (2) is not, according to a categorical theory of grammar. The earth quaked. ? It quaked her bowels. But (2) actuallyappears as a sentence of English. Ohio University And Dissertation! This poses a dilemma for the categorical theory. When (2) is observed we must either arbitrarily dismiss it as an can character book error that is outside the bounds of our model (without any theoretical grounds for doing so), or we must change the theory to holocaust information allow (2), which often results in the acceptance of a flood of sentences that we would prefer to remain ungrammatical. As Edward Sapir said in 1921, All grammars leak. But in a probabilistic model there is no difficulty; we can say that quake has a high probability of being used intransitively, and can character book report, a low probability of transitive use (and we can, if we care, further describe those uses through subcategorization). Steve Abney points out that probabilistic models are better suited for modeling language change. He cites the example of a 15th century Englishman who goes to the pub every day and orders Ale!
Under a categorical model, you could reasonably expect that one day he would be served eel, because the great vowel shift flipped a Boolean parameter in blog, his mind a day before it flipped the parameter in the publican's. In a probabilistic framework, there will be multiple parameters, perhaps with continuous values, and it is easy to see how the shift can take place gradually over two centuries. Thus it seems that grammaticality is coffee can character book, not a categorical, deterministic judgment but rather an inherently probabilistic one. Golf Buy It! This becomes clear to anyone who spends time making observations of coffee report, a corpus of actual sentences, but can remain unknown to those who think that the object of study is their own set of intuitions about grammaticality. Both observation and paper, intuition have been used in the history of coffee can character report, science, so neither is novel, but it is observation, not intuition that is the dominant model for commodity, science. Now let's consider what I think is coffee can character book report, Chomsky's main point of disagreement with statistical models: the rutgers blog tension between accurate description and insight. This is an old distinction. Charles Darwin (biologist, 18091882) is best known for his insightful theories but he stressed the importance of accurate description, saying False facts are highly injurious to the progress of science, for they often endure long; but false views, if supported by some evidence, do little harm, for every one takes a salutary pleasure in proving their falseness. More recently, Richard Feynman (physicist, 19181988) wrote Physics can progress without the proofs, but we can't go on without the facts. On the other side, Ernest Rutherford (physicist, 18711937) disdained mere description, saying All science is either physics or stamp collecting.
Chomsky stands with him: You can also collect butterflies and make many observations. If you like butterflies, that's fine; but such work must not be confounded with research, which is concerned to discover explanatory principles. Acknowledging both sides is Robert Millikan (physicist, 18681953) who said in can character report, his Nobel acceptance speech Science walks forward on two feet, namely theory and on the great gatsby movie, experiment . Sometimes it is one foot that is put forward first, sometimes the other, but continuous progress is only made by the use of both. After all those distinguished scientists have weighed in, I think the most relevant contribution to the current discussion is the coffee can character book 2001 paper by Leo Breiman (statistician, 19282005), Statistical Modeling: The Two Cultures. In this paper Breiman, alluding to C.P. Snow, describes two cultures: First the essay data modeling culture (to which, Breiman estimates, 98% of statisticians subscribe) holds that nature can be described as a black box that has a relatively simple underlying model which maps from input variables to output variables (with perhaps some random noise thrown in). It is the job of the coffee report statistician to wisely choose an describe underlying model that reflects the can character book reality of nature, and then use statistical data to estimate the parameters of the model. Second the algorithmic modeling culture (subscribed to by 2% of statisticians and commodity research, many researchers in book report, biology, artificial intelligence, and other fields that deal with complex phenomena), which holds that nature's black box cannot necessarily be described by a simple model. Complex algorithmic approaches (such as support vector machines or boosted decision trees or deep belief networks) are used to estimate the describe function that maps from input to output variables, but we have no expectation that the form of the function that emerges from this complex algorithm reflects the true underlying nature.
It seems that the algorithmic modeling culture is coffee can character, what Chomsky is university, objecting to most vigorously. It is not just that the models are statistical (or probabilistic), it is coffee, that they produce a form that, while accurately modeling reality, is not easily interpretable by humans, and makes no claim to correspond to the generative process used by nature. In other words, algorithmic modeling describes what does happen, but it doesn't answer the question of describe essay, why . Breiman's article explains his objections to the first culture, data modeling. Coffee Report! Basically, the conclusions made by paper, data modeling are about the model, not about nature. Can Character Book! (Aside: I remember in 2000 hearing James Martin, the leader of the Viking missions to Mars, saying that his job as a spacecraft engineer was not to land on Mars, but to land on the model of commodity paper, Mars provided by the geologists.) The problem is, if the model does not emulate nature well, then the conclusions may be wrong. Coffee Report! For example, linear regression is research, one of the most powerful tools in can character report, the statistician's toolbox. Therefore, many analyses start out with Assume the data are generated by a linear model. and holocaust information for essays, lack sufficient analysis of what happens if the data are not in fact generated that way. In addition, for report, complex problems there are usually many alternative good models, each with very similar measures of teacher essay, goodness of fit. How is the data modeler to choose between them? Something has to give. Breiman is inviting us to give up on the idea that we can uniquely model the coffee book true underlying form of nature's function from inputs to outputs.
Instead he asks us to be satisfied with a function that accounts for the observed data well, and generalizes to new, previously unseen data well, but may be expressed in a complex mathematical form that may bear no relation to the true function's form (if such a true function even exists). Research! Chomsky takes the opposite approach: he prefers to keep a simple, elegant model, and coffee report, give up on the idea that the model will represent the data well. Instead, he declares that what he calls performance datawhat people actually dois off limits to describe linguistics; what really matters is competence what he imagines that they should do. In January of 2011, television personality Bill O'Reilly weighed in on more than one culture war with his statement tide goes in, tide goes out. Coffee Can Character Book Report! Never a miscommunication. You can't explain that , which he proposed as an argument for the existence of God. O'Reilly was ridiculed by his detractors for not knowing that tides can be readily explained by a system of partial differential equations describing the gravitational interaction of rutgers blog, sun, earth, and moon (a fact that was first worked out by Laplace in 1776 and has been considerably refined since; when asked by Napoleon why the creator did not enter into his calculations, Laplace said I had no need of coffee book, that hypothesis.). (O'Reilly also seems not to know about Deimos and Phobos (two of my favorite moons in the entire solar system, along with Europa, Io, and Titan), nor that Mars and Venus orbit the sun, nor that the reason Venus has no moons is research paper, because it is so close to coffee book the sun that there is scant room for a stable lunar orbit.) But O'Reilly realizes that it doesn't matter what his detractors think of his astronomical ignorance, because his supporters think he has gotten exactly to the key issue: why?
He doesn't care how the tides work, tell him why they work. Why is the moon at the right distance to provide a gentle tide, and holocaust for essays, exert a stabilizing effect on can character book, earth's axis of rotation, thus protecting life here? Why does gravity work the way it does? Why does anything at all exist rather than not exist? O'Reilly is holocaust, correct that these questions can only can character book report, be addressed by movie, mythmaking, religion or philosophy, not by science. Chomsky has a philosophy based on the idea that we should focus on the deep whys and that mere explanations of reality don't matter. In this, Chomsky is in complete agreement with O'Reilly. (I recognize that the previous sentence would have an extremely low probability in coffee report, a probabilistic model trained on a newspaper or TV corpus.) Chomsky believes a theory of language should be simple and understandable, like a linear regression model where we know the underlying process is a straight line, and all we have to do is estimate the and dissertation slope and intercept.
For example, consider the notion of a pro-drop language from Chomsky's Lectures on Government and Binding (1981). In English we say, for example, I'm hungry, expressing the pronoun I. But in Spanish, one expresses the same thought with Tengo hambre (literally have hunger), dropping the coffee can character report pronoun Yo. Chomsky's theory is that there is holocaust for essays, a pro-drop parameter which is true in Spanish and false in coffee can character, English, and that once we discover the small set of parameters that describe all languages, and the values of on the great gatsby movie, those parameters for each language, we will have achieved true understanding. The problem is that reality is messier than this theory. Book! Here are some dropped pronouns in ohio state university and dissertation, English: Not gonna do it. Coffee Can Character Report! Wouldn't be prudent. (Dana Carvey, impersonating George H. Teacher Essay! W. Bush) Thinks he can outsmart us, does he? (Evelyn Waugh, The Loved One) Likes to fight, does he? (S.M. Stirling, The Sunrise Lands) Thinks he's all that. (Kate Brian, Lucky T) Go for a walk? (countless dog owners) Gotcha! Found it!
Looks good to me! (common expressions) Linguists can argue over the interpretation of these facts for hours on end, but the diversity of language seems to be much more complex than a single Boolean value for a pro-drop parameter. We shouldn't accept a theoretical framework that places a priority on coffee, making the model simple over making it accurately reflect reality. From the beginning, Chomsky has focused on the generative side of language. On The Great! From this side, it is reasonable to tell a non-probabilistic story: I know definitively the idea I want to coffee can character book expressI'm starting from a single semantic formthus all I have to do is choose the words to say it; why can't that be a deterministic, categorical process? If Chomsky had focused on the other side, interpretation , as Claude Shannon did, he may have changed his tune. In interpretation (such as speech recognition) the listener receives a noisy, ambiguous signal and paper, needs to decide which of many possible intended messages is most likely. Thus, it is obvious that this is inherently a probabilistic problem, as was recognized early on by all researchers in speech recognition, and by scientists in other fields that do interpretation: the astronomer Laplace said in 1819 Probability theory is coffee book, nothing more than common sense reduced to calculation, and the physicist James Maxwell said in 1850 The true logic for this world is the calculus of Probabilities, which takes account of the magnitude of the probability which is, or ought to be, in a reasonable man's mind. Finally, one more reason why Chomsky dislikes statistical models is that they tend to make linguistics an empirical science (a science about how people actually use language) rather than a mathematical science (an investigation of the mathematical properties of models of commodity research, formal language). Chomsky prefers the later, as evidenced by his statement in Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1965): Linguistic theory is mentalistic, since it is concerned with discovering a mental reality underlying actual behavior. Observed use of language . may provide evidence . Coffee Book! but surely cannot constitute the subject-matter of linguistics, if this is to rutgers 2012 be a serious discipline.
I can't imagine Laplace saying that observations of the planets cannot constitute the can character book subject-matter of orbital mechanics, or Maxwell saying that observations of electrical charge cannot constitute the subject-matter of rutgers bfa thesis, electromagnetism. It is report, true that physics considers idealizations that are abstractions from the messy real world. For example, a class of mechanics problems ignores friction. But that doesn't mean that friction is not considered part of the subject-matter of physics. It was reasonable for describe teacher, Plato to think that the ideal of, say, a horse, was more important than any individual horse we can perceive in the world. In 400BC, species were thought to be eternal and coffee can character book report, unchanging. We now know that is not true; that the horses on another cave wallin Lascauxare now extinct, and that current horses continue to essay on the gatsby movie evolve slowly over time. Coffee! Thus there is great movie, no such thing as a single ideal eternal horse form. We also now know that language is like that as well: languages are complex, random, contingent biological processes that are subject to the whims of evolution and cultural change. What constitutes a language is not an eternal ideal form, represented by coffee report, the settings of a small number of parameters, but rather is the contingent outcome of essay, complex processes. Since they are contingent, it seems they can only be analyzed with probabilistic models.
Since people have to continually understand the uncertain. ambiguous, noisy speech of others, it seems they must be using something like probabilistic reasoning. Chomsky for can character, some reason wants to avoid this, and therefore he must declare the holocaust for essays actual facts of language use out of bounds and declare that true linguistics only exists in can character report, the mathematical realm, where he can impose the paper formalism he wants. Then, to get language from this abstract, eternal, mathematical realm into the heads of people, he must fabricate a mystical facility that is can character book, exactly tuned to the eternal realm. This may be very interesting from a mathematical point of view, but it misses the point about what language is, and how it works.
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10 Free PDF Business Plan Templates. Can Character? Business plan templates come in golf online reviews all forms, shapes and can character report, sizes. The beauty of describe essay, PDF business plan templates, however, is that users can create their own business plans while having a guide or reference point readily available in front of book report, them. Whether a business owner wants to essay movie, create his or her own business plan or replicate one, PDF business plan templates eliminate the arduous task of coffee can character, starting from scratch. Below are 10 PDF business plan templates to help you get started. If you need a business plan template for a small business, there is no better place to look than the U.S.
Small Business Administration (SBA). The SBA not only offers a Web-based business plan creator, but also a downloadable PDF business plan template from sba.gov#39;s 8(a) Business Development Program. This no-fuss, straightforward business plan template hashes out the details of for essays, a business, with more than 50 prompts to report, help users answer the buy it reviews, questions needed for a complete business plan. [ How to coffee can character book report, Start a Business: Step-by-Step ] Another government organization, the holocaust information for essays, U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs (VA), also provides useful resources for coffee book starting a business. In addition to offering a business plan template and financial projections charts, the information, VA#39;s Writing a Business Plan PDF contains information on why an entrepreneur should create a business plan, basic business plan guidelines and tips on can character book, the do#39;s and don#39;ts of writing a business plan. Used as the official business plan for the New York StartUP! 2014 Business Plan Competition, this PDF business plan template was adapted from Successful Business Plans (The Planning Shop, 2010) by Rhonda Abrams.
Each of the rutgers bfa thesis 2012, 12 sections of this business plan template includes instructions explaining what type of information to coffee can character, enter, as well as chapter references so you can look up more details. In addition, the buy it online, template includes a SWOT analysis and can character book report, optional technology plan. Need a quick and painless, albeit unconventional, business plan? Try the Business Entrepreneurship Center#39;s (BEC) elevator pitch business plan. State University Thesis And Dissertation? Instead of an entire business plan with typical sections written out such as executive summary, market analysis and can character, financial projections the elevator pitch business plan template combines all these areas into one succinct paragraph. Find examples at buy it online the BEC#39;s downloadable PDF elevator pitch small business plan template. 5. The One Page Business Plan Company#39;s business plan template. Hate the idea of coffee can character book, writing out an entire essay for a business plan? The One Page Business Plan Company offers a one-page business plan separated into several sections vision, mission, objectives, strategies and action plans. You can answer all of these sections using keywords and short phrases. PDF samples of the one-page business plan template are available for download via Oprah.com.
6. $100 Startup One-Page Business Plan. Business plans don#39;t have to be complicated. The $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan template helps users craft a business plan by answering several short questions. You can answer each question in teacher one or two sentences. This PDF one-page template covers everything from an overview of your business to marketing, money matters and obstacle projections. 7. Biz Kids business plan template. Can Character Book? Biz Kids, an state university and dissertation, online portal where kids teach kids about money and business, offers a step-by-step guide to writing a business plan. This PDF document breaks down each section with brief questions and coffee book report, simple formulas to research, help users complete the included one-page business plan template. Although the guide and plan are catered toward young entrepreneurs, these resources cover all the basics and are suitable for any type of business. 8. Rowan University College of Business#39; sample plan. Thinking about book report, starting a consulting business?
Check out Rowan University#39;s sample consulting business plan template. Part of the university#39;s Center for Innovation Entrepreneurship 2013 Rohrer Business Plan Competition, this 30-page PDF business plan template is a comprehensive example of what a consulting business plan entails, complete with financial charts and balance sheets. 9. iPlanner.net business plan template. IPlanner.net, a Web-based business planning software provider, offers a simple business plan template specifically for startups. The downloadable PDF business plan template includes instructions and tips for completing each section, as well as sample charts to help users complete the holocaust information for essays, financial areas of the business plan. 10. SNIEDC fill-in-the-blank business plan.
If you want to cover all of your bases, look no further than the Seneca Nation of Indians Economic Development Company#39;s (SNIEDC) PDF fill-in-the-blank business plan template. This all-inclusive, 50-page business plan outline asks a series of coffee can character book, questions so you can fill in each section of the business plan. It also includes detailed financial charts and a glossary of business terms. The SNIEDC is a Salamanca, N.Y.-based organization that aims to provide financial services and working capital support for enrolled members of the Seneca Nation of Indians. Sara is a tech writer with a background in business and marketing.
After graduating from UC Irvine, she worked as a copywriter and blogger for nonprofit organizations, tech labs and commodity research paper, lifestyle companies. She started freelancing in 2009 and joined Business News Daily in 2013. Follow Sara Angeles on Twitter @sara_angeles.
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essay government uk from The Encyclopedia Britannica 1820. (¶1) The question with respect to Government, is a question about the adaptation of means to an end. Notwithstanding the portion of discourse which has been bestowed upon this subject, it is surprising to find, upon a close inspection, how few of its principles are settled. The reason is, that the coffee book ends and commodity, means have not been analyzed; and it is only a general and undistinguishing conception of them which exists in the minds of the greater number of men. So long as either remain in this situation, they give rise to interminable disputes; more especially when the deliberation is subject, as in this case, to the strongest action of personal interest. (¶2) In a discourse, limited as the present, it would be obviously vain to attempt the accomplishment of such a task, as that of the analysis we have mentioned. The mode, however, in which the operation should be conducted, may perhaps be described, and evidence enough exhibited to show in what road we must travel to approach the point at which so many have vainly endeavoured to arrive. (¶3) The end of government has been described in a great variety of expressions. By Locke it was said to be the public good; by book others it has been described as being the greatest happiness of the greatest number.
These, and equivalent expressions, are just; they are only defective in as much as the particular ideas which they embrace are indistinctly announced; and different combinations are by means of golf online reviews them raised in different minds, and even in the same mind on different occasions. (¶4) It is immediately obvious, that a wide and can character report, difficult field is holocaust opened, and that the whole science of human nature must be explored to lay a foundation for coffee can character book report the science of commodity research paper government. Book? To understand what is included in the happiness of the essay on the great gatsby movie greatest number, we must understand what is included in the happiness of the individuals of whom it is composed. (¶5) That dissection of human nature which would be necessary to show, on proper evidence, the primary elements into which human happiness may be resolved, it is not compatible with the present design to undertake. Book? We must content ourselves with assuming certain results. (¶6) We may allow, for example, in general terms, that the lot of every human being is determined by his pains and pleasures; and that his happiness corresponds with the degree in which his pleasures are great, and his pains are small. (¶7) Human pains and pleasures are derived from describe teacher essay, two sources.
They are produced either by coffee our fellow men, or by causes independent of other men. (¶8) We may assume it as another principle, that the concern of commodity research paper government is with the former of coffee can character book these two sources; and that its business is to increase to the utmost the information pleasures, and diminish to the utmost the coffee can character book report pains, which men derive from research paper, one another. (¶9) Of the laws of nature, on which the condition of man depends, that which is coffee attended with the greatest number of consequences, is the necessity of labour for obtaining the essay means of coffee can character subsistence, as well as the commodity means of the greatest part of our pleasures. This is, no doubt, the primary cause of government; for, if nature had produced spontaneously all the objects which we desire, and in sufficient abundance for the desires of all, there would have been no source of dispute or of injury among men; nor would any man have possessed the means of report ever acquiring authority over another. (¶10) The results are exceedingly different, when nature produces the objects of desire not in sufficient abundance for all. The source of commodity paper dispute is then exhaustless; and every man has the means of acquiring authority over others, in proportion to the quantity of those objects which he is can character book report able to rutgers blog, possess. In this case, the end to be obtained, through government as the means, would be, to make that distribution of the scanty materials of happiness which would insure the greatest sum of it in the members of the community taken altogether; and to prevent every individual, or combination of individuals, from interfering with that distribution, or making any man to can character, have less than his share. (¶11) An element of describe essay great importance is taken into the calculation, when it is considered that most of the objects of desire, and even the means of subsistence, are the can character book product of labour. The means of insuring labour must, in that case, be provided for as the foundation of all. (¶12) The means for the insuring of labour are of two sorts; the one made out commodity paper of the matter of evil, the other made out of the matter of good.
The first sort is commonly denominated force; and, under its application, the labourers are slaves. This mode of procuring labour we need not consider; for, if the end of government be to coffee can character report, produce the greatest happiness of the greatest number, that end cannot be attained by making the greatest number slaves. (¶13) The other mode of obtaining labour is by allurement, or the advantage which it brings. If we would obtain all the objects of desire in the greatest possible quantity, we must obtain labour in the greatest possible quantity; and, if we would obtain labour in the greatest possible quantity, we must raise the advantage attached to labour to the greatest possible height. It is impossible to attach to labour a greater degree of advantage than the describe teacher essay whole of the book product of labour. Why so? Because, if you give more to on the movie, one man than the can character produce of his labour, you can do so only by taking it away from the produce of some other man's labour.
The greatest possible happiness of society is, therefore, attained by ohio university thesis and dissertation insuring to every man the greatest possible quantity of the produce of his labour. (¶14) How is this to be accomplished? For it is obvious that every man who has not all the objects of his desire, has inducement to take them from any other man who is weaker than himself. And how is coffee book report this to be prevented? One mode is research paper sufficiently obvious; and it does not appear that there is any other. It is the union of a certain number of men, agreeing to protect one another; and the object is best accomplished when a great number of men combine together, and delegate to a small number the power necessary for protecting them all. This is coffee book government.
And it thus appears, that it is for the sake of property that government exists. This the more certainly appears, when it is considered that by far the information greater part of injuries to person committed by human beings are, in some way or other, on account of property.] (¶15) With respect to the end of government, or that for the sake of which it exists, it is not conceived to be necessary, on the present occasion, that the coffee can character report analysis should be carried any farther. Research Paper? What follows is an attempt to analyze the means. (¶16) Two things are here to be considered; the power with which the small number are entrusted; and the use which they are to make of it. (¶17) With respect to the first, there is no difficulty. The elements, out of which the power of coercing others is fabricated, are obvious to all. Of these we shall, therefore, not lengthen this article by any explanation. (¶18) All the difficult questions of government relate to the means of restraining those, in coffee can character whose hands are lodged the reviews powers necessary for the protection of all, from making a bad use of it. (¶19) Whatever would be the temptations under which individuals would lie, if there was no government to take the objects of desire from others weaker than themselves, under the same temptations the members of government would lie, to take the objects of desire from the members of the community, if they were not prevented from doing so. Whatever, then, are the reasons for establishing government, the very same exactly are the reasons for establishing securities, that those entrusted with the powers necessary for protecting others make use of them for that purpose solely, and not for the purpose of taking from the members of the community the report objects of describe teacher essay desire. (¶20) There are three modes in report which it may be supposed, that the powers of protecting the community are capable of being exercised.
The community may undertake the protection of holocaust for essays itself, and of its members. The powers of protection may be placed in can character book the hands of a few. And, lastly, they may be placed in the hands of an essay on the individual. The Many, the Few, the One; these varieties appear to can character book, exhaust the describe essay subject. It is report not possible to conceive any hands, or combination of hands, in which the powers of protection can be lodged, which will not fall under one or other of those descriptions. And these varieties correspond to the three forms of government, the Democratical, the Aristocratical, and the Monarchical. (¶21) It will be necessary to look somewhat closely at each of these forms in their order. (¶22) I. The Democratical. It is obviously impossible, that the community in a body can be present to afford protection to each of its members. It must employ individuals for that purpose.
Employing individuals, it must choose them, it must lay down the rules under which they are to act, and it must punish them, if they act in bfa thesis blog disconformity to coffee can character, those rules. On The Gatsby? In these operations are included the three great operations of government, Administration, Legislation, and Judicature. The community, to perform any of these operations, must be assembled. This circumstance alone seems to can character book, form a conclusive objection against the democratical form. To assemble the whole of a community as often as the business of government requires performance would almost preclude the existence of labour; hence the existence of property; and hence the describe essay existence of the community itself. (¶23) There is also another objection not less conclusive. A whole community would form a numerous assembly. But all numerous assemblies are essentially incapable of can character business. It is unnecessary to be tedious in the proof of this proposition. In an assembly, every thing must be done by speaking and assenting. But where the assembly is numerous, so many persons desire to speak, and feelings, by mutual inflammation, become so violent, that calm and effectual deliberation is altogether impossible.
(¶24) It may be taken, therefore, as a proposition, from which there will be no dissent, that a community in mass is on the great ill adapted for the business of government. There is no principle more in conformity with the sentiments and the practice of the people than this. The management of the joint affairs of any considerable body of the people they never undertake for themselves. What they uniformly do is, to choose a certain number of persons to coffee book, be the actors in rutgers bfa thesis their stead. Even in the case of can character report a common benefit club, the members choose a committee of management, and content themselves with a general control. (¶25) 2. The Aristocratical. This term applies to all those cases, in which the powers of government are held by holocaust for essays any number of persons intermediate between a single person and the majority. When the number is small, it is common to call the government an Oligarchy; when it is considerable, to call it an Aristocracy. The cases are essentially the same; because the coffee can character book motives which operate in both are the on the great movie same. This is can character book a proposition which carries, we think, its own evidence along with it.
We, therefore, assume it as a point which will not be disputed. (¶26) The source of evil is holocaust for essays radically different in the case of coffee can character aristocracy, and that of democracy. The community cannot have an ohio state university and dissertation interest opposite to its interest. To affirm this would be a contradiction in terms. Can Character Report? The community within itself, and with respect to itself, can have no sinister interest. Commodity Research? One community may intend the evil of can character another: never its own. This is an undubitable proposition, and one of ohio university great importance. It may act wrong from book report, mistake. To suppose that it could from design, would be to suppose this absurdity, that human beings can wish their own misery.
(¶27) The circumstances from which the inaptitude of the bfa thesis 2012 community as a body for the business of government arose, namely, the inconvenience of assembling them, and the inconvenience of their numbers when assembled, do not necessarily exist in the case of aristocracy. If the number of those who hold among them the book powers of government is so great, as to make it inconsistent to assemble them, or impossible for them to essay on the great movie, deliberate calmly when assembled, this is only an objection to so extended an aristocracy, and has no application to an aristocracy not too numerous, when assembled for the best exercise of deliberation. (¶28) The question is, whether such an aristocracy may be trusted to make that use of the powers of coffee can character government which is golf online reviews most conducive to the end for coffee book which government exists? (¶29) There may be a strong presumption, that an aristocracy, monopolizing the describe powers of government, would not possess intellectual powers in any very high perfection. Intellectual powers are the offspring of labour. Coffee? But an hereditary aristocracy are deprived of the strongest motives to labour.
The greater part of them will, therefore, be defective in those powers. This is one objection, and research, an important one, though not the greatest. (¶30) We have already observed, that the coffee book report reason for which government exists is, that one man, if stronger than another, will take from rutgers blog 2012, him whatever that other possesses and he desires. But if one man will do this, so will several. And if powers are put into the hands of a comparatively small number, called an aristocracy, powers which make them stronger than the rest of the community, they will take from the rest of the community as much as they please of the objects of desire. They will, therefore, defeat the very end for which government was instituted. The unfitness, therefore, of an aristocracy to be entrusted with the powers of government rests on coffee can character book report, the basis of demonstration. (¶31) 3. The Monarchical.
It will be seen, and therefore words to make it manifest are unnecessary, that, in most respects, the monarchical form of information for essays government agrees with the aristocratical, and is liable to the same objections. (¶32) If government is founded upon this, as a law of human nature, that a man, if able, will take from coffee, others any thing which they have, and information, which he desires, it is sufficiently evident that, when a man is can character report called a king, it does not change his nature; so that, when he has got power to ohio state, enable him to take from every man what he pleases, he will take whatever he pleases. To suppose that he will not, is to affirm that government is unnecessary; and that human beings will abstain from injuring one another of their own accord. (¶33) It is coffee can character book report very evident that this reasoning extends to every modification of the smaller number. Whenever the powers of government are placed in any hands other than those of the community, whether those of one man, of a few, or of several, those principles of human nature which imply that government is at all necessary, imply that these persons will make use of on the great movie them to defeat the very end for which government exists. (¶34) One observation, however, suggests itself. Allowing, it may be said, that this deduction is perfect, and the inference founded upon it indisputable, it is yet true, that, if there were no government, every man would be exposed to depredation from every man; but, under government, if an aristocracy, he is coffee report exposed to it only from a few; if a monarchy, only from one. (¶35) This is a highly important observation, and university thesis, deserves to be minutely investigated. (¶36) It is sufficiently obvious, that, if every man is liable to be deprived of what he possesses at the will of book report every man stronger than himself, the rutgers 2012 existence of property is impossible; and, if the existence of property is impossible, so also is that of labour, of the means of subsistence for an enlarged community, and hence of the community itself.
If the coffee members of such a community are liable to be deprived only by a few hundred men, the members of an aristocracy, it may not be impossible to satiate that limited number with a limited portion of the objects belonging to all. Allowing this view of the subject to be correct, it follows that the smaller the number of hands into information for essays, which the powers of government are permitted to pass, the can character book happier it will be for the community. That an oligarchy, therefore, is state university and dissertation better than an aristocracy, and a monarchy better than either. (¶37) This view of the report subject deserves to be the more carefully considered, that the conclusion to which it leads is the same with that which has been adopted and promulgated by some of the most profound and describe, most benevolent investigators of human affairs. That government by one man, altogether unlimited and uncontrolled, is can character book report better than government by any modification of aristocracy, is the bfa thesis blog 2012 celebrated opinion of Mr Hobbes, and of the French Economists, supported on reasonings which it is not easy to controvert. Government, by the many, they with reason considered an impossibility.
They inferred, therefore, that, of all the possible forms of government, absolute monarchy is the best. (¶38) Experience, if we look only at the outside of the facts, appears to be divided on can character book, this subject. Absolute monarchy, under Neros and ohio university, Caligulas, under such men as Emperors of can character book Morocco and Sultans of Turkey, is the scourge of human nature. On the other side, the people of Denmark, tired out with the oppressions of an aristocracy, resolved that their king should be absolute; and, under their absolute monarch, are as well governed as any people in Europe. In Greece, notwithstanding the defects of democracy, human nature ran a more brilliant career than it has ever done in any other age or country. As the surface of history, therefore, affords no certain principle of decision, we must go beyond the surface, and penetrate to the springs within. (¶39) Where it is said that one man, or a limited number of men, will soon be satiated with the objects of desire, and when they have taken from the community what suffices to satiate them, will protect its members in the enjoyment of the golf remainder, it appears that an important element of the calculation is left out. Human beings are not a passive substance. If human beings, in respect to their rulers, were the same as sheep in respect to their shepherd; and if the king, or the aristocracy, were as totally exempt from all fear of coffee can character resistance from the people, and all chance of paper obtaining more obedience from severity, as the shepherd from the sheep, it does appear that there would be a limit to can character, the desire of taking to one's self the objects of bfa thesis desire. The case will be found to be very much altered when the idea is taken into the account of the resistance to their wills which one human being may expect from another, and of that perfection in obedience which fear alone can produce. (¶40) That one human being will desire to render the person and can character, property of another subservient to his pleasures, notwithstanding the pain or loss of pleasure which it may occasion to that other individual, is the foundation of government.
The desire of the object implies the essay on the great gatsby movie desire of the power necessary to accomplish the object. The desire, therefore, of that power which is necessary to render the persons and properties of human beings subservient to our pleasures, is a grand governing law of human nature. (¶41) What is implied in coffee report that desire of teacher power? and what is the extent to which it carries the can character report actions of teacher essay men? are the questions which it is necessary to resolve, in order to coffee book report, discover the holocaust information for essays limit which nature has set to the desire of coffee can character book a king, or an aristocracy, to inflict evil upon the community for their own advantage. (¶42) Power is gatsby a means to an end. The end is every thing, without exception, which the human being calls pleasure, and coffee can character book report, the removal of pain. The grand instrument for teacher essay attaining what a man likes, is the actions of other men. Power, in its most appropriate signification, therefore, means security for the conformity between the will of one man and the acts of other men. This, we presume, is coffee can character book not a proposition which will be disputed.
The master has power over his servant, because when he wills him to do so and so, in other words, expresses a desire that he would do so and so, he possesses a kind of security that the actions of the man will correspond to his desire. The general commands his soldiers to perform certain operations, the king commands his subjects to act in a certain manner, and their power is complete or not complete, in proportion as the information conformity is complete or not complete between the actions willed and the actions performed. The actions of other men, considered as means for the attainment of the coffee can character report objects of research our desire, are perfect or imperfect, in proportion as they are or are not certainly and invariably correspondent to our will.--There is no limit, therefore, to the demand of security for the perfection of that correspondence. A man is never satisfied with a smaller degree if he can obtain a greater. And as there is no man whatsoever, whose acts, in some degree or another, in some way or another, more immediately or more remotely, may not have some influence as means to coffee can character book report, our ends, there is no man, the conformity of whose acts to online, our will we would not give something to secure. The demand, therefore, of can character report power over the acts of rutgers bfa thesis blog other men is really boundless. It is boundless in two ways; boundless in the number of book persons to whom we would extend it, and boundless in its degree over the actions of each. (¶43) It would be nugatory to say, with a view to explain away this important principle, that some human beings may be so remotely connected with our interests, as to make the desire of a conformity between our will and their actions evanescent. It is quite enough to assume, what nobody will deny, that our desire of that conformity is unlimited, in respect to all those men whose actions can be supposed to have any influence on our pains and pleasures.
With respect to the rulers of a community, this at least is certain, that they have a desire for the uniformity between their will and the actions of every man in the community. And for our present purpose this is as wide a field as we need to embrace. (¶44) With respect to the community, then, we deem it an established truth, that the rulers, one, or a few, desire an exact uniformity between their will and rutgers 2012, the acts of every member of the community. It remains for us to can character book, inquire to what description of acts it is the nature of his desire to commodity, give existence. (¶45) There are two classes of means, by which the coffee can character conformity between the will of one man and describe, the acts of other men may be accomplished. The one is pleasure, the other pain. (¶46) With regard to securities of the pleasurable sort for obtaining a conformity between one man's will and the acts of other men, it is evident, from coffee book, experience, that when a man possesses a command over the objects of desire, he may, by imparting those objects to other men, insure to a great extent the conformity between his will and their actions.
It follows, and is also matter of experience, that the greater the quantity of the objects of desire, which he may thus impart to other men, the greater is the bfa thesis number of men between whose actions and his own will he can insure a conformity. Coffee? As it has been demonstrated that there is no limit to describe, the number of men whose actions we desire to have conformable to our will, it follows, with equal evidence, that there is no limit to the command which there are motives for endeavouring to possess over coffee can character book the objects of desire. (¶47) It is, therefore, not true, that there is in the mind of a king, or in the minds of an research paper aristocracy, any point of coffee can character report saturation with the objects of desire. Rutgers? The opinion, in examination of which we have gone through the preceding analysis, that a king or an aristocracy may be satiated with the objects of desire, and, after being satiated, leave to the members of the community greater part of what belongs to them, is an opinion founded upon report a partial and incomplete view of the rutgers bfa thesis 2012 laws of human nature. (¶48) We have next to consider the securities of the painful sort which may be employed for attaining conformity between the acts of one man and the will of another. We are of opinion, that the importance of this part of the subject has not been duly considered; and coffee can character book, that the business of government will be ill understood, till its numerous consequences have been fully developed. (¶49) Pleasure appears to be a feeble instrument of obedience in comparison with pain. It is much more easy to despise pleasure than pain.
Above all it is important to consider, that in this class of instruments is included the power of taking away life, and with it of taking away not only all the pleasures of reality, but, what goes so far beyond them, all the pleasures of hope. This class of securities is, therefore, incomparably the strongest. He who desires obedience to a high degree of exactness, cannot be satisfied with the power of giving pleasure, he must have the power of reviews inflicting pain. He who desires it to the highest possible degree of coffee book report exactness, must desire power of inflicting pain sufficient at least to insure that degree of exactness; that is, an unlimited power of inflicting pain; for, as there is no possible mark by which to distinguish what is sufficient and what is not, and as the human mind sets no bounds to its avidity for the securities of what is deems eminently good, it is rutgers blog sure to extend, beyond almost any limits, its desire of the power of giving pain to others. (¶49) So much with respect to the motive for having and holding power of inflicting pain upon others. It may, however, be said, that how inseparable a part soever of human nature it may appear to be to desire to possess unlimited power of coffee can character book inflicting pain upon others, it does not follow, that those who possess it will have a desire to make use of it. (¶50) This is the commodity paper next part of the inquiry upon which we have to enter; and we need not add that it merits all the attention of those who would possess correct ideas upon a subject which involves the greatest interests of mankind. (¶51) The chain of inference, in this case, is close and strong, to a most unusual degree. A man desires that the actions of other men shall be instantly and accurately correspondent to his will. Coffee Book Report? He desires that the actions of the greatest possible number shall be so. Terror is the grand instrument.
Terror can work only through assurance that evil will follow any want of conformity between the will and the actions willed. Every failure must, therefore, be punished. As there are no bounds to the mind's desire of teacher essay its pleasure, there are of course no bounds to its desire of perfection in the instruments of that pleasure. There are, therefore, no bounds to its desire of exactness in the conformity between its will and the actions willed; and by book report consequence to the strength of that terror which is its procuring cause. Teacher? Every, the most minute, failure, must be visited with the heaviest infliction; and, as failure in extreme exactness must frequently happen, the occasions of cruelty must be incessant. (¶52) We have thus arrived at several conclusions of the highest possible importance. We have seen, that the very principle of human nature upon which the necessity of government is founded, the propensity of one man to possess himself of the objects of desire at the cost of another, leads on, by infallible sequence, where power over a community is attained, and nothing checks, not only to that degree of plunder which leaves the coffee members (excepting always the recipients and instruments of the plunder) the bare means of subsistence, but to that degree of cruelty which is necessary to keep in existence the most intense terror.
(¶53) The world affords some decisive experiments upon human nature, in exact conformity with these conclusions. An English gentleman may be taken as a favourable specimen of describe essay civilization, of knowledge, of humanity, of all the qualities, in short, that make human nature estimable. The degree in which he desires to possess power over his fellow-creatures, and the degree of oppression to which he finds motives for carrying the exercise of that power; will afford a standard from which, assuredly, there can be no appeal. Wherever the coffee can character book same motives exist, the same conduct, as is blog 2012 displayed by the English gentleman, may be expected to follow in all men not farther advanced in human excellence than him. In the West Indies, before that vigilant attention of the English nation, which now, for thirty years, has imposed so great a check upon the masters of can character slaves, there was not a perfect absence of all check upon the dreadful propensities of power. But yet it is true, that these propensities led English gentlemen, not only to deprive their slaves of property, and to make property of their fellow-creatures, but to commodity research paper, treat them with a degree of cruelty, the very description of which froze the blood of their countrymen, who were placed in less unfavourable circumstances. The motives to this deplorable conduct are exactly those which we have described above, as arising out of the universal desire to render the actions of book report other men exactly conformable to our will. Bfa Thesis Blog 2012? It is book report of great importance to remark, that not one item in the motives which had lead English gentlemen to make slaves of their fellow-creatures, and to essay on the great gatsby, reduce them to the very worst condition in which the negroes have been found in the West Indies, can be shown to be wanting, or to be less strong in the set of motives which universally operate upon the men who have power over their fellow-creatures.
It is proved, therefore, by the closest deduction from the acknowledged laws of can character book human nature, and by direct and decisive experiments, that the ruling one, or the ruling few, would, if checks did not operate in the way of prevention, reduce the great mass of the people subject to their power, at golf online reviews, least to the condition of negroes in the West Indies. (¶54) We have thus seen, that of the forms of government, which have been called the three simple forms, not one is adequate to the ends which government is appointed to secure; that the book report community itself, which alone is free from golf buy it, motives opposite to coffee book, those ends, is incapacitated by its numbers from research paper, performing the coffee can character book report business of research government; and that whether government is entrusted to one or a few, they have not only motives opposite to these ends, but motives which will carry them, if unchecked, to inflict the greatest evils. (¶55) These conclusions are so conformable to ordinary conceptions, that it would hardly have been necessary, if the developement had not been of importance for some of our subsequent investigations, to have taken any pains with the proof of them. Can Character Book? In this country, at least, it will be remarked, in conformity with so many writers, that the state university imperfection of the three simple forms of government is apparent; that the ends of government can be attained in perfection, only as under the British constitution, by an union of all the three. (¶56) The doctrine of the book report union of the three simple forms of government is, then, the commodity research paper next part of this important subject, which we are called upon to examine.
(¶57) The first thing which it is can character obvious to describe essay, remark upon it is, that it has been customary, in regard to this part of the inquiry, to beg the coffee can character question. The good effects which have been ascribed to rutgers, the union of the three simple forms of can character book report government, have been supposed; and the supposition has commonly been allowed. No proof has been adduced; or if any thing having the appearance of proof, it has only been a reference to the British constitution. The British constitution, it has been said, is an union of the three simple forms of government, and commodity research paper, the British government is excellent. To render the coffee can character report instance of the British government in any degree a proof of the doctrine in question, it is essay evident that three points must be established; 1st, That the British government is not in show but in substance an union of the three simple forms; 2dly, That it has any peculiar excellence; and, 3dly, That its excellence arises from the union so supposed, and not from any other cause. As these points have always been taken for granted without examination, the question with respect to the effects of an union of the three simple forms of government may be considered as yet unsolved. (¶58) The positions which we have already established with regard to human nature, and which we assume as foundations, are these; that the actions of men are governed by their wills, and their wills by their desires; that their desires are directed to pleasure and coffee, relief from pain as ends, and to wealth and power as the commodity principal means; that to coffee can character book report, the desire of these means there is no limit; and that the actions which flow from that desire are the constituents whereof bad government is made. Reasoning correctly from these acknowledged laws of describe teacher human nature, we shall presently discover what opinion, with respect to the mixture of the different species of government, it will be incumbent upon us to book, adopt.
(¶59) The theory in question implies, that of the powers of government, one portion is held by the king, one by describe teacher essay the aristocracy, and one by the people. It also implies, that there is on book report, the part of each of them a certain unity of will, otherwise they would not act as three separate powers. Golf? This being allowed, we proceed to coffee, the inquiry. (¶60) From the ohio university principles which we have already laid down, it follows, that of the objects of human desire, and (speaking more definitely) of the means to the ends of human desire, namely, wealth and power, each of the three parties will endeavour to obtain as much as possible. Coffee Book Report? After what has been said, it is not suspected that any reader will deny this proposition; but it is of importance that he retain a very clear conception of it. (¶61) If any expedient presents itself to any of the supposed parties, any expedient effectual to that end, and not opposed to any preferred object of pursuit, we may infer, with certainty, that it will be adopted. One effectual expedient is not more effectual than obvious. Any two of them by combining may swallow up the third. That such combination will take place appears to be as certain as any thing which depends upon human will; because there are strong motives in golf buy it online reviews favour of it, and none that can be conceived in opposition to it. Whether the portions of power, as originally distributed to coffee report, the parties, be supposed to for essays, be equal or unequal, the mixture of three of the kinds of government, it is thus evident cannot possibly exist.
(¶62) This proposition appears to be so perfectly proved, that we do not think it necessary to dwell here upon report the subject. As a part, however, of this doctrine of the mixture of the bfa thesis simple forms of government, it may be proper to inquire whether an union may not be possible of book two of them. (¶63) Three varieties of this union may be conceived; the union of monarchy with aristocracy, or the union of either with democracy. (¶64) Let us suppose that monarchy is united with aristocracy. The power of essay on the gatsby each is can character report equal or not equal. If it is not equal, if follows, as a necessary consequence, from the principles which we have already established, that the stronger will take from the weaker, till it engrosses the buy it reviews whole.
The only question, therefore, is, What will happen when the book power is equal? (¶65) In the 2012 first place, however, it seems impossible that such equality should ever exist. How is it to be established? Or by what criterion is it to be ascertained? If there is coffee book no such criterion, it must, in all cases, be the result of chance. If so, the chances against it are as infinite to one. The idea, therefore, is wholly chimerical and ohio state and dissertation, absurd. (¶66) Besides an overweening propensity, a disposition to coffee can character book, overrate one's own advantages, and underrate those of other men, is a well known law of human nature. Suppose, what would be little less than miraculous, that equality were established, this propensity would lead each of the parties to golf buy it, conceive itself the strongest.
The consequence would be that they would go to war, and contend till one or other was subdued. Either those laws of human nature, upon which all reasoning with respect to government proceeds, must be denied, and then the coffee book report utility of government itself may be disputed, or this conclusion is demonstrated. Great Movie? Again, if this equality were established, is there any human being who can suppose that it would last? If any thing be known about human affairs, it is this, that they are in perpetual change. If nothing else interfered, the book difference of men, in respect of golf online reviews talents, would abundantly produce the effect. Suppose your equality to be established when your king is a man of talents, and suppose his successor to be the book reverse, your equality no longer exists.
The moment one of the parties is superior, it begins to profit by its superiority, and the inequality is daily increased. It is unnecessary to extend the investigation to the remaining cases--the union of democracy with either of the other two kinds of holocaust information for essays government: It is very evident that the same reasoning would lead to the same results. (¶67) In this doctrine of the can character book report mixture of the simple forms of government is included the celebrated theory of the balance in reviews the component parts of a government. By this, it is supposed, that when a government is book report composed of monarchy, aristocracy, and buy it online, democracy, they balance one another, and by mutual checks produce good government. A few words will suffice to show, that, if any theory deserves the epithets of wild, visionary, chimerical, it is that of the balance. If there are three powers, how is it possible to prevent two of them from combining to swallow up the third? (¶68) The analysis which we have already performed, will enable us to coffee report, trace rapidly the concatenation of causes and effects in this imagined case. We have already seen that the holocaust information for essays interest of the community, considered in the aggregate or democratical point of view, is, that each individual should receive protection; and that the powers which are constituted for that purpose should be employed exclusively for that purpose.
As this is a proposition wholly indisputable, it is coffee can character book report also one to which all correct reasoning upon matters of government must have a perpetual reference. (¶69) We have also seen that the interest of the king, and of the governing aristocracy, is directly the reverse; it is to have unlimited power over the rest of the community, and to use it for their own advantage. In the holocaust information for essays supposed case of the balance of the monarchical, aristocratical, and democratical powers, it cannot be for report the interest of either the monarchy or the aristocracy to bfa thesis 2012, combine with the democracy; because it is the can character report interest of the democracy or community at large, that neither the for essays king nor the aristocracy should have one particle of power, or one particle of the wealth of the coffee report community, for their own advantage. The democracy or community have all possible motives to endeavour to prevent the holocaust for essays monarchy and aristocracy from exercising power, or obtaining the wealth of the can character book report community, for rutgers 2012 their own advantage. The monarchy and aristocracy have all possible motives for book report endeavouring to obtain unlimited power over the persons and property of the community. Essay Great Movie? The consequence is inevitable; they have all possible motives for combining to obtain that power, and unless the people have power enough to be a match for both, they have no protection. The balance, therefore, is a thing, the existence of which, upon coffee can character the best possible evidence, is to golf online reviews, be regarded as impossible. The appearances which have given colour to the supposition are altogether delusive. (¶70) What then is to be done? For, according to this reasoning, we may be told that good government appears to be impossible. The people, as a body, cannot perform the business of government for themselves.
If the can character book powers of government are entrusted to one man, or a few men, and a monarchy, or governing aristocracy, is formed, the results are fatal. And it appears that a combination of the simple forms is impossible. (¶71) Notwithstanding the certainty of golf online reviews these propositions, it is not yet proved that good government is impossible. Coffee Book Report? For though it is perfectly true that, as the people cannot exercise the powers of government themselves, they must entrust them to some one individual, or set of individuals, and these individuals will, infallibly, have the holocaust strongest motives to make a bad use of them; it is nevertheless possible that checks may be found sufficient to prevent the bad use of them. The next subject of inquiry, then, is the doctrine of checks. It is sufficiently conformable to coffee book report, the established and new-fashioned opinions to say, that, upon the right constitution of checks, all goodness of government depends. To this proposition we fully subscribe. Nothing, therefore, can exceed the importance of correct conclusions upon this subject. After the developements which we have already made, it is hoped that the inquiry will be neither intricate nor unsatisfactory. (¶72) In the state and dissertation grand discovery of coffee can character report modern times, the system of representation, the solution of ohio university thesis all the difficulties, both speculative and practical, will perhaps be found.
If it cannot, we seem to be forced upon the extraordinary conclusion, that good government is impossible. For as there is no individual, or combination of individuals, except the community itself, who have not an interest in bad government, if entrusted with its powers; and as the community itself is incapable of exercising those powers, and must entrust them to some individual or combination of individuals, the conclusion is obvious. The community itself must check these individuals, or they will follow their interest, and report, produce bad government. But how is it the community can check? The community can act only when assembled.
And then it is incapable of acting. The community, however, can chuse representatives; and the question is, whether the representatives of the community can operate as a check? (¶73) We may begin by laying down two propositions, which appear to involve a great portion of the inquiry; and about which it is unlikely that there will be any dispute. The checking body must have a degree of power sufficient for the business of checking. It must also have an identity of rutgers blog interest with the community; otherwise it will make a mischievous use of its power. (¶74) The first question relates to the degree of power which is necessary to perform the business of checking. We need hardly excite the reader's attention to the importance of this inquiry; for upon this, it is book evident that every thing depends.
(¶75) To measure the degree of power which is requisite upon any occasion, we must consider the degree of ohio university thesis and dissertation power which is necessary to be overcome. Just as much as suffices for can character book that purpose is blog 2012 requisite, and no more. We have then to inquire what power it is which the representatives of the community, acting as a check, need power to overcome. The answer here is easily given. It is all that power, wheresoever lodged, which they, in whose hands it is lodged, have an interest in misusing. We have already seen, that to whomsoever the community entrusts the book powers of government, whether one, or a few, they have an interest in misusing it. All the ohio state thesis power, therefore, which the can character report one or the few, or which the one and the few combined, can apply to insure the buy it accomplishment of their sinister ends, the checking body must have power to overcome, otherwise its check will be unavailing. In other words, there will be no check. (¶76) This is so exceedingly evident, that we hardly think it necessary to say a single word in illustration of it. If a king is prompted by the inherent principles of human nature to seek the gratification of his will; and if he finds an obstacle in that pursuit, he removes it, of coffee can character book report course, if he can.
If any man, or any set of men, oppose him, he overcomes them, if he is able; and to prevent him, they must, at the least, have equal power with himself. (¶77) The same is the case with an aristocracy. To oppose them with success in pursuing their interest at the expence of the golf buy it community, the checking body must have power successfully to resist whatever power they possess. If there is both a king and an aristocracy, and if they would combine to put down the checking force, and to pursue their mutual interest at book, the expence of the community, the checking body must have sufficient power successfully to resist the united power of essay great gatsby both king and aristocracy. (¶78) These conclusions are not only indisputable, but the very theory of the coffee book report British constitution is rutgers blog erected upon them. The House of coffee can character Commons, according to that theory, is the checking body. It is also an admitted doctrine, that if the king had the power of bearing down any opposition to his will that could be opposed by the House of Commons; or if the King and the House of Lords combined had the power of bearing down its opposition to their joint will, it would cease to have the power of checking them; that it must, therefore, have a power sufficient to overcome the united power of both. (¶79) All the questions which relate to blog, the degree of power necessary to be given to that checking body, on the perfection of whose operations all the goodness of government depends, are thus pretty easily solved. Coffee Report? The grand difficulty consists in information for essays finding the means of constituting a checking body, whose powers shall not be turned against the community for coffee can character report whose protection it is holocaust for essays created.
There can be no doubt, that, if power is granted to a body of men, called representatives, they, like any other men, will use their power, not for the advantage of the community, but for book their own advantage, if they can. The only question is, therefore, how they can be prevented? in other words, how are the interests of the representatives to golf buy it online reviews, be identified with those of the can character book report community? (¶80) Each representative may be considered in two capacities; in commodity his capacity of representative, in which he has the exercise of power over others, and in his capacity of member of the community, in which others have the exercise of coffee can character report power over him. (¶81) If things were so arranged, that, in his capacity of representative, it would be impossible for him to do himself so much good by misgovernment, as he would do himself harm in his capacity of member of the community, the object would be accomplished. We have already seen, that the amount of power assigned to the checking body cannot be diminished beyond a certain amount. Bfa Thesis? It must be sufficient to overcome all resistance on coffee, the part of all those in whose hands the powers of government are lodged. But if the power assigned to the representative cannot be diminished in amount, there is only one other way in describe essay which it can be diminished, and that is, in duration. (¶82) This, then, is the instrument; lessening of duration is the instrument, by which, if by any thing, the object is to be accomplished. It is very evident, that the can character smaller the period of time during which any man retains his capacity of representative, as compared with the time in holocaust information for essays which he is simply a member of the community, the more difficult it will be to compensate the coffee can character report sacrifice of the commodity interests of the longer period, by coffee can character book report the profits of misgovernment during the shorter. (¶83) This is an old and approved method of identifying, as nearly as possible, the interests of those who rule, and the interests of those who are ruled.
It is in pursuance of this advantage, that the members of the British House of Commons have always been chosen for a limited period. If the members were hereditary, or even if they were chosen for life, every inquirer would immediately pronounce that they would employ the powers entrusted to them for their own advantage, and that they would go just as far in abusing the persons and properties of the people, as their estimate of the powers and buy it online reviews, spirit of the people to resist them would let them regard it as safe. (¶84) As it thus appears, by the consent of all men, from the time when the Romans made their Consuls annual, down to the present day, that the end is to be attained by limiting the duration, either of the principal, or (what is better) of the checking power--the next question is, to what degree should the limitation proceed? (¶85) The general answer is plain. It should proceed, till met by overbalancing inconveniences on the other side.
What then are the coffee inconveniences which are likely to flow from a too limited duration? (¶86) They are of two sorts; those which affect the performance of the service, for golf online reviews which the individuals are chosen, and those which arise from the trouble of election. It is sufficiently obvious, that the business of can character report government requires time to perform it. The matter must be proposed, deliberated upon, resolved, and executed. If the powers of government were to be shifted from one set of essay on the gatsby hands to another every day, the business of government could not proceed. Two conclusions, then, we may adopt with perfect certainty; that whatsoever time is necessary to perform the periodical round of the stated operations of coffee can character government, this should be allotted to those who are invested with the checking powers; and, secondly, that no time, which is not necessary for bfa thesis blog 2012 that purpose, should by any means be allotted to them.
With respect to the inconvenience arising from frequency of election, though, it is can character book report evident, that the trouble of election, which is on the gatsby movie always something, should not be repeated oftener than is necessary, no great allowance will need to be made for it, because it may easily be reduced to an inconsiderable amount. (¶87) As it thus appears, that limiting the duration of their power is a security against the sinister interest of the people's representatives, so it appears that it is the coffee can character only security of which the nature of the case admits. The only other means which could be employed to that end, would be punishment on commodity paper, account of abuse. It is easy, however, to see, that punishment could not be effectually applied. For punishment, definition is required of the punishable acts, and proof must be established of the commission. But abuses of power may be carried to a great extent, without allowing the means of proving a determinate offence. No part of political experience is more perfect than this. If the limiting of duration be the only security, it is unnecessary to speak of the importance which ought to be attached to it. (¶88) It is necessary just to book, bring to notice, that, in the principle of limiting the duration of the power delegated to university and dissertation, the representatives of the people, is not included the idea of changing them.
The same individual may be chosen any number of times. The check of the short period for which he is chosen, and during which he can promote his sinister interest, is the same upon the man who has been chosen, and coffee can character book report, rechosen twenty times, as upon blog the man who has been chosen for the first time. And there is a good reason for always re-electing the man who has done his duty, because, the longer he serves, the coffee report better acquainted he becomes with the business of the service. Upon this principle of rechoosing, or of the permanency of the individual, united with the power of change, has been recommended the plan of permanent service with perpetual power of removal. This, it has been said, reduces the period within which the representative can promote his sinister interest to the narrowest possible limits; because the moment when his constituents begin to suspect him, that moment they may turn him out. On the other hand, if he continues faithful, the trouble of for essays election is can character book report performed once for commodity research all, and the man serves as long as he lives. Some disadvantages, on the other hand, would accompany this plan. The present, however, is not the coffee occasion on teacher, which the balance of different plans is capable of being compared.
(¶89) Having considered the means which are capable of being employed for identifying the interest of the representatives, when chosen, with that of the persons who choose them, it remains that we endeavour to bring to can character report, view the principles which ought to guide in determining who the persons are by whom the bfa thesis blog choice ought to coffee report, be performed. (¶90) It is most evident that every thing depends upon this question. It can be of no consequence to insure, by shortness of duration, a conformity between the conduct of the representatives and the will of those who appoint them, if those who appoint them have an golf online interest opposite to that of the community; because those who choose will, according to the principles of human nature, make choice of such persons as will act according to can character, their wishes. As this is a direct inference from the on the very principle on which government itself is founded, we assume it as indisputable. (¶91) We have seen already, that if one man has power over others placed in can character his hands, he will make use of it for for essays an evil purpose; for the purpose of rendering those other men the abject instruments of his will. If we, then, suppose that one man has the power of book report choosing representatives for the people, it follows, that he will choose men who will use their power as representatives for the promotion of this his sinister interest.
(¶92) We have likewise seen, that when a few men have power given them over essay others, they will make use of it exactly for the same ends, and to the same extent, as the one man. It equally follows, that, if a small number of men have the choice of the representatives, such representatives will be chosen as will promote the interests of that small number, by can character report reducing, if possible, the rest of the community to be the abject and helpless slaves of their will. (¶93) In all these cases, it is obvious and indisputable, that all the benefits of the representative system are lost. The representative system is, in that case, only an operose and clumsy machinery, for doing that which might as well be done without it; namely, reducing the community to subjection under the One or the online Few. (¶94) When we say the Few, it is seen that, in this case, it is of no importance whether we mean a few hundreds or a few thousands; or even many thousands. The operation of the coffee sinister interest is the holocaust information for essays same; and the fate is the same of all that part of the community over whom the power is exercised. A numerous aristocracy has never been found to be less oppressive than an aristocracy confined to a few. (¶95) The general conclusion, therefore, which is evidently established is this; that the benefits of the representative system are lost, in coffee can character book report all cases in which the interests of the rutgers choosing body are not the same with those of the community. (¶96) It is coffee report very evident, that if the essay on the gatsby community itself were the choosing body, the interest of the community and that of the choosing body would be the same. The question is, if that of can character book report any portion of the community, if erected into the choosing body, would remain the same? (¶97) One thing is pretty clear, that all those individuals whose interests are indisputably included in those other individuals, may be struck off without inconvenience.
In this light may be viewed all children, up to a certain age, whose interests are involved in those of their parents. Buy It Reviews? In this light, also, women may be regarded, the interests of almost all of whom are involved either in that of their fathers or in that of their husbands. (¶98) Having ascertained that an interest identical with that of the whole community is to coffee can character book, be found in the aggregate males, of an buy it online reviews age to be regarded as sui juris, persons who may be regarded as the natural representatives of the whole population, we have to coffee can character, go on, and inquire, whether this requisite quality may not be found in essay some less number, some aliquot part of that body. (¶99) As degrees of coffee can character report mental qualities are not easily ascertained, they must be outward and visible signs which are taken to distinguish, for this purpose, one part of these males from another. The applicable signs of ohio state university thesis this description appear to coffee book report, be three: years; property; profession or mode of life. (¶100) According to the first of these means of distinction, a portion of the males, to any degree limited, may be taken, be prescribing an advanced period of life at which power of rutgers bfa thesis 2012 voting for a representative should commence. According to the second, the elective body may be limited, by allowing a vote to those only who possess a certain amount of property or of income.
According to the third, they may be limited, by allowing a vote only to such persons as belong to certain professions, or certain connections and interests. What we have to inquire is, if the interest of the limited number, set apart upon any of those principles as the organ of choice for a body of representatives, will be the same with the interest of the community? (¶101) With respect to the first principle of coffee can character book selection, that of age, it would appear that a considerable latitude may be taken without inconvenience. Suppose the age of forty were prescribed as that at which the right of buy it online suffrage should commence, scarcely any laws could be made for the benefit of all the men of forty which would not be laws for the benefit of all the rest of the community. (¶102) The great principle of security here is, that the men of forty have a deep interest in the welfare of the younger men; for otherwise it might be objected with perfect truth, that if decisive power were placed in the hands of coffee can character book report men of forty years of age, they would have an interest, just as any other detached portion of the community, in pursuing that career, which we have already described, for buy it reducing the rest of the community into the state of abject slaves of their will. But it so happens (and it is a fully established law of human nature), that the great majority of old men have sons, whose interest they regard as an essential part of their own. There is, therefore, no great danger that, in such an arrangement as this, the can character book report interests of the young would be greatly sacrificed to those of the old. (¶103) We come next to commodity, the inquiry, whether the interest of a body of electors, constituted by can character the possession of a certain amount of property or income, would be the same with the interest of the community?
(¶104) It will no be disputed, that, if the ohio university thesis qualification were raised so high that only a few hundreds possessed it, the case would be exactly the same with that of the consignment of the book report electoral suffrage to commodity, an aristocracy. This we have already considered, and have seen that it differs in form rather than substance from a simple aristocracy. We have likewise seen, that it alters not the case in regard to the community, whether the aristocracy be some hundreds or many thousands. One thing is, therefore, completely ascertained, that, unless the qualification be very low, it would only create an aristocratical government on a broad basis, and be accompanied with all the evils which we have shown to belong to an aristocratical government. (¶105) This question, however, deserves to be a little more minutely considered. Let us next take the opposite extreme. Let us suppose that the qualification is very low, so low as to include the great majority of the people. It would not be easy for the people who have very little property, to book, separate their interests from those of the people who have none. It is not the interest of those who have little property to give undue advantages to the possession of property, which those who have the great portions of it would turn against commodity research paper themselves.
It may, therefore, be said, that there would be no evil in a low qualification. It can hardly be said, however, on can character report, the other hand, that there would be any good; for holocaust information if the whole mass of the people who have some property would make a good choice, it will hardly be pretended that, added to can character, them, the comparatively small number of those who have none, and whose minds are naturally and almost necessarily governed by buy it online the minds of those who have, would have any chance of making the choice a bad one. (¶106) We have ascertained, therefore, two points. We have ascertained that a very low qualification is coffee can character book report of no use, as affording no security for a good choice beyond that which would exist if no pecuniary qualification was required. We have likewise ascertained, that a qualification so high as to constitute an aristocracy of wealth, though it were a very numerous one, would leave the community without protection, and exposed to all the evils of unbridled power. The only question, therefore, is, whether, between these extremes, there is gatsby any qualification which would remove the right of suffrage from the people of small, or of no property, and yet constitute an elective body, the interest of which would be identical with that of the community? (¶107) It is coffee not easy to find any satisfactory principle to guide us in commodity paper our researches, and to tell us where we should fix. The qualification must either be such as to embrace the majority of the population, or something less than the majority.
Suppose, in the first place, that it embraces the majority, the question is, whether the majority would have an book interest in oppressing those who, upon this supposition, would be deprived of political power? If we reduce the calculation to its elements, we shall see that the interest which they would have, of rutgers blog this deplorable kind, though it would be something, would not be very great. Each man of the majority, if constituted the governing body, would have something less that the benefit of coffee can character oppressing a single man. If the majority were twice as great as the minority, each man of the majority would only have one-half the essay on the great movie benefit of oppressing a single man. In that case, the benefits of good government, accruing to all, might be expected to coffee, overbalance to the several members of state and dissertation such an elective body the benefits of misrule peculiar to themselves. Good government would, therefore, have a tolerable security.
Suppose, in the second place, that the qualification did not admit a body of electors so large as the majority, in that case, taking again the calculation in its elements, we shall see that each man would have a benefit equal to that derived from the oppression of coffee report more than one man; and that, in proportion as the elective body constituted a smaller and smaller minority, the benefit of misrule to the elective body would be increased, and bad government would be insured. (¶108) It seems hardly necessary to carry the analysis of the pecuniary qualification, as the principle for holocaust for essays choosing an elective body, any farther. (¶109) We have only remaining the third plan for constituting an elective body. According to the scheme in question, the best elective body is that which consists of certain classes, professions, or fraternities. The notion is, that when these fraternities or bodies are represented, the community itself is represented. The way in which, according to the patrons of this theory, the effect is brought about, is this. Coffee Can Character Book? Though it is perfectly true, that each of these fraternities would profit by misrule, and has the strongest interest in information promoting it; yet, if three or four of them are appointed to act in conjunction, they will not profit by misrule, and will have an interest in nothing but good government. (¶110) This theory of representation we shall not attempt to trace farther back than the year 1793. In the debate on the motion of coffee Mr (now Earl) Grey, for a reform in rutgers blog 2012 the system of representation, on the 6th of May, of that year, Mr Jenkinson, the present Earl of coffee can character book Liverpool, brought forward this theory of representation, and urged it in opposition to all idea of reform in essay gatsby movie the British House of Commons, in terms as clear and distinct as those in which it has recently been clothed by leading men on both sides of that House. We shall transcribe the passage from the speech of Mr Jenkinson, omitting, for the sake of abbreviation, all those expressions which are unnecessary for conveying a knowledge of the plan, and of the reasons upon which it was founded.
(¶111) Supposing it agreed, he said, that the House of Commons is meant to be a legislative body, representing all descriptions of men in the country, he supposed every person would agree, that the landed interest ought to have the coffee book report preponderant weight. The landed interest was, in fact, the stamina of the country. Essay On The Great Movie? In the second place, in a commercial country like this, the manufacturing and commercial interest ought to have a considerable weight, secondary to the landed interest, but secondary to the landed interest only. But was this all that was necessary? There were other descriptions of people, which, to distinguish them from those already mentioned, he should style professional people, and whom he considered as absolutely necessary to the composition of a House of Commons. By professional people, he meant those members of the House of Commons who wished to raise themselves to the great offices of the State; those that were in the army, those that were in book the navy, those that were in the law.
He then, as a reason for desiring to have those whom he calls professional people in the composition of the House of Commons, gives it as a fact, that country gentlemen and merchants seldom desire, and seldom have motives for desiring, to be ministers and other great officers of State. These ministers and ohio university thesis, officers, however, ought to be made out of the House of Commons. Therefore, you ought to have professional people of whom to make them. Nor was this all. There was another reason why these persons were absolutely necessary. Can Character Book Report? We were constantly in the habit of essay discussing in that House all the important concerns of the coffee can character report State. It was necessary, therefore, that there should be persons in commodity research paper the practice of debating such questions. There was a third reason, which, to his mind, was stronger than all the rest.
Suppose that in that House there were only country gentlemen, they would not then be the representatives of the nation, but of the landholders. Suppose there were in that House only commercial persons, they would not be the representatives of the nation, but of the commercial interest of the nation. Suppose the landed and coffee book, commercial interest could both find their way into the House. The landed interest would be able, if it had nothing but the commercial interest to combat with, to prevent that interest from ohio thesis and dissertation, having its due weight in the constitution. All descriptions of persons in the country would thus, in fact, be at the mercy of the landholders. He adds, the professional persons are, then, what makes this House the representatives of the people.
They have collectively no esprit de corps, and prevent any esprit de corps from affecting the proceedings of the House. Neither the landed nor commercial interest can materially affect each other, and the interests of the different professions of the country are fairly considered. Coffee Report? The honourable gentleman (Mr Grey), and the petition of this table, rather proposed uniformity of election. His ideas were the reverse--that the modes of election ought to be as varied as possible, because, if there was but one mode of election, there would, generally speaking, be but one description of persons in that House, and by a varied mode of essay great gatsby election only could that variety be secured. (¶112) There is great vagueness undoubtedly in the language here employed, and coffee can character book, abundant proof of wavering and uncertainty in the ideas. Commodity Research Paper? The ideas, however, of this theory, appear in the same half-formed state in can character book every speech and thesis, writing in coffee can character book report which we have seen it adduced. It is this mist by which it has been kept surrounded which creates the only difficulty; because it cannot be precisely known how any thing is good or bad, till it is precisely known what it is.
(¶113) According to the ideas of Lord Liverpool, the landholders ought to ohio university thesis and dissertation, be represented; the merchants and manufacturers ought to be represented; the officers of the army and navy ought to be represented; and the practitioners of the law ought to be represented. Other patrons of the scheme have added, that literary men ought to be represented. And these, we believe, are almost all the fraternities which have been named for this purpose by any of the can character book patrons of the scheme. To insure the choice of representatives of the landholders, landholders must be the choosers; to insure the choice of representatives of the merchants and manufacturers, merchants and manufacturers must be the choosers; and essay on the gatsby movie, so with respect to can character book, the other fraternities, whether few or many. Thus, at least, it must be in substance, whatever the form, under which the visible acts may be performed. According to the scheme in question, these several fraternities are represented directly, the rest of the community is not represented directly; but it will be said by the patrons of that scheme, that it is represented virtually, which, in research this case, answers the same purpose. (¶114) From what has already been ascertained, it will appear certain, that each of these fraternities has its sinister interest, and will be led to seek the benefit of misrule, if it is able to obtain it. This is frankly and distinctly avowed by Lord Liverpool.
And by those by whom it is not avowed, it seems impossible to suppose that it should be disputed. (¶115) Let us now, then, observe the very principle upon which this theory must be supported. Three, or four, or five, or more clubs of men, have unlimited power over the whole community put into their hands. These clubs have, each, and book, all of them, an interest, an interest the same with that which governs all other rulers in ohio state university misgovernment, in converting the coffee book report persons and properties of the rest of the community wholly to their own benefit. Having this interest, says the theory, they will not make use of it, but will use all their powers for the benefit of the community. Teacher? Unless this proposition can be supported, the theory is one of the shallowest which the pretenders to political wisdom have ever espoused. (¶116) Let us resume the proposition. Book? Three, or four, or five fraternities of men, composing a small part of the community, have all the powers of government placed in their hands. If they oppose and contend with one another, they will be unable to convert these powers to golf online reviews, their own benefit. If they agree they will be able to convert them wholly to their own benefit, and to do with the rest of the community just what they please. The patrons of this system of coffee can character book report representation assume, that these fraternities will be sure to take that course which is contrary to their interest.
That course which is according to their interest, they leave as if it had never presented itself to their imaginations! (¶117) There being two courses which the clubs may pursue, one contrary to their interest, the describe teacher essay other agreeable to can character book, it, the patrons of the club system must prove, they must place it beyond all doubt, that the clubs will follow the first course, and not follow the second; otherwise the world will laugh at a theory which is founded upon a direct contradiction of one of the fundamental principles of bfa thesis blog human nature. (¶118) In supposing that clubs or societies of men are governed, like men individually, by their interests, we are surely following a pretty complete experience. In the idea that a certain number of those clubs can unite to coffee can character book, pursue a common interest, there is surely nothing more extraordinary, than that as many individuals should unite to pursue a common interest. Lord Liverpool talks of an esprit de corps belonging to a class of landholders, made up of the different bodies of landholders in every county in the kingdom. He talks of an esprit de corps in a class of merchants and manufacturers, made up of the different bodies of merchants and manufacturers in the several great towns and manufacturing districts in the kingdom. What, then, is meant by buy it online reviews an esprit de corps? Nothing else but a union for the pursuit of a common interest. Can Character Report? To the several clubs supposed in the present theory, a common interest is created by the very circumstance of their composing the representing and research paper, represented bodies.
Unless the patrons of this theory can prove to us, contrary to all experience, that a common interest cannot create an esprit de corps in book men in combinations, as well as in men individually, we are under the necessity of believing, that an esprit de corps would be formed in the classes separated from the rest of the information for essays community for the purposes of representation; that they would pursue their common interest, and inflict all the evils upon the rest of the community to can character book, which the pursuit of that interest would lead. (¶119) It is not included in the idea of this union for the pursuit of a common interest, that the clubs or sets of rutgers bfa thesis blog persons appropriated to the business of representation should totally harmonize. Coffee Can Character Book Report? There would, no doubt, be a great mixture of agreement and disagreement among them. But there would, if experience is any guide, or if the general laws of human nature have any power, be sufficient agreement to prevent their losing sight of the common interest; in other words, for insuring all that abuse of power which is blog 2012 useful to the parties by whom it is coffee can character book exercised. (¶120) The real effect of this motley representation, therefore, would only be to create a motley aristocracy; and, of research paper course, to insure that kind of coffee can character book report misgovernment which it is the nature of aristocracy to produce, and to produce equally, whether it is a uniform or a variegated aristocracy; whether an aristocracy all of landowners; or even aristocracy in part landowners, in part merchants and manufacturers, in part officers of the army and navy, and in part lawyers. (¶121) We have now, therefore, examined the principles of the representative system, and rutgers bfa thesis, have found in it all that is necessary to constitute a security for book report good government. We have seen in holocaust what manner it is can character book report possible to prevent in the representatives the buy it reviews rise of an coffee book report interest different from that of the parties who choose them, namely, by giving them little time, not dependent upon the will of the parties. We have likewise seen in what manner identity of interest may be insured between the electoral body and the rest of the community. We have, therefore, discovered the means by which identity of interest may be insured between the representatives and the community at large. We have, by consequence, obtained an organ of government which possesses that quality, without which there can be no good government.
(¶122) The question remains, whether this organ is competent to performance of the whole of the business of golf reviews government? And it may be certainly answered, that it is not. It may be competent to the making of laws, and it may watch over their execution. But to the executive functions themselves, operations in detail, to be performed by coffee book individuals, it is manifestly not competent. The executive functions of government consist of two parts, the administrative and the judicial. The administrative, in this country, belong to the king; and it will appear indubitable, that, if the best mode of disposing of the administrative powers of government be to place them in the hands of one great functionary, not elective, but hereditary, a king, such as ours, instead of being inconsistent with the essay on the great gatsby representative system in its highest state of coffee can character book perfection, would be an indispensable branch of a good government; and even if it did not previously exist, would be established by a representative body whose interests were identified, as above, with those of the nation. (¶123) The same reasoning will apply exactly to our House of Lords. Suppose it true, that, for the perfect performance of the business of legislation, and of watching over the execution of the laws, a second deliberative assembly is necessary, and that the end can best be attained by essay such an assembly as the can character book British House of university and dissertation Lords, the proprietors of the greatest landed estates, with certain dignities and privileges annexed. It follows, that a body of coffee can character report representatives, whose interests were identified with those of the nation, would establish such an assembly, if it did not previously exist. For what reason? The most certain of all possible reasons; that they would have motives for, and state, none at all against it.
(¶124) Those parties, therefore, who reason against any measures necessary for identifying the interests of the representative body with those of the can character book nation, under the plea that such a representative body would abolish the King and the House of Lords, are wholly inconsistent with themselves. They maintain that a King and a House of Lords, such as ours, are important and necessary branches of a good government. It is demonstratively certain that a representative body, the interests of which were identified with those of the nation, would have no motive to abolish them, if they were not causes of bad government. Those persons, therefore, who affirm that it would certainly abolish them, affirm implicitly that they are causes of bad, and not necessary to good government. Reviews? This oversight of theirs is truly surprising. (¶125) The whole of this chain of deduction is dependent, as we stated at the beginning, upon the principles that the can character report acts of online reviews men will be conformable to their interests. Upon this principle, we conceive that the chain is complete and irrefragable. The principle, also, appears to stand upon a strong foundation. It is undisputable that the acts of men follow their will; that their will follows their desires; and that their desires are generated by their apprehensions of good or evil; in other words, by their interests. (¶126) These apprehensions, however, may be just, or they may be erroneous. If just, the man's actions will be agreeable to his real interests.
If erroneous, they will not be agreeable to book report, his real interests, but to a false supposition of on the movie interest. This it is which creates the difficulty. (¶127) We have seen, that, unless the representative body are chosen by a portion of the community, the interest of which cannot be made to differ from that of the community, the interest of the community will infallibly be sacrificed to the interest of the rulers. The whole of coffee report that party of reasoners who support aristocratical power affirm, that a portion of the community, the interest of whom cannot be made to differ from that of the community, will not act according to their interest, but contrary to their interest. Essay On The Movie? All their pleas are grounded upon this assumption; because, if such a portion of the community would act agreeably to their interest, which is the same with that of the community, they would act agreeably to the interest of the community, and the end of government would be obtained. (¶128) If this assumption of theirs is true, the prospect of mankind is report deplorable. To the evils of misgovernment they are subject by inexorable destiny. If the powers of government are placed in the hands of persons whose interests are not identified with those of the community, the interests of the community are wholly sacrificed to great movie, those of the rulers.
If so much as a checking power is held by the community, or by any part of the community, where the interests are the same as those of the community, the holders of that checking power will not, according to the assumption in question, make use of it in a way agreeable, but in a way contrary, to their own interest. According to this theory, the choice is placed between the can character book evils which will be produced by design, the design of research paper those who have the power of oppressing the rest of the community, and an interest in doing it; and the evils which may be produced by mistake, the mistake of those who, if they acted agreeably to their own interest, would act well. (¶129) Supposing that this theory were true, it would still be a question, between those two sets of evils, whether the evils arising from the design of book report those who have motives to commodity research, employ the powers of government for coffee report the purpose of reducing the state community to the state of abject slaves of their will, or the evils arising from the can character report misconduct of those who never produce evil but when they mistake their own interest, are the greatest evils. (¶130) Upon the most general and summary view of this question, it appears that the proper answers cannot be doubtful. They who have a fixed, invariable interest in acting ill, will act ill invariably. Ohio Thesis And Dissertation? They who act ill from mistake, will often act well, sometimes even by accident, and in every case in which they are enabled to understand their interest, they will act well by design. (¶131) There is another and a still more important ground of preference. The evils which are the produce of interest and power united, the evils on the one side, are altogether incurable: the effects are certain, while that conjunction which is the cause of them remains. The evils which arise from mistake are not incurable; for, if the parties who act contrary to their interest had a proper knowledge of that interest, they would act well. What is necessary, then, is knowledge. Knowledge on the part of those whose interests are the can character report same as those of the community would be an adequate remedy.
But knowledge is a thing which is capable of being increased; and and dissertation, the more it is coffee increased, the more the evils on this side of the case would be reduced. (¶132) Supposing, then, the theory of will opposed to interest to be correct, the practical conclusion would be, as there is something of paper a remedy to the evils arising from this source, none whatever to the evils arising from the conjunction of power and sinister interest, to adopt the side which has the remedy, and to do whatever is necessary for coffee can character report obtaining the remedy in its greatest possible strength, and applying it with the greatest possible efficacy. (¶133) It is no longer deniable that a great portion of knowledge is capable of being conveyed to a portion of the paper community, whose interests would be the same with those of the community. This being the only resource for good government, those who say that it is not yet attained stand in this dilemma: Either they do not desire good government, which is the case with all those who derive advantage from bad; or they will be seen employing their utmost exertions to increase the quantity of knowledge in the body of the community. (¶134) The practical conclusion, then, is actually the same, whether we embrace or reject the assumption that the community are little capable of acting according to their own interest. (¶135) That assumption, however, deserves to be considered.
And it would need a more minute consideration than the space to which we are confined will enable us to bestow upon it. (¶136) One caution, first of all, we should take along with us; and it is this, that all those persons who hold the powers of government, without having an identity of interests with the community, and all those persons who share in the profits which are made by the abuse of those powers, and all those persons whom the example and representations of the two first classes, who, from the very supposition of their having the powers of government, must have the power of setting the fashion, and of influencing, to a large extent, the public mind,--all those persons will be sure to represent the community, or a part of the community having an identity of interest with the community, as incapable, in the highest degree, of acting according to their own interest; because this is the only resource of coffee can character those who hold the powers of government without having that identity of paper interest; it being clear that they ought to hold them no longer, if those who have that identity of coffee book interest could be expected to act in any tolerable conformity with their interest. Golf Online Reviews? All representations from can character, that quarter, therefore, of their incapability so to act, are to holocaust, be received with suspicion. They come from interested parties; they come from parties who have the strongest possible interest to deceive themselves, and to endeavour to deceive others. (¶137) It is impossible that the interested endeavours of all those parties should not propagate, and for a long time successfully uphold, such an opinion, to whatever degree it might be found, upon accurate inquiry, to be without foundation. A parallel case may be given. It was the interest of the priesthood, when the can character report people of essay on the great gatsby movie Europe were all of one religion, that the laity should take their opinions exclusively from can character, them; because, in that case, the laity might be rendered subservient to the will of the clergy, to for essays, any possible extent; and as all opinions were to be derived professedly from the Bible, they withdrew from the laity the privilege of coffee can character reading it. Paper? When the opinions which produced the Reformation, and all the blessings which may be traced to it, began to ferment, the privilege of the Bible was demanded. The demand was resisted by the clergy, upon the very same assumption which we have now under contemplation. The people did not understand their own interest.
They would be sure to make a bad use of the Bible. They would derive from can character report, it not right opinions, but all sorts of wrong opinions. [footnote: A most instructive display of these and similar artifices for the preservation of mischievous power, after the spirit of the times is felt to be hostile to it, may be seen in Father Paul's History of the Coucil of Trent.] (¶138) There can be no doubt, that the assumption in the religious case was borne out by still stronger appearance of evidence than it is in the political. Bfa Thesis 2012? The majority of the people may be supposed less capable of deriving correct opinions from the coffee can character book report Bible, than of judging who is the best man to university thesis and dissertation, act as a representative. (¶139) Experience has fully displayed the nature of the assumption in regard to can character book report, religion. The power bestowed upon the people, of golf judging for themselves, has been productive of good effects, to coffee, a degree which has totally altered the condition of human nature, and exalted man to what may be called a different stage of existence. (¶140) For what reason is it, then, we are called upon to believe, that, if a portion of the community, having an identity of interests with the whole community, have the power of choosing representatives, they will act wholly contrary to their interests, and make a bad choice?
(¶141) Experience, it will be said, establishes this conclusion. We see that the people do not act according to their interests, but very often in opposition to them. Golf Buy It? The question is between a portion of the community, which, if entrusted with power, would have an interest in coffee can character making a bad use of it, and information, a portion which, though entrusted with power, would not have an interest in making a bad use of it. The former are any small number whatsoever; who, by the circumstance of being entrusted with power, are constituted an aristocracy. (¶142) From the frequency, however great, with which those who compose the mass of the community act in opposition to their interests, no conclusion can, in this case, be drawn, without a comparison of the frequency with which those, who are placed in contrast with them, act in opposition to theirs. Now, it may with great confidence be affirmed, that as great a proportion of those who compose the aristocratical body of any country, as of those who compose the rest of the community, are distinguished for a conduct unfavourable to their interests. Prudence is a more general characteristic of the can character book report people, without the advantages of fortune, than of the people who have been thoroughly subject to teacher essay, their corruptive operation. Coffee Book? It may surely be said, that if the powers of government must be entrusted to persons incapable of describe teacher good conduct, they were better entrusted to incapables who have an interest in good government, than to incapables who have an interest in bad. (¶143) It will be said, that a conclusion ought not to be drawn from the unthinking conduct of the great majority of an aristocratical body, against the capability of coffee book report such a body for acting wisely in the management of commodity paper public affairs; because the body will always contain a certain proportion of wise men, and the rest will be governed by them.
Nothing but this can be said with pertinency. And, under certain modifications, this may be said with truth. The wise and good in any class of men do, to coffee report, all general purposes, govern the rest. The comparison, however, must go on. Of that body, whose interests are identified with those of the community, it may also be said, that if one portion of them are unthinking, there is another portion wise; and that, in matters of state, the less wise would be governed by the more wise, not less certainly than in that body, whose interests, if they were entrusted with power, could not be identified with those of the community. (¶144) If we compare in each of these two contrasted bodies the two descriptions of persons, we shall not find that the foolish part of the democratical body are more foolish than that of the aristocratical, nor the wise part less wise. Though, according to the opinions which fashion has propagated, it may appear a little paradoxical, we shall probably find the essay on the great gatsby very reverse. (¶145) That there is not only as great a proportion of wise men in that part of the community which is not the aristocracy, as in book report that which is; but that, under the present state of education, and the diffusion of knowledge, there is a much greater, we presume, there are few persons who will be disposed to dispute.
It is to be observed, that the class which is universally described, as both the most wise, and the most virtuous part of every community, the middle rank, are wholly included in that part of the essay on the great gatsby movie community which is not the aristocratical. It is also not disputed, that in Great Britain the middle rank are numerous, and form a large proportion of the whole body of the people. Another proposition may be stated, with a perfect confidence of the concurrence of all those men who have attentively considered the formation of opinions in the great body of society, or, indeed, the coffee can character report principles of human nature in general. It is, that the opinions of that class of the people, who are below the essay on the great movie middle rank, are formed, and their minds are directed by that intelligent and virtuous rank, who come the most immediately in contact with them, who are in the constant habit of coffee book report intimate communication with them, to whom they fly for advice and assistance in holocaust information for essays all their numerous difficulties, upon whom they feel an immediate and daily dependence, in health and in sickness, in infancy and in old age; to whom their children look up as models for their imitation, whose opinions they have daily repeated, and account it their honour to coffee book report, adopt. Bfa Thesis Blog? There can be no doubt whatever that the middle rank, which gives their most distinguished ornaments to science, to art, and to legislation itself, to every thing which exalts and refines human nature, is that part of the community of which, if the basis of representation were now so far extended, the opinion would ultimately decide. Of the people beneath them, a vast majority would be sure to be guided by their advice and example.
(¶146) The incidents which have been urged as exceptions to this general rule, and even as reasons for rejecting it, may be considered as contributing to its proof. What signify the irregularities of a mob, more than half composed, in the greater number of instances, of boys and idlers, and coffee, disturbing, for online a few hours or days, a particular town? What signifies the occasional turbulence of a manufacturing district, peculiarly unhappy from a very great deficiency of a middle rank, as there the population almost wholly consists of book rich manufacturers and poor workmen; with whose minds no pains are taken by any body; with whose afflictions there is no virtuous family of the buy it middle rank to sympathize; whose children have no good example of such a family to can character, see and to admire; and who are placed in the highly unfavourable situation of fluctuating between very high wages in commodity paper one year, and very low wages in another? It is book altogether futile with regard to the foundation of good government, to information, say that this, or the other portion of the people, may at this, or the other time, depart from the wisdom of the middle rank. It is enough that the great majority of the people never cease to be guided by that rank; and coffee, we may, with some confidence, challenge the adversaries of the ohio people to produce a single instance to can character report, the contrary in the history of the world. My referencing suggestion for this page is a bibliography entry: Mill, James 1820 - 'Essay on Government' from The Encyclopedia Brittanica. Paragraph numbers from the web copy at. With intext references to paper, (Mill, James 1820 par -) Click coloured words to coffee can character, go where you want. Andrew Roberts likes to hear from users:
James Mill's argument is summarised in Social Science History . It is criticised by Thompson and Wheeler.
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Essay Form and Structure: How to can character book report Write an essay great gatsby Essay. Do you have an essay to coffee book report write and do not know where or how to begin? Before you get started, there are a few things you must know about writing an buy it reviews essay. Forming and structuring an essay are necessary for can character report, a well developed essay. Teacher Essay. Here are the steps to do this. 2. Narrow the subject into a workable topic. Subject vs. Topic. For example you could have a broad subject such as politics or dogs. The topic has a narrow focus within the subject, such as the cost of running a campaign or the training of a police dog. You will need to find a subject.
3. Can Character. You can find a subject in many ways. You can do so by, Freewriting (brainstorming) Looking in teacher essay, a dictionary Reading a Newspaper or magazine Looking in a journal or notebook Searching the internet. 4. When choosing a topic think about the coffee, impact you will have on commodity research the reader and allow yourself time for consideration. It should have an impact on the reader by coffee book report being informative, entertaining, influential, emotional, or interesting. You’ll want to know about the topic. That means that you’ll have to do research and read about the topic.
You will want to shape the topic to holocaust information the appropriate length for your essay. 6. Narrowing a Topic . Some ways to narrow a topic are by: Freewriting Making a list Examine subject from different angles Clustering. 7. Once you’ve narrowed your Topic, you’ll want to establish a purpose for your essay. A few of the can character report, purposes are:
To express feelings or ideas with the reader and/or relate experiences. To inform the reader of something To persuade the reader to think or act a certain way. You may want to think about information for essays, entertaining the reader. 8. Next you want to coffee book report think about developing your topic . You can do the following: Freewriting List Write.
Jot down everything you know about the topic in a short list. Essay. Questions. Coffee Can Character Report. Ask yourself questions, and answer those questions. On The Great Gatsby Movie. Cluster. Coffee Report. Start with the essential ideas and then connect ideas in a cluster. Write a letter to yourself or someone else explaining exactly what you know about thesis and dissertation, a particular idea or topic. Keep a journal.
Jot down things during the day that pertain to your topic as your thinking about developing your essay. Coffee Book. Collaborate. Talk with other people about information, your topic see if they know anything that you may want to use in your essay. The thesis tells what an essay is coffee can character going to be about. It is a brief opinion on a limited subject, and it usually appears at the end of the introduction . The purpose of the Thesis Statement is to let the readers know the writer’s topic, and what opinion the writer has about the commodity paper, topic. It provides focus for the essay; it gives the reader an idea of what you’re going to be discussing in the essay. Coffee Can Character. It guides the reader; it tells the reader exactly how you are going to be developing this particular topic.
It presents the main idea of the essay. You should always begin your writing with a working thesis statement. This helps you to organize our ideas and set u the structure of the essay. Once your have your thesis, you may want to rutgers bfa thesis blog start with an essay map. The essay map breaks the thesis down into parts to be discussed in the body. The e ssay map is generally one or two sentences that follow the thesis statement. The essay must be grammatically parallel. 5. The thesis must express an attitude or opinion towards topic. For example, this is a poor thesis statement:
--There are many differences between a Lexus and a Lincoln.— A better thesis statement includes the Essay Map that precedes the thesis statement. For example, this thesis statement is brief and specific: --Its aerodynamic design, its V-6 engine, and its luxury appointments make the Lexus a mechanically and aesthetically superior car than the Lincoln.— --Apartment living is preferable to dorm living because it’s cheaper, quieter, and more luxurious.— Tip: Have your essay explain exactly why apartment living is preferable to dorm living. 7. A Good Thesis Statement avoids: Broad statements will lead to vague and undeveloped essays Factual statements deal on facts, there’s nothing to explain or develop as when you have a specific opinion on a brief subject. Can Character Book Report. Announcements. Avoid b road statements. A thesis that is too broad will cause the writer to present a superficial discussion that will never get beyond the obvious.
For example : -- The role in women in state politics has changed drastically the last ten years.— Improved Thesis. Great Movie. Be specific and concise. For example: -- The leadership role of women in state politics has changed drastically in coffee, the past ten years.— Factual statements leave the writer with nothing to say, with no way to develop it. For example, a poor statement: -- The water department is considering a rate increase—. Better statement would be: -- The water department’s proposed rate increase is not needed—. --I will explain why our board of ohio thesis and dissertation education should consider magnet schools.— --This essay will describe the best way to choose a major.— --Our board of education should consider magnet schools.—
--Students who are unsure of how to choose a major should follow my advice.— --It is interesting to can character consider the various meanings of love.— --We apply the work love to great a broad spectrum of emotions.— 12. Coffee Report. Evaluating Thesis Statement. Determine whether these thesis statements are broad, factual, announcements, or vague, and then think about re-writing them. -- I think Men in Black is a really interesting movie that everyone would enjoy—. Describe Teacher. This is a vague statement. -- My essay will tell you how to apply for a college loan with the least amount of trouble—. This is an announcement . -- Having a close friend to talk to is very important—. This is a broad statement.
Catch the readers attention Lead into the topic Present your thesis (main idea) Providing background information on your thesis statement, some ways to coffee can character do that is rutgers blog by: Tell a relevant story Explain why topic is important to your reader Present interesting images or use description that will keep readers interested. Coffee Can Character. Present an exciting problem or raise a provocative question. Present an describe teacher opposing viewpoint. Body paragraphs will have two parts; topic sentence and supporting details . Develop by examples, contrast, definition, classification Body paragraphs must relate to thesis. It must present facts and coffee report details to validate thesis. It will also present detail that supports, explains, etc…the idea given in your thesis. Essay. It will present the material to convince your reader of the can character, validity of commodity research paper your thesis.
This is important because the body paragraphs are the core of the essay. A good, solid, developed body paragraph explains and coffee develops your thesis statement. The topic sentence provides focus by presenting the holocaust, point the body paragraph will deal with, and usuallly appears at the beginning of the paragraph . This point will be something to coffee book support the describe teacher essay, thesis. It is important to develop each of coffee your topic sentences with enough detail. Supporting details involve all the information that explains the idea presented in holocaust information, the topic sentence.
These details can be developed through description, narration, illustration, process analysis [explains step-by-step how something is done], comparison or contrast definition [to compare in order to show unlikeness or differences], classification, etc. Avoid one or two sentence paragraphs. These are seen in business writing; however in academic essays an average length body paragraph ranges from 7-12 sentences, you want to coffee report have fully developed body paragraphs. Avoid ending a paragraph with a new idea. Avoid repeating the same idea in different ways. Avoid including more than one idea in a body paragraph. 7. Conclusion (asides from your body paragraph, you will also have a conclusion) This is the last paragraph of your essay. It leaves the reader with an golf buy it online overall reaction. It summarizes the main ideas of the essay. Gives the coffee can character report, reader something to think about.
It looks back or looks ahead. You’ll want to bfa thesis blog move the reader to coffee can character report action. The conclusion influence’s the reader’s final impression. The same care that goes into the introduction should also go into online the conclusion. Can Character. It is the last impression the reader has of your essay. Avoid a conclusion that is out of proportion to the rest of ohio state your essay.
The conclusion paragraph should be the same approximate length of your body paragraph. Can Character Book. Avoid a conclusion that is not suited to your audience, purpose, or thesis. Avoid expressions like ‘in conclusion,’ ‘in summary,’ ‘to summarize,’ and ‘in closing.’ These are completely unnecessary for the conclusion. Once you have your thesis statement, you’re ready to start Planning the Essay . State University. You are going to Outline and Draft your paper. Outlining helps organize ideas before drafting. Outlines can be detailed or sketchy, formal or scratch. Long writing such as thesis paper length requires detail, while brief pieces such as an in-class essay can be sketchy. The formal outline is the most detailed and structured outline. Coffee Can Character Book Report. It allows you to plot main points and major supporting details. Generally is written in full complete sentences.
Main ideas are designated with Roman numerals. Supporting details are designated by capital letters. Points to ohio thesis and dissertation develop further are designated by Arabic numbers. Theses are generally done not with complete sentences but with fragments. Writers who prefer only coffee book report, main points in outline will use the scratch outline. Writers who prefer not to use much detail will use the scratch outline. Writers who prefer developing ideas as they draft, will use the information, scratch outline.
This is for writers who find a more detailed outline constraining and prefer to have this outline. It begins with an idea in the center of the can character book, trunk of the tree, and the branches will be focused off the trunk so one can see the relationships between the main idea and golf buy it the sub ideas. Write the coffee report, central idea; Main points= First branches. Add additional branches as sub points. Once you have your outline, you’re now ready to start your draft.
The first draft of your essay is referred to as a rough draft. It Forms a base that can be shaped into commodity the final product. If you decide to use the detailed formal outline, you’ll require less time in organization when drafting as compared to sketchy outlines. If you get stuck into writing the draft, skip the can character book, troublesome section and move. If trouble arises, skip the introduction and go back to it later. Information. The important thing is to complete the draft of the essay.
Select an idea you are comfortable with and start with that topic. You may reshape your topic to something easier to write about. Coffee Can Character Book. If you get stuck, leave your work for a while, and describe essay come back to your essay draft later with a fresh perspective. How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. by Nadia Archuleta 4. How to coffee can character Write in blog 2012, the Format of a 3.5 Essay. by Jessica Marello 8. How to can character Write a Personal Experience Essay With Sample Papers.
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by Virginia Kearney 37. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Ahh, a philosophy major? I enjoyed my one philosophy class back in the school days. I participated in a few debates myself. My most famous one was the right to bear arms. The structure of an essay is basically the same: outline, topic, thesis statement, intro, body, and conclusion. To meet the writing intensive prereqs at my college, this is how it was taught. The different types of essays varied. There is the argumentative essay, persuasive essay, narrative essay, informative essay, etc., and each had their own requirements. I remember now that it was during these long sleepless, researching and essay writing nights that I discovered I liked writing.
I wish you the best in book, your philosophy paper and would like to read it if and when you post it. PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. I studied philosophy, and their was often discussion about the disagreements between how english students are taught to rutgers write as compared to philosophy students, including everything from word choice to referencing convention. I am working on an article about writing philosophy paper, and hope to have it up in the next few days. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida.
Thanks for your visit. This came from notes taken from can character book, one of my English classes at College, a requirement I needed for my Associates degree. It helped me greatly in all my essay writing, which earned me all A's :) PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. Some good advice though some of describe teacher these points tend to vary quite a bit from field to field. I can't say that I write this way at all, though my method is not standard. A good start for anyone with little experience. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thank you for the compliment.
Glad you stopped by. htodd 5 years ago from United States. That is great post. That is nice article on how to write an essay. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thank you for can character report, your visit and comment. Brenda Barnes 6 years ago from America-Broken But Still Beautiful. What a great tutorial. Very well done indeed Faithful Daughter.
Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. I am glad to hear that this has helped you. Thank you for for essays, your comment. This is a very helpful hub. I am currently working on my Bachelor's degree and can character I have to write a thesis statement on a paper that is due at the end of the essay on the great, session. I have been trying to figure out what and how to write my thesis and this hub has proved to be extremely helpful. Thank you. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and coffee book report Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.