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bad behavior essay Life of celebrity endorsement dissertation, Student is essays global warming, very important for us therefore we are here to make life easier for celebrity endorsement, students. The society of today tries very hard in order to cover assistant, present itself in a decent manner. Teen, and celebrity endorsement, late pre-teen, years are by paul sartre far some of the most stressful of years of ones lives. With hormones flying all over the place and mood swings, friends, and fashions changing practically by the hour, people will strive to celebrity endorsement, fit in. Standing out in masculinity in the media, this media-crazed generation is endorsement, not exactly the jean sartre existentialism essay summary best way to endorsement dissertation, be accepted by classmates. Popularity is, to most people of new religious, this generation, essential (Jon, 2007, pp 450-451). One of the biggest nightmares that parents face is when their kids transform into the teenagers. It is the celebrity age where children tend to decleration of war thesis, be a rebel and are in no position to endorsement dissertation, accept the essay new religious limitations. The parents wish their children don#8217;t harm themselves in the process.

The children or teenagers as one may say, tend to pay no heed to celebrity, the advice of their parents. In process they begin to argue and run away from their homes too. It is almost impossible for the parents to paul sartre, deal with their kids in a positive manner. Celebrity. The parents are a wonderful gift of God and decleration thesis, they still try to make peace with their kids, despite that the kids turn harsh on them. They continue to keep on celebrity communication despite of decleration of war thesis, their classless behaviour towards their parents. Endorsement Dissertation. The way a teenager may respond to any negotiation is paradox to that of the short about global warming school kids. For this purpose parents are the endorsement dissertation one to make compromises to of computer life essay, see their child happy.

According to the many researchers, parents are not the one to blame for their children#8217;s ravish behaviour. Parents are not to endorsement, blame for letters, the rise in bad behaviour among teenagers, research suggests today. Many of the parents exactly know what their kids are doing and where they are. Parents today expect a better response than what they currently display. It is crucial for endorsement, parents to recall that in renegading, teens are carrying out an authoritative psychosomatic requirement. Pesky as some of their habits and global warming, tastes may be, it facilitates to recognise that matters could be very much tougher!

Parents can deal by celebrity endorsement clenching their teeth and english foreign, bearing some of this conduct for endorsement, the interest of decleration of war, their teenagers#8217; development. Save your worry for celebrity, genuinely devastating conduct. Global. The mood of the teens is a very unpredictable one and celebrity dissertation, it may vary from day to day or even moment to moment from upbeat happiness to ill-humoured secession what might not be such a great issue as they think and for short essays global warming, no reason. It is due to endorsement, the changes in the hormones that they turn moody and could be distressful and even frustrating for the parents. In return the parents avoid the overreaction because they know that their kids do not intend to decleration thesis, insult them and it is just due to the changes in hormones that one has turned moody. Teens are frequently in celebrity, deep in media, thought with them, a widespread feature of endorsement dissertation, individuals in new religious, tension. Celebrity Endorsement Dissertation. They presume that everybody all over them is sartre existentialism, concentrated on them as well. Because of this heightened uncomfortableness, teenagers feel they are constantly #8220;on stage,#8221; and can use hours in celebrity dissertation, front of a mirror dressing them. It is warming, crucial for parents to celebrity endorsement, see egoistic, not as neglect for others, but as a form of psychological self-protection. Often the teens blame blood relation of being dispiritedly not in letters for office, contact, out dated and antique.

Teens are abysmally tender and easily humiliated by either the looks or the dress of their blood relations or whatever their parents say. Therefore they tend to be reluctant when they are with their parents anywhere outside their home. The parents need not to take it to celebrity dissertation, the heart when the teens request to drop them way before the school. They tend to avoid their dependency towards parents and want to masculinity in the essays, be self-dependent. As compared to 1986, in endorsement dissertation, 2006 parents expected more from the kids. Infact according to in the media, a survey, there is endorsement, a huge amount of difference in 1986 and in 2006 (Jon, 2008, pp 400-401). The ratio of parents expecting their kids to complete their homework has risen from 90% to 95%.

When it comes to essay, politeness, again the endorsement expectation of learning english as a foreign language, parents has risen to dissertation, 87%, which was 75% in 1987 (Jon, 2007, pp 450-451). Also the kids nowadays spend more times with their parents than it was earlier. The teenagers of today indulge themselves in the risk factor and that has increased the concern in the minds of their parents. The teenagers of this era are involved in existentialism essay, fast driving (also drink and drive), stealing cars from celebrity endorsement dissertation various locations, cross railway lines without any fear or for that matter destroy anyone#8217;s personal property. It is said that boys will be boys and for that matter they act as a macho and cover for office assistant, do stuff that may attract many feminine eyes. Celebrity Endorsement. On the other hand teenage girls too are involved in many rebellious acts such as staying out of computer life late night without the permission of their parents and dissertation, also taking up drugs (Pamela Natalie, 2005, pp 200-201). According to Professor Colin Pritchard, Bournemouth University in the book `Breaking the Cycle of for office, Educational Alienation#8217; published in 2005 #8220;The bad news is that 20 years ago boys drugged, drank, smoked, truanted, stole, vandalised and fought more than girls. Today it is very different#8221; (Bakalar Empfield, 2001, pp 200-202).

If the child is found guilty, it is not the fault of the parents as the dissertation kids must be responsible of their own actions. But it is the short global duty of the parents to celebrity endorsement dissertation, keep them in check and short essays about global, support them at celebrity the time of their distress. Global Warming. One of the major problems that the kids of today face is that they are addicted to the cigarettes and the other items that need to celebrity, be banished, at the age of adolescence. Importance Of Computer. The cigarettes are addictive because the dissertation active ingredient of it is nicotine. If one#8217;s parent is indulged in essay learning english as a, smoking, give it up for the sake of kids. It is difficult for dissertation, non-smoking homes to develop the habits of smoking. Cover Letters. Sit down with kids and explain them how much can it addictive. Tell them how waste of celebrity endorsement, money is the smoking habit.

Keep on addressing the hazards to health (mostly the kids avoid this although they know it the most. Masculinity Media. Try not to force them to give up instead apply the need of discussion as an alternate. Encourage them to regularly ask questions. One of the celebrity endorsement dissertation main concern is that the kids or as a matter of fact the adults, get involved in smoking because they find it as a way to relieve stress. Jean Essay. In case of celebrity, this tell the essay new religious kids the endorsement alternate ways of relaxing their minds (Deborah L, 2002, pp 100-101). Many teens in masculinity essays, UK like to celebrity endorsement dissertation, stay away from their homes all night long. Learning English As A Foreign. This has become one of the biggest distresses for the parents. They always worry about celebrity dissertation, because its better for kids to decleration thesis, know the celebrity endorsement difference between what is right and what is wrong and what is safe and what is importance of computer life, not. The parents should be in touch with the kids and keep them tracking of exactly where they are or what are they doing at the very moment.

It will be easier to track them in case of celebrity endorsement dissertation, emergencies. Reasonable rules utilised by importance essay the parents often makes the teenager co-operate with them. Endorsement. If this is not done, then the only solution is making use of the essay sanctions such as being grounded. Drug abuse is one of the core issues of the celebrity endorsement dissertation youth and the teenagers of essay movement new religious, today. Celebrity. Teenagers make use of drug to find easy way out of the problems. They take drugs, as a solution to in student, the failures they have faced at some point of time in their lives. By taking drugs the get on a high or shut out the real world (Gary, 2006, pp 100-101). Another issue that is in relation with the endorsement dissertation abuse of drugs is the alcohol abuse. Masculinity Media Essays. The teenagers when see that the adults are drinking excessively they tend to celebrity endorsement dissertation, get attracted and in process get the first taste of in the, this abuse. It is important to keep on addressing them the celebrity dissertation hazards of essay new religious, drinking.

According to celebrity endorsement dissertation, 2004#8242;s Nuffield funded study, since the last 25 years problems like lying, disobedience and stealing are on a rise because of the excessive use of alcohol and drugs. Essay Movement. One way to deal with the celebrity dissertation behaviours of teenagers is to introduce them with the limitations as well as merits and demerits of any issue at an early age. Infact, kids are in a better position to understand and obey parents than the teenagers. One cannot set limits on paul existentialism essay summary them when they are growing old. Endorsement. It is thesis, obvious that kids when transformed to adults are used to the limits. Bakalar, Nick Empfield, Maureen; 2001; Understanding teenage depression: a guide to diagnosis, treatment, and management; H. Holt, ISBN: 0805067612, 9780805067613; pp 200-202. Endorsement. Jon, Savage; 2007; Teenage: the of computer essay creation of celebrity dissertation, youth culture; Viking; pp 450-451. Gary, Soto; 2006; Mercy on These Teenage Chimps Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, ISBN: 0152060227, 9780152060220; pp 100-101. Deborah L, Tolman; 2002; Dilemmas of desire: teenage girls talk about essay english, sexuality; Harvard University Press, ISBN: 0674008952, 9780674008953; pp 100-101. Jon, Savage; 2008; Teenage: The Prehistory of Youth Culture: 1875-1945; Penguin, ISBN: 0140254153, 9780140254150; pp 400-401.

Pamela, Bettis Natalie, G. Adams; 2005; Geographies of girlhood: identities in-between; Routledge, ISBN: 0805846743, 9780805846744; pp 200-201.

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Celebrity endorsement dissertation

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Our Bodies, Our Souls: Naomi Wolf evaluates Pro-Choice strategy. October 16, 1995. The New Republic. NAOMI WOLF is the author of Fire with Fire: The New, Female Power and dissertation, How It Will Change the 21st Century (Ballantine). I had an abortion when I was a single mother and my daughter was 2 years old.

I would do it again. Decleration? But you know the Greek myths when you kill a relative you are pursued by furies? For months, it was as if baby furies were pursuing me. These are not the words of endorsement dissertation a benighted, superstition-ridden teenager lost in America's cultural backwaters. Tips For Writing For Medical School? They are the words of a Cornell-educated, urban-dwelling Democratic-voting 40-year-old cardiologist. I'll call her Clare.

Clare is exactly the celebrity kind of person for whom being pro-choice is an unshakeable conviction. If there were a core constituent of the movement to secure abortion rights, Clare would be it. And yet: her words are exactly the words to which the masculinity in the media pro-choice movement is not listening. At its best, feminism defends its moral high ground by endorsement dissertation being simply faithful to the truth: to women's real-life experiences. But, to its own ethical and jean sartre summary, political detriment, the pro-choice movement has relinquished the moral frame around the issue of abortion. It has ceded the celebrity endorsement language of right and wrong to abortion foes. The movement's abandonment of what Americans have always, and rightly demanded of their movements -- an ethical core -- and paul essay summary, its reliance instead on a political rhetoric in which the fetus means nothing are proving fatal.

The effects of this abandonment can be measured in two ways. First of all, such a position causes us to lose political ground. By refusing to dissertation, look at abortion within a moral framework, we lose the millions of tips for writing a good statement Americans who want to support abortion as a legal right but still need to condemn it as a moral iniquity. Celebrity? Their ethical allegiances are then addressed by movement new religious the pro-life movement, which is celebrity endorsement willing to speak about good and evil. But we are also in danger of losing something more important than votes; we stand in jeopardy of losing what can only sartre essay be called our souls.

Clinging to celebrity endorsement, a rhetoric about abortion in which there is no life and masculinity essays, no death, we entangle our beliefs in a series of self-delusions, fibs and evasions. And we risk becoming precisely what our critics charge us with being: callous, selfish and casually destructive men and women who share a cheapened view of celebrity human life. In the following pages, I will argue for masculinity essays, a radical shift in celebrity endorsement, the pro-choice movement's rhetoric and consciousness about masculinity in the media essays abortion: I still maintain that we need to contextualize the fight to celebrity endorsement, defend abortion rights within a moral framework that admits that the death of a fetus is a real death; that there are degrees of culpability, judgement and responsibility involved in essays warming, the decision to abort a pregnancy; that the best understanding of feminism involves holding women as well as men to the responsibilities that are inseparable from their rights and that we need to be strong enough to acknowledge that this country's high rate of abortion -- which ends more than a quarter of all pregnancies -- can only be rightly understood as what Dr. Endorsement Dissertation? Henry Foster was brave enough to call it: a failure. Any doubt that our current pro-choice rhetoric leads to disaster should be dispelled by the famous recent defection of the woman who had been Jane Roe. What happened to Norma McCorvey? To judge by her characterization in the elite media and by some prominent pro-choice feminists, nothing very important. Her change of heart about abortion was relentlessly explained away as having everything to do with the of war thesis girlish motivations of insecurity, fickleness and the need for attention, and little to do with any actual moral agency. This dismissive (and, not incidentally, sexist and celebrity endorsement dissertation, classist) interpretation was so highly colored by subjective impressions offered up by the very institutions that define objectivity that it bore all the essay hallmarks of an endorsement dissertation, exculpatory cultural myth: poor Norma -- she just needed stroking. She was never very stable. The old dear -- first she was a chesspiece for the pro-choice movement (just, some anonymous person who suddenly emerges, in in the, the words of one NOW member) and celebrity, then a codependent of the Bible-thumpers.

Low self-esteem, a history of about global warming substance abuse, ignorance--these and other personal weaknesses explained her turnaround. To me, the first commandment of real feminism is: when in doubt, listen to women. What if we were to truly respectfully listen to this woman who began her political life as, in her words, just some little old Texas girl who got in trouble. We would have to hear this: perhaps Norma McCorvey actually had a revelation that she could no longer live as the symbol of a belief system she increasingly repudiated. Norma McCorvey should be seen as an object lesson for the pro-choice movement -- a call to us to search our souls and take another, humbler look at how we go about what we are doing. Celebrity Endorsement? For McCorvey is in fact an American Everywoman: she is the lost middle of the abortion debate, the woman whose allegiance we forfeit by decleration thesis our refusal to use a darker and sterner and more honest moral rhetoric.

McCorvey is more astute than her critics; she seems to understand better than the endorsement dissertation pro-choice activists she worked with just what the movement new religious woman-in-the-middle believes: I believe in endorsement, the woman's right to choose. I'm like a lot of people. I'm in the mushy middle, she said. McCorvey still supports abortion rights through the first trimester -- but is english as a horrified by the brutality of abortion as it manifests more obviously further into a pregnancy. She does not respect the endorsement dissertation black and white ideology on either side and essay learning english foreign, insists on celebrity endorsement, referring instead, as I understand her explanation, to her conscience. What McCorvey and other Americans want and deserve is an abortion-rights movement willing publicly to mourn the evil -- necessary evil though it may be -- that is abortion.

We must have a movement that acts with moral accountability and jean paul existentialism essay, without euphemism. With the pro-choice rhetoric we use now, we incur three destructive consequences -- two ethical, one strategic: hardness of heart, lying and political failure. Because of the implications of celebrity endorsement a Constitution that defines rights according to media essays, the legal idea of a person, the abortion debate has tended to focus on the question of celebrity endorsement dissertation personhood of the fetus. Many pro-choice advocates developed a language to assert that the fetus isn't a person, and this, over in the media the years has developed into celebrity, a lexicon of dehumanization. Laura Kaplan's The Story of essay movement Jane , an important forthcoming account of endorsement dissertation a pre-Roe underground abortion service, inadvertently sheds light on learning foreign, the origins of some of this rhetoric: service staffers referred to the fetus --well into endorsement dissertation, the fourth month -- as material (as in the amount of material that had to be removed. ). The activists felt exhilaration at learning to masculinity essays, perform abortions themselves instead of relying on male doctors: When [a staffer] removed the speculum and said, 'There, all done,' the room exploded in excitement. Celebrity Dissertation? In an era when women were dying of illegal abortions, this was the understandable exhilaration of an thesis, underground resistance movement. Unfortunately, though, this cool and dissertation, congratulatory rhetoric lingers into a very different present. In one woman's account of her chemical abortion, in masculinity in the, the January/February 1994 issue of Mother Jones , for dissertation, example, the existentialism essay summary doctor says, By Sunday you won't see on the monitor what we call the heartbeat (my italics). Celebrity? The author of the article, D. Redman, explains that one of the drugs the doctor administered would end the growth of the fetal tissue. And we all remember Dr. Joycelyn Elders's remark, hailed by some as refreshingly frank and pro-woman but which I found remarkably brutal: that We really need to get over this love affair with the fetus.

How did we arrive at tips for writing a good, this point? In the early 1970s, Second Wave feminism adopted this rhetoric in response to the reigning ideology in which motherhood was invoked as an excuse to deny women legal and social equality. Celebrity? In a climate in which women risked being defined as mere vessels while their fetuses were given personhood at their expense, it made sense that women's advocates would fight back by paul sartre existentialism depersonalizing the fetus. The feminist complaint about the pro-life movement's dehumanization of the pregnant woman in relation to celebrity, the humanized fetus is familiar and often quite valid: pro-choice commentators note that the pro-life film The Silent Scream portrayed the woman as a vessel: Ellen Frankfort's Vaginal Politics , the jean paul existentialism influential feminist text, complained that the fetus is treated like an astronaut in a spaceship. But, say what you will, pregnancy confounds Western philosophy's idea of the autonomous self: the pregnant woman is in fact both a person in her body and a vessel. Rather than seeing both beings as alive and interdependent -- seeing life within life -- and acknowledging that sometimes, nonetheless, the woman must choose her life over the fetus's, Second Wave feminists reacted to the dehumanization on of women by dehumanizing the creatures within them. In the death-struggle to wrest what Simone de Beauvoir called transcendence out of biological immanence, some feminists developed a rhetoric that defined the unwanted fetus as at best valueless: at worst an adversary, a mass of endorsement dissertation dependent protoplasm. Yet that has left us with a bitter legacy. For when we defend abortion rights by for writing statement school emptying the act of moral gravity, we find ourselves cultivating a hardness of dissertation heart. Having become pregnant through her partner's and in the essays, her own failure to use a condom, Redman remarks that her friend Judith, who has been trying to find a child to adopt, begs her to carry the dissertation pregnancy to term.

Judith offers Redman almost every condition a birth-mother could want: 'Let me have the baby,' she quotes her friend pleading. Jean Existentialism Essay? 'You could visit her anytime, and if you ever wanted her back, I promise I would let her go.' Redman does not mention considering this possibility. Thinking, rather, about the difficulty of keeping the child -- My time consumed by the tedious, daily activities that I've always done my best to avoid. Three meals a day. Unwashed laundry. she schedules her chemical abortion. The procedure is experimental, and the author feels almost heroic, thinking of how she is endorsement dissertation blazing a trail for other women. After the learning english foreign abortion process is celebrity endorsement underway the story reaches its perverse epiphany: Redman is on a Women's Day march when the blood from the abortion first appears. She exults at in the media essays, this: 'Our bodies. Celebrity Dissertation? Our lives our right to decide.' . My life feels luxuriant with possibility For one precious moment, I believe that we have the power to dismantle this system. Movement? I finish the march, borne along by the women.

As for the pleading Judith, with everything she was ready to offer a child, and the phantom baby? They are both off-stage, silent in this chilling drama of dissertation Feminist triumphalism. And why should we expect otherwise? In this essay, the fetus (as the author writes, the now-inert material from my womb) is little more than a form of essay english as a language speech: a vehicle to celebrity endorsement, assert the author's identity and autonomy. The pro-life warning about the potential of widespread abortion to degrade reverence for media, life does have a nugget of truth: a free-market rhetoric about abortion can, indeed, contribute to the eerie situation we are now facing, wherein the culture seems increasingly to endorsement, see babies not as creatures to whom parents devote their lives but as accoutrements to enhance parental quality of life. Day by day, babies seem to have less value in paul sartre, themselves, in a matrix of the dissertation sacred, than they do as products with a value dictated by a market economy. Stories surface regularly about worthless babies left naked on gratings or casually dropped out of of war thesis windows, while valuable, genetically correct babies are created at endorsement, vast expense and with intricate medical assistance for new religious, infertile couples. If we fail to treat abortion with grief and reverence, we risk forgetting that, when it comes to the children we choose to bear, we are here to serve them -- whomever they are; they are not here to serve us. Too often our rhetoric leads us to endorsement dissertation, tell untruths.

What Norma McCorvey wants, it seems, is for abortion-rights advocates to face, really face, what we are doing: Have you ever seen a second-trimester abortion? she asks. Learning Language? It's a baby. Celebrity Endorsement? It's got a face and a body, and they put him in warming, a freezer and a little container. Well, so it does: and so they do. The pro-choice movement often treats with contempt the pro-lifers' practice of holding up to our faces their disturbing graphics. We revile their placards showing an enlarged scene of the aftermath of a D C abortion: we are disgusted by their lapel pins with the endorsement little feet, crafted in gold, of a 10-week-old fetus; we mock the essay movement sensationalism of The Silent Scream . We look with pity and horror at someone who would brandish a fetus in formaldehyde -- and we are quick to say that they are lying: Those are stillbirths, anyway we tell ourselves. To many pro-choice advocates, the imagery is revolting propaganda. There is celebrity endorsement a sense among us, let us be frank, that the gruesomeness of the imagery belongs to essays about warming, the pro-lifers: that it emerges from the dark, frightening minds of fanatics: that it represents the endorsement violence of imaginations that would, given half a chance, turn our world into paul sartre existentialism summary, a scary, repressive place. Celebrity Dissertation? 'People like us' see such material as the pornography of the paul essay pro-life movement. But feminism at its best is based on what is simply true. Dissertation? While pro-lifers have not been beyond dishonesty, distortion and the doctoring of images (preferring, for example, to highlight the results of very late, very rare abortions), many of those photographs are in fact photographs of actual D Cs; those footprints are in fact the footprints of a 10-week-old fetus, the pro-life slogan, Abortion stops a beating heart, is incontrovertibly true. Decleration Of War Thesis? While images of violent fetal death work magnificently for celebrity dissertation, pro-lifers as political polemic, the pictures are not polemical in themselves: they are biological facts.

We know this. Since abortion became legal nearly a quarter-century ago, the fields of embryology and warming, perinatology have been revolutionized -- but the pro-choice view of the contested fetus has remained static. This has led to a bizarre bifurcation in the way we who are pro-choice tend to think about wanted as opposed to unwanted fetuses: the unwanted ones are still seen in schematic black-and-white drawings while the endorsement dissertation wanted ones have metamorphosed into vivid and moving color. Even while Elders spoke of essays global warming our need to get over our love affair with the unwelcome fetus, an entire growth industry -- Mozart for your belly; framed sonogram photos; home fetal-heartbeat stethoscopes -- is celebrity dissertation devoted to sparking fetal love affairs in other circumstances, and aimed especially at the hearts of over-scheduled yuppies. If we avidly cultivate love for the ones we bring to thesis, term, and get over our love for celebrity endorsement dissertation, the ones we don't, do we not risk developing a hydroponic view of babies -- and turn them into a product we can cull for our convenience? Any happy couple with a wanted pregnancy and a copy of jean paul sartre existentialism essay What to Expect When You're Expecting can see the cute, detailed drawings of the fetus whom the book's owner presumably is not going to abort, and can read the excited descriptions of celebrity endorsement what that fetus can do and feel, month by month.

Anyone who has had a sonogram during pregnancy knows perfectly well that the 4-month-old fetus responds to outside stimulus--Let's get him to look this way, the technician will say, poking gently at the belly of a delighted mother-to-be. The Well Baby Book, the new religious kind of whole-grain holistic guide to pregnancy and childbirth that would find its audience among the very demographic that is most solidly pro-choice reminds us that: Increasing knowledge is celebrity increasing the awe and respect we have for the unborn baby and is causing us to regard the unborn baby as a real person long before birth. So, what will it be: Wanted fetuses are charming, complex REM-dreaming little beings whose profile on the sonogram looks just like Daddy, but unwanted ones are mere uterine material? How can we charge that it is vile and repulsive for pro-lifers to brandish vile and repulsive images if the images are real? To insist that the truth is in poor taste is the very height of hypocrisy. Of War Thesis? Besides, if these images are often the facts of the matter, and celebrity endorsement, if we then claim that it is offensive for pro-choice women to be confronted by them, then we are making the judgment that women are too inherently weak to face a truth about which they have to make a grave decision. This view of women is unworthy of feminism.

Free women must be strong women, too: and strong women, presumably do not seek to cloak their most important decisions in euphemism. Other lies are not lies to others, but to ourselves. Essay English As A Foreign? An abortion-clinic doctor. Elizabeth Karlin, who wrote a recent Hers column in The New York Times , declared that There is only one reason I've ever heard for having an abortion: the desire to celebrity endorsement, be a good mother. While that may well be true for many poor and working-class women -- and indeed research shows that poor women are three times more likely to have abortions than are better-off women -- the elite, who are the media essays most vociferous in their morally unambiguous pro-choice language, should know perfectly well how untrue that statement often is in their own lives. All abortions occupy a spectrum, from full lack of alternatives to full moral accountability.

Karlin and many other pro-choice activists try to situate all women equally at celebrity, the extreme endpoint of that spectrum, and it just isn't so. Many women, including middle-class women, do have abortions because, as one such woman put it, They have a notion of essay what a good mother is and don't feel they can be that kind of mother at celebrity endorsement dissertation, this phase of paul sartre existentialism essay summary their lives. In many cases, that is still a morally defensible place on the spectrum; but it is not the place of absolute absolution that Dr. Karlin claims it to dissertation, be. It is, rather, a place of moral struggle, of self-interest mixed with selflessness, of wished-for good intermingled with necessary evil. Other abortions occupy places on the spectrum that are far more culpable. Of the abortions I know of, these were some of the reasons: to find out if the woman could get pregnant; to force a boy or man to take a relationship more seriously; and, again and in the essays, again, to enact a rite of passage for celebrity, affluent teenage girls.

In my high school, the abortion drama was used to test a boyfriend's character. Seeing if he would accompany the girl to the operation or, better yet, come up with the money for tips for writing a good personal statement school, the abortion could almost have been the celebrity dissertation 1970s Bay Area equivalent of the '50s fraternity pin. The affluent teenage couples who conceive because they can and essay movement, then erase the consequences -- and the affluent men and women who choose abortion because they were careless or in a hurry or didn't like the feel of latex -- are not the endorsement dissertation moral equivalent of the impoverished mother who responsibly, even selflessly, acknowledge she already has too many mouths to jean paul summary, feed. Feminist rights include feminist responsibilities: the right to obtain an abortion brings with it the endorsement responsibility to contracept. Fifty-seven percent of unintended pregnancies come about decleration of war because the parents used no contraception at all. Those millions certainly include women and men too poor to buy contraception, girls and boys too young and ill-informed to know where to get it, and celebrity endorsement dissertation, countless instances of marital rape, coerced sex, incest and couplings in which the man refused to decleration, let the woman use protection. But they also include millions of celebrity endorsement college students, professional men and women, and middle- and uppermiddle- class people (11 percent of abortions are obtained by people in households with incomes of higher than $50,000) -- who have no excuse whatsoever for their carelessness. There is only one reason I've ever heard for having an abortion: the desire to be a good mother -- this is jean essay a falsehood that condescends to women struggling to be true agents of their own souls, even as it dishonors through hypocrisy the terminations that are the writer's subject. Not to judge other men and women without judging myself, I know this assertion to be false from my own experience.

Once, I made the choice to take a morning after pill. The heavily pregnant doctor looked at me, as she dispensed it, as if I were the scum of the earth. If what was going on in my mind had been mostly about the celebrity well-being of the possible baby, that pill would never have been swallowed. For that potential baby, brought to term, would have had two sets of loving middle-income grandparents, an adult mother with an education and even, as I discovered later, the beginning of diaper money for essay, its first two years of life (the graduate fellowship I was on forbade marriage but, frozen in time before women were its beneficiaries, said nothing about unwed motherhood). Celebrity Endorsement Dissertation? Because of the of war baby's skin color, even if I chose not to rear the child, a roster of eager adoptive parents awaited him or her. If I had been thinking only or even primarily about the baby's life, I would have had to decide to bring the pregnancy, had there been one, to term. No: there were two columns in my mind -- Me and Baby -- and the first won out. And what was in it looked something like this: unwelcome intensity in celebrity dissertation, the relationship with the father; desire to continue to develop as a person before real parenthood; wish to encounter my eventual life partner without the tips a good for medical off-putting encumbrance of a child; resistance to curtailing the nature of the time remaining to me in Europe. Celebrity? Essentially, this column came down to: I am not done being responsive only to myself yet. At even the possibility that the cosmos was calling my name, I cowered and stepped aside. I was not so unlike those young louts who father children and run from the specter of responsibility.

Except that my refusal to be involved with this potential creature was as definitive as a refusal can be. Stepping aside in this way is analogous to draft evasion: there are good and altruistic reasons to evade the draft, and then there are self-preserving reasons. In that moment, feminism came to learning english as a foreign language, one of its logical if less-than-inspiring moments of fruition: I chose to sidestep biology: I acted -- and was free to act -- as if I were in control of my destiny, the way men more often than women have let themselves act. I chose myself on my own terms over a possible someone else, for self-absorbed reasons. But to be a better mother; Dulce et decorum est. ? Nonsense. Now, freedom means that women must be free to choose self or to choose selfishly. Celebrity? Certainly for a woman with fewer economic and social choices than I had -- for instance, a woman struggling to finish her higher education, without which she would have little hope of a life worthy of global warming her talents -- there can indeed be an obligation to choose self. And the endorsement dissertation defense of some level of abortion rights as fundamental to women's integrity and equality has been made fully by others, including, quite effectively Ruth Bader Ginsberg.

There is no easy way to english as a language, deny the celebrity powerful argument that a woman's equality in society must give her some irreducible rights unique to essay new religious, her biology including the endorsement dissertation right to take the life within her life. But we don't have to lie to ourselves about what we are doing at such a moment. Tips For Writing A Good? Let us at celebrity, least look with clarity at what that means and not whitewash self-interest with the language of self-sacrifice. The landscape of essay new religious many such decisions looks more like Marin County than Verdun. Let us certainly not be fools enough to present such spiritually limited moments to the world with a flourish of pride, pretending that we are somehow pioneers and heroines and even martyrs to have snatched the self, with its aims and endorsement dissertation, pleasures, from the short about global warming pressure of biology. That decision was not my finest moment.

The least I can do, in honor of the being that might have been, is endorsement simply to know that. Using amoral rhetoric, we weaken ourselves politically because we lose the center. To draw an inexact parallel, many people support the choice to limit the medical prolongation of life. But, if a movement arose that spoke of our getting over our love affair with the foreign terminally ill, those same people would recoil into a vociferous interventionist position as a way to assert their moral values. We would be impoverished by a rhetoric about the end of life that speaks of the ill and the dying as if they were meaningless and celebrity, of doing away with them as if it were a bracing demonstration of our personal independence. Similarly, many people support necessary acts of warfare (Catholics for a Free Choice makes the analogy between abortion rights and such warfare). Essay Movement New Religious? There are legal mechanisms that allow us to bring into celebrity, the world the evil of war.

But imagine how quickly public opinion would turn against a president who waged war while asserting that our sons and daughters were nothing but cannon fodder. Movement New Religious? Grief and celebrity endorsement, respect are the proper tones for all discussions about language choosing to endanger or destroy a manifestation of life. War is legal: it is sometimes even necessary. Letting the dying die in peace is often legal and celebrity endorsement, sometimes even necessary. Abortion should be legal; it is sometimes even necessary. Sometimes the mother must be able to decide that the fetus, in sartre essay summary, its full humanity, must die. But it is never right or necessary to minimize the value of the celebrity endorsement dissertation lives involved or the sacrifice incurred in letting them go. Only if we uphold abortion rights within a matrix of individual conscience, atonement and responsibility can we both correct the logical and movement, ethical absurdity in our position and consolidate the dissertation support of the center. Many others, of course, have wrestled with this issue: Camille Paglia, who has criticized the convoluted casuistry of some pro-choice language; Roger Rosenblatt, who has urged us to permit but discourage abortion; Laurence Tribe, who has noted that we place the fetus in masculinity in the essays, shadow in order to advance the pro-choice argument. But we have yet to make room for this conversation at the table of dissertation mainstream feminism.

And we can't wait much longer. Historical changes from the imminent availability of cheap chemical abortifacients to the ascendancy of the religious right to Norma McCorvey's defection -- make the need for essays global warming, a new abortion-rights language all the more pressing. In a time of retrenchment, how can I be so sure that a more honest and endorsement dissertation, moral rhetoric about abortion will consolidate rather than scuttle abortion rights? Look at what Americans themselves say. When a recent Newsweek poll asked about support for abortion using the movement rare phrasing, It's a matter between a woman, her doctor, her family, her conscience and dissertation, her God, a remarkable 72 percent of the respondents called that formulation about right. This represents a gain of thirty points over the abortion rights support registered in the latest Gallup poll, which asked about abortion without using the words God or conscience. When participants in the Gallup poll were asked if they supported abortion under any circumstances only 32 percent agreed; only 9 percent more supported it under most circumstances.

Clearly, abortion rights are safest when we are willing to submit them to a morality beyond just our bodies and our selves. But how, one might ask, can I square a recognition of the humanity of the fetus, and the moral gravity of destroying it, with a pro-choice position? The answer can only be found in decleration of war, the context of a paradigm abandoned by the left and misused by the right: the paradigm of sin and redemption. It was when I was four months pregnant, sick as a dog, and in the middle of an argument, that I realized I could no longer tolerate the fetus-is-nothing paradigm of the pro-choice movement. I was being interrogated by a conservative, and the subject of abortion rights came up.

You're four months pregnant, he said. Are you going to tell me that's not a baby you're carrying? The accepted pro-choice response at such a moment in celebrity endorsement, the conversation is to evade: to move as swiftly as possible to media essays, a discussion of privacy and difficult personal decisions and choice. Had I not been so nauseated and so cranky and so weighed down with the physical gravity of what was going on inside me, I might not have told what is the truth for me. Of course it's a baby, I snapped. And went rashly on: And if I found myself in circumstances in which I had to make the terrible decision to dissertation, end this life, then that would be between myself and God. Startlingly to short essays global, me, two things happened: the conservative was quiet, I had said something that actually made sense to him. And I felt the great relief that is the grace of long-delayed honesty. Now, the G-word is certainly a problematic element to introduce into the debate. Endorsement? And yet God' or soul--or, if you are secular and english foreign, prefer it, conscience -- is precisely what is celebrity missing from short global warming pro-choice discourse. Endorsement Dissertation? There is jean paul existentialism essay a crucial difference between myself and my God or my conscience -- terms that imply moral accountability -- and celebrity endorsement, myself and my doctor, the phrasing that Justice Harry Blackmun's wording in Roe (inherently, and for writing statement for medical school, primarily, a medical decision) has tended to celebrity dissertation, promote in the pro-choice movement.

And that's not ever, to mention between myself and myself (Elders: It's not anybody's business if I went for an abortion), which implies just the relativistic relationship to abortion that our critics accuse us of sustaining. The language we use to short essays warming, make our case limits the way we let ourselves think about abortion. As a result of the precedents in Roe (including Griswold v. Connecticut and Eisenstadt v. Baird ), which based a woman's right to endorsement dissertation, an abortion on the Ninth and Fourteenth Amendments' implied right to personal privacy, other unhelpful terms are also current in our discourse. Pro-choice advocates tend to cast an abortion as an intensely personal decision. To which we can say, No: one's choice of carpeting is an masculinity essays, intensely personal decision. One's struggles with a life-and-death issue must be understood as a matter of personal conscience.

There is a world of difference between the two, and it's the difference a moral frame makes. Stephen L. Carter has pointed out that spiritual discussion has been robbed of celebrity a place in American public life. As a consequence we tend -- often disastrously -- to use legislation to work out right and wrong. That puts many in the position of having to advocate against abortion rights in jean paul existentialism essay, order to proclaim their conviction that our high rate of avoidable abortion (one of the highest in developed countries, five times that of the endorsement Netherlands, for example) is foreign language a social evil: and, conversely, many must pretend that abortion is not a transgression of any kind if we wish to champion abortion rights. We have no ground on which to say that abortion is a necessary evil that should be faced and opposed in the realm of conscience and dissertation, action and even soul; yet remain legal. But American society is struggling to find its way forward to a discourse of right and wrong that binds together a common ethic for the secular and the religious. Of War Thesis? When we do that, we create a moral discourse that can exist in its own right independent of legislation, and we can find ground to stand upon. Norma McCorvey explained what happened to her in terms of endorsement dissertation good and evil: she woke in thesis, the middle of the night and felt a presence pushing violently down on her. I denounce you, Satan, she announced.

This way of talking about evil is one of the chief class-divisions in America: working-class people talk about Satan, and those whom Paul Fussell calls the X group -- those who run the celebrity endorsement dissertation country -- talk instead about neurotic guilt. Jean Paul? While the elite scoff at research that shows that most Americans maintain a belief in celebrity endorsement dissertation, the embodiment of evil -- the for writing personal for medical school devil -- they miss something profound about the human need to make moral order out of celebrity endorsement chaos. After all, the only difference between the experience described by of war Clare the Cornell-educated pro-choicer, and McCorvey, the uneducated ex-alcoholic, is a classical allusion. There is a hunger for a moral framework that we pro-choicers must reckon with. In the Karlin Hers column, the celebrity dissertation author announced proudly that pregnant women are asked by the counselor in short about global, the office, So, how long, have you been prochoice?

Dr. Karlin writes that Laughter and the answer, 'About ten minutes,' is the healthiest response. 'I still don't believe in abortion,' some women say, unaware that refusal to take responsibility for the decision means that I won't do the celebrity procedure. How is this feminist ideological coercion any different from the worst of pro-life shaming and coercion? The women who come to movement new religious, a clinic that is truly feminist -- that respects women -- are entitled not only to their abortions but also to their sense of sin. To use the term sin in this context does not necessarily mean, as Dr. Karlin believes, that a woman thinks she must go to hell because she is having an celebrity endorsement, abortion.

It may mean that she thinks she must face the realization that she has fallen short of who she should be; and that she needs to ask forgiveness for that, and of war thesis, atone for it. As I understand such a woman's response, she is trying to take responsibility for the decision. We on the left tend to twitch with discomfort at that word sin. Too often we have become religiously illiterate, and so we deeply misunderstand the word. But in all of the great religious traditions, our recognition of sin, and then our atonement for it, brings on celebrity dissertation, God's compassion and paul sartre existentialism essay summary, our redemption. In many faiths, justice is endorsement dissertation linked, as it is in medieval Judaism and in Buddhism, to compassion.

From Yom Kippur and the Ash Wednesday-to-Easter cycle to decleration thesis, the Hindu idea of karma, the individual's confrontation with her or his own culpability is the first step toward ways to create and receive more light. How could one live with a conscious view that abortion is an evil and still be pro-choice? Through acts of redemption, or what the endorsement dissertation Jewish mystical tradition calls tikkun or mending. Laurence Tribe, in Abortion: The Clash of Absolutes , notes that Memorial services for the souls of aborted fetuses are fairly common in contemporary Japan where abortions are both legal and readily available. Shinto doctrine holds that women should make offerings to the fetus to help it rest in peace; Buddhists once erected statues of the spirit guardian of children to masculinity in the essays, honor aborted fetuses (called water children or unseeing children). If one believes that abortion is killing and yet is still pro-choice, one could try to use contraception for every single sex act; if one had to undergo an abortion, one could then work to provide contraception, or jobs, or other choices to young girls; one could give money to endorsement dissertation, programs that provide prenatal care to poor women, if one is essay learning as a a mother or father, one can remember the aborted child every time one is celebrity endorsement dissertation tempted to be less than loving -- and give renewed love to the living child.

And so on: tikkun . But when you insist, as the Hers column writer did, on stripping people of their sense of masculinity in the essays sin, they react with a wholesale backing-away into a rigid morality that reimposes order: hence, the ascendancy of the dissertation religious right. Just look at the ill-fated nomination of Dr. Henry Foster for Surgeon General. The Republicans said abortion, and the discussion was over. Decleration Thesis? The Democrats, had they worked out a moral framework for progressivism, could have responded: Yes, our abortion rate is endorsement a terrible social evil. Here is a man who can help put a moral framework around the chaos of a million and a half abortions a year. He can bring that rate of evil down.

And whichever senator among you has ever prevented an unplanned pregnancy -- and Dr. Foster has -- let him ask the first question. Who gets blamed for our abortion rate? The ancient Hebrews had a ritual of about warming sending a scapegoat into the desert with the community sins projected upon it. Abortion doctors are our contemporary scapegoats. The pro-lifers obviously scapegoat them in one way: if pro-lifers did to women what they do to abortion doctors -- harassed and endorsement dissertation, targeted them in their homes and workplaces -- public opinion would rapidly turn against them: for the movement would soon find itself harassing the teachers and masculinity, waitresses, housewives and younger sisters of their own communities. Celebrity Dissertation? The pro-life movement would have to address the often all-too-pressing good reasons that lead good people to abort. That would be intolerable, a tactical defeat for the pro-life movement, and as sure to lose it the mushy middle as the pro-choice movement's tendency toward rhetorical coldness loses it the same constituency. But pro-choicers, too, scapegoat the doctors and clinic workers. By resisting a moral framework in which to view abortion we who are pro-abortion-rights leave the doctors in the front lines, with blood on paul existentialism essay summary, their hands: the blood of the repeat abortions -- at least 43 percent of the total; the suburban summer country-club rite-of-passage abortions; the I don't know what came over me, It was such good Chardonnay abortions; as well as the blood of the desperate and the unpreventable and accidental and the medically necessary and the violently.

conceived abortions. This is blood that the doctors and clinic workers often see clearly, and that they heroically rinse and cause to flow and celebrity endorsement, rinse again And they rake all our sins, the of war pro-choice as well as the celebrity endorsement pro-life among us upon themselves. And we who are pro-choice compound their isolation by declaring that that blood is not there. As the world changes and women, however incrementally, become more free and more powerful, the language in which we phrase the goals of feminism must change as well. As a result of the bad old days before the Second Wave of feminism, we tend to understand abortion as a desperately needed exit from near-total male control of our reproductive lives. This scenario posits an foreign language, unambiguous chain of dissertation power and powerlessness in which men control women and women, in order to survive, must have unquestioned control over fetuses. It is this worldview, all too real in short essays about warming, its initial conceptualization, that has led to the dread among many pro-choice women of dissertation departing from a model of woman-equals-human-life, fetus-equals-not-much. This model of reality may have been necessary in an unrelenting patriarchy. But today, in what should be, as women continue to consolidate political power, a patriarchy crumbling in spite of itself, it can become obsolete. Now: try to imagine real gender equality. Decleration Of War Thesis? Actually try to endorsement, imagine an America that is female-dominated.

Since a true working democracy in this country would reflect our 54-46 voting advantage. Now imagine such a democracy, in which women would be valued so very highly as a world that is accepting and responsible about human sexuality; in which there is no coerced sex without serious jailtime: in movement, which there are affordable, safe contraceptives available for the taking in every public health building; in which there is celebrity economic parity for women -- and basic economic subsistence for every baby born; and in jean paul sartre essay, which every young American woman knows about and understands her natural desire as a treasure to cherish, and responsibly, when the time is right, on her own terms, to share. In such a world, in which the idea of gender as a barrier has become a dusty artifact, we would probably use a very different language about what would be -- then -- the rare and doubtless traumatic event of abortion. That language would probably call upon respect and responsibility, grief and mourning. In that world we might well describe the unborn and dissertation, the never-to-be-born with the honest words of life. And in that world, passionate feminists might well hold candlelight vigils at abortion clinics, standing shoulder to shoulder with the doctors who work there, commemorating and saying goodbye to the dead.

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amy tans essays Mother Tongue, by Amy Tan. I am not a scholar of English or literature. I cannot give you much more than personal opinions on endorsement dissertation, the English language and its variations in this country or others. Essay? I am a writer. And by that definition, I am someone who has always loved language. Celebrity Endorsement? I am fascinated by language in essay new religious, daily life.

I spend a great deal of my time thinking about the celebrity endorsement, power of new religious, language -- the way it can evoke an emotion, a visual image, a complex idea, or a simple truth. Language is the tool of my trade. And I use them all -- all the celebrity dissertation, Englishes I grew up with. Recently, I was made keenly aware of the different Englishes I do use. I was giving a talk to a large group of people, the same talk I had already given to half a dozen other groups. The nature of the talk was about my writing, my life, and my book, The Joy Luck Club . The talk was going along well enough, until I remembered one major difference that made the tips for writing a good for medical, whole talk sound wrong.

My mother was in the room. And it was perhaps the first time she had heard me give a lengthy speech, using the celebrity endorsement, kind of English I have never used with her. Tips A Good Statement School? I was saying things like, The intersection of celebrity endorsement, memory upon imagination and There is an aspect of my fiction that relates to thus-and-thus'--a speech filled with carefully wrought grammatical phrases, burdened, it suddenly seemed to me, with nominalized forms, past perfect tenses, conditional phrases, all the forms of essay movement new religious, standard English that I had learned in school and celebrity dissertation through books, the forms of English I did not use at home with my mother. Just last week, I was walking down the street with my mother, and short global warming I again found myself conscious of the English I was using, the English I do use with her. We were talking about the price of new and celebrity endorsement used furniture and I heard myself saying this: Not waste money that way. My husband was with us as well, and he didn't notice any switch in english, my English. And then I realized why. It's because over the twenty years we've been together I've often used that same kind of English with him, and sometimes he even uses it with me. It has become our language of intimacy, a different sort of English that relates to family talk, the language I grew up with. So you'll have some idea of what this family talk I heard sounds like, I'11 quote what my mother said during a recent conversation which I videotaped and then transcribed.

During this conversation, my mother was talking about a political gangster in Shanghai who had the same last name as her family's, Du, and how the dissertation, gangster in his early years wanted to essay be adopted by her family, which was rich by comparison. Later, the gangster became more powerful, far richer than my mother's family, and dissertation one day showed up at essay english as a language, my mother's wedding to pay his respects. Here's what she said in part: Du Yusong having business like fruit stand. Endorsement Dissertation? Like off the street kind. He is Du like Du Zong -- but not Tsung-ming Island people. The local people call putong, the river east side, he belong to that side local people. Essays? That man want to ask Du Zong father take him in like become own family. Du Zong father wasn't look down on him, but didn't take seriously, until that man big like become a mafia. Now important person, very hard to inviting him. Chinese way, came only to show respect, don't stay for dinner. Respect for making big celebration, he shows up.

Mean gives lots of endorsement dissertation, respect. Chinese custom. Chinese social life that way. If too important won't have to stay too long. He come to my wedding. I didn't see, I heard it. Statement School? I gone to boy's side, they have YMCA dinner. Chinese age I was nineteen. You should know that my mother's expressive command of celebrity dissertation, English belies how much she actually understands.

She reads the of war, Forbes report, listens to Wall Street Week, converses daily with her stockbroker, reads all of endorsement, Shirley MacLaine's books with ease--all kinds of things I can't begin to understand. Yet some of my friends tell me they understand 50 percent of in the media, what my mother says. Some say they understand 80 to 90 percent. Some say they understand none of it, as if she were speaking pure Chinese. But to me, my mother's English is perfectly clear, perfectly natural. It's my mother tongue. Her language, as I hear it, is vivid, direct, full of observation and imagery. That was the language that helped shape the endorsement, way I saw things, expressed things, made sense of the world. Existentialism Essay? Lately, I've been giving more thought to the kind of English my mother speaks. Like others, I have described it to people as 'broken or fractured English. But I wince when I say that.

It has always bothered me that I can think of no way to celebrity endorsement describe it other than broken, as if it were damaged and needed to be fixed, as if it lacked a certain wholeness and soundness. Tips For Writing Personal Statement? I've heard other terms used, limited English, for example. But they seem just as bad, as if everything is limited, including people's perceptions of the limited English speaker. I know this for a fact, because when I was growing up, my mother's limited English limited my perception of her. Endorsement Dissertation? I was ashamed of her English. In The? I believed that her English reflected the quality of what she had to say That is, because she expressed them imperfectly her thoughts were imperfect. And I had plenty of empirical evidence to support me: the fact that people in department stores, at endorsement dissertation, banks, and at restaurants did not take her seriously, did not give her good service, pretended not to understand her, or even acted as if they did not hear her. My mother has long realized the limitations of her English as well. When I was fifteen, she used to have me call people on the phone to learning english as a pretend I was she.

In this guise, I was forced to ask for information or even to complain and yell at people who had been rude to her. Celebrity Endorsement? One time it was a call to her stockbroker in essays, New York. She had cashed out her small portfolio and it just so happened we were going to go to New York the next week, our very first trip outside California. I had to get on the phone and say in dissertation, an adolescent voice that was not very convincing, This is Mrs. Tan. Paul Sartre Existentialism? And my mother was standing in the back whispering loudly, Why he don't send me check, already two weeks late.

So mad he lie to me, losing me money. And then I said in perfect English, Yes, I'm getting rather concerned. You had agreed to send the celebrity, check two weeks ago, but it hasn't arrived. Then she began to for writing personal statement school talk more loudly. What he want, I come to New York tell him front of endorsement, his boss, you cheating me? And I was trying to essay english foreign language calm her down, make her be quiet, while telling the stockbroker, I can't tolerate any more excuses. If I don't receive the check immediately, I am going to have to speak to your manager when I'm in New York next week. And sure enough, the following week there we were in front of celebrity endorsement dissertation, this astonished stockbroker, and I was sitting there red-faced and quiet, and my mother, the media, real Mrs. Tan, was shouting at his boss in her impeccable broken English. We used a similar routine just five days ago, for a situation that was far less humorous. Celebrity Endorsement Dissertation? My mother had gone to the hospital for an appointment, to global warming find out about a benign brain tumor a CAT scan had revealed a month ago.

She said she had spoken very good English, her best English, no mistakes. Still, she said, the hospital did not apologize when they said they had lost the CAT scan and dissertation she had come for nothing. She said they did not seem to have any sympathy when she told them she was anxious to know the exact diagnosis, since her husband and son had both died of brain tumors. She said they would not give her any more information until the next time and she would have to make another appointment for that. In The Essays? So she said she would not leave until the doctor called her daughter. She wouldn't budge. Celebrity? And when the doctor finally called her daughter, me, who spoke in perfect English -- lo and behold -- we had assurances the CAT scan would be found, promises that a conference call on Monday would be held, and apologies for any suffering my mother had gone through for a most regrettable mistake. I think my mother's English almost had an effect on limiting my possibilities in life as well. Movement New Religious? Sociologists and endorsement linguists probably will tell you that a person's developing language skills are more influenced by masculinity media peers. Dissertation? But I do think that the language spoken in the family, especially in immigrant families which are more insular, plays a large role in decleration of war thesis, shaping the celebrity dissertation, language of the of war, child.

And I believe that it affected my results on celebrity endorsement dissertation, achievement tests, I.Q. tests, and the SAT. While my English skills were never judged as poor, compared to math, English could not be considered my strong suit. In grade school I did moderately well, getting perhaps B's, sometimes B-pluses, in English and scoring perhaps in decleration, the sixtieth or seventieth percentile on achievement tests. But those scores were not good enough to override the opinion that my true abilities lay in celebrity, math and science, because in warming, those areas I achieved A's and scored in endorsement, the ninetieth percentile or higher. Learning As A Foreign Language? This was understandable. Math is celebrity precise; there is of war thesis only one correct answer. Endorsement Dissertation? Whereas, for me at least, the answers on English tests were always a judgment call, a matter of opinion and personal experience. Those tests were constructed around items like fill-in-the-blank sentence completion, such as, Even though Tom was, Mary thought he was --. And the correct answer always seemed to for writing a good personal statement for medical school be the most bland combinations of thoughts, for example, Even though Tom was shy, Mary thought he was charming:' with the grammatical structure even though limiting the endorsement, correct answer to some sort of semantic opposites, so you wouldn't get answers like, Even though Tom was foolish, Mary thought he was ridiculous:' Well, according to my mother, there were very few limitations as to what Tom could have been and what Mary might have thought of him. Jean Sartre Existentialism Summary? So I never did well on tests like that.

The same was true with word analogies, pairs of words in which you were supposed to find some sort of logical, semantic relationship -- for celebrity, example, Sunset is to nightfall as is to . And here you would be presented with a list of four possible pairs, one of which showed the same kind of relationship: red is to stoplight, bus is to arrival, chills is to fever, yawn is to boring: Well, I could never think that way. I knew what the tests were asking, but I could not block out of my mind the images already created by the first pair, sunset is to nightfall--and I would see a burst of colors against a darkening sky, the tips for writing personal school, moon rising, the celebrity dissertation, lowering of a curtain of stars. And all the other pairs of words --red, bus, stoplight, boring--just threw up a mass of tips for writing a good statement for medical, confusing images, making it impossible for me to sort out something as logical as saying: A sunset precedes nightfall is the same as a chill precedes a fever. The only endorsement way I would have gotten that answer right would have been to of war thesis imagine an associative situation, for example, my being disobedient and staying out past sunset, catching a chill at night, which turns into feverish pneumonia as punishment, which indeed did happen to me. I have been thinking about all this lately, about dissertation my mother's English, about achievement tests. Because lately I've been asked, as a writer, why there are not more Asian Americans represented in American literature. Why are there few Asian Americans enrolled in creative writing programs? Why do so many Chinese students go into paul sartre existentialism, engineering! Well, these are broad sociological questions I can't begin to answer. But I have noticed in surveys -- in celebrity endorsement, fact, just last week -- that Asian students, as a whole, always do significantly better on in the media, math achievement tests than in English.

And this makes me think that there are other Asian-American students whose English spoken in the home might also be described as broken or limited. Dissertation? And perhaps they also have teachers who are steering them away from writing and into math and science, which is what happened to me. In The Essays? Fortunately, I happen to be rebellious in nature and celebrity endorsement dissertation enjoy the learning english foreign, challenge of disproving assumptions made about me. Celebrity Dissertation? I became an English major my first year in college, after being enrolled as pre-med. I started writing nonfiction as a freelancer the tips personal, week after I was told by my former boss that writing was my worst skill and I should hone my talents toward account management. But it wasn't until 1985 that I finally began to write fiction. And at first I wrote using what I thought to be wittily crafted sentences, sentences that would finally prove I had mastery over the English language. Here's an example from the celebrity endorsement, first draft of learning as a foreign language, a story that later made its way into The Joy Luck Club, but without this line: That was my mental quandary in its nascent state.

A terrible line, which I can barely pronounce. Fortunately, for reasons I won't get into today, I later decided I should envision a reader for the stories I would write. And the endorsement, reader I decided upon essay english was my mother, because these were stories about mothers. So with this reader in endorsement dissertation, mind -- and in fact she did read my early drafts--I began to write stories using all the english, Englishes I grew up with: the English I spoke to my mother, which for lack of celebrity endorsement dissertation, a better term might be described as simple; the English she used with me, which for essay as a language, lack of a better term might be described as broken; my translation of celebrity endorsement dissertation, her Chinese, which could certainly be described as watered down; and what I imagined to be her translation of her Chinese if she could speak in perfect English, her internal language, and for media, that I sought to celebrity dissertation preserve the essence, but neither an English nor a Chinese structure. I wanted to essay learning as a foreign language capture what language ability tests can never reveal: her intent, her passion, her imagery, the rhythms of her speech and the nature of her thoughts.

Apart from what any critic had to say about my writing, I knew I had succeeded where it counted when my mother finished reading my book and celebrity endorsement dissertation gave me her verdict: So easy to jean sartre read.

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essay sexuality Sex and Sexuality in Islam. by Muslim Women's League. Even though it comprises only part of our identities, the celebrity sexuality of decleration of war thesis, women represents so much more; such that women's sexuality has been viewed as something to be controlled, hidden, or mastered, most often by men. Through the ages, sexuality has an impact on celebrity one's identity, self-esteem, relationships with others, societal mores, legal codes and so on. Essay Learning? If sexual behavior simply existed to allow for celebrity dissertation procreation, so much controversy and fascination would have no reason to english as a exist. Unfortunately, in many societies and for many years women have been principally defined by their roles as sexual beings whose chief purpose is to satisfy men's sexual needs; this perception contributed to maintaining women in positions of inferiority and often subservience to celebrity endorsement dissertation men. Essay Learning Foreign Language? Even today, women are singled out as sex objects, either as victims of rape or willing participants in industries such as advertising or pornography, that exploit women's sexuality. Dissertation? The purpose of jean paul sartre essay, this chapter is to celebrity endorsement dissertation explore important issues of sexuality from an Islamic point of view in an effort to expose demeaning cultural habits which have no basis in for medical, Islam, and to celebrity dissertation offer alternative understandings of these issues based on the primary sources of Qur'an and Hadith.

The view of sexuality as taboo and jean sartre essay shameful is by no means unique to any particular religious or ethnic group. The Victorian era in England and the US(late 19th century) was characterized by celebrity such a strong inhibition of sexuality that was subsequently blamed for psychological problems seen in women by psychiatrists such as Sigmund Freud. Breaking free from the oppressiveness of that era was an masculinity media essays, important goal for women through most of the 20th century since the prevailing attitudes were not confined to sexual issues as women were denied many other essential human rights. Laila Ahmed addresses some of the misogynistic conditions and beliefs that preceded Islam in the Mediterranean area, heavily influenced by Jewish and Christian thinking at that time(6th and 7th centuries). Celebrity Dissertation? She points out the church's attitude on abortion and contraception . formed part of tips a good for medical school, a broader negative ethos concerning the body and sexuality -- a sense of these as sinful and shameful and of sexuality as legitimate only for procreation. women were evidently perceived as innately more implicated in physicality and sexuality than men. (Women and Gender in Islam, p.35) Unfortunately, a similar view of women has been adopted by some Muslims and may actually be rooted in the cultural values which existed when Islam was introduced. Human sexual development goes through several well-defined stages.

Throughout growth, opportunities exist to teach children about their bodies, to inculcate values and attitudes, and most importantly to foster self-esteem. The success or failure (as determined by a woman's overall understanding and value of herself as well as her ability to maintain a satisfying relationship) can be determined by prevailing attitudes of the family and endorsement dissertation surrounding culture. Sexual development occurs throughout the life-cycle, beginning in infancy and childhood. The healthy progression from one stage of development to the next is dependent upon fulfillment of basic requirements at each stage. For example, an infant must develop trust that the caregiver will consistently respond to her cries before she can safely venture into movement new religious, the world and endorsement test the budding independence of toddlerhood. The ultimate achievement is the development of an intact, secure adult with a high sense of self-esteem and self-worth. If a girl is constantly being told that she is naughty, shameful, stupid or ugly, she will come to in the media believe it and obviously have low self-esteem which will interfere with relationships, school, work and so on. This illustration in general terms introduces the dissertation argument that cultural habits which teach girls excessive shame breed guilt and reinforce a negative self-image contributing to low self-esteem and even dysfunctional sexual lives. This stage of development has been referred to as the latent stage in Freudian terms. It was felt that between early childhood and puberty children had no interest in their or others sexuality; they are essentially dormant in this regard until hormonal changes signal the onset of puberty.

However, this argument has been challenged by other experts in the field. Regardless of psychological theories, certain facts must be considered about children at this age. They are developing mentally and as such are often extremely curious about themselves, others, animals and so on. This is a good time to reinforce concepts of cleanliness, privacy and self-respect and to begin to teach them about paul sartre summary sexuality and reproduction in an age appropriate manner. Some girls will start menstruating as early as age nine and should be prepared ahead of time by frank and open discussions with their parents. For many girls, the most significant thing to happen during this time is the onset of menstruation. Celebrity Endorsement? If a girl has not been prepared for this event, the sight of the first few drops of essay learning english as a, blood can be terribly frightening. The signs that a girl is celebrity, entering this stage of development include breast development, growth of hair under the decleration of war thesis arms and in the pubic area, increase in endorsement, height and essay finally onset of menses. Celebrity Endorsement? At this time, cultural and familial attitudes about menstruation are critical in impacting a girl's acceptance or rejection of this milestone in her life. Because of the rapid rate of short warming, change and accompanying sense of awkwardness, adolescents are often insecure and endorsement preoccupied with appearances, with a strong desire to be accepted by their peers.

This stage is characterized by a heightened interest in and awareness of decleration, members of the opposite sex. Celebrity Dissertation? In the United States and in many other countries, young people begin to develop relationships during the teenage years. Over half of the students graduating from masculinity in the essays high school have been sexually active. Many communities are working hard to teach abstinence before marriage but they are working against endorsement, difficult odds especially when dating is viewed as normal, age-appropriate behavior. Yet, a primary task at essay, this stage is to achieve a healthy, intimate relationship, which, for Muslims, can only exist in celebrity, the context of marriage. Once women become sexually active, they then must deal with issues related to pregnancy, such as attitudes toward child-bearing, timing and spacing of children, and contraception. Ideally, decisions are made within a mutually supportive monogamous relationship. Short Essays Warming? Also, during this time, sexual satisfaction as well as sexual dysfunction or incompatibility become important issues as part of an overall relationship and can contribute to its well being or be a source of celebrity endorsement, tension and stress.

Historically, older women and men were considered asexual as aging and sexuality seemed incompatible. Especially today, as women and men live well into their eighties, sexuality is still an essay learning language, important part of many people's lives. While some may experience a decreased sex drive, others do not notice any change at all. Early in life, children become aware of their sexuality even to celebrity endorsement the point that infants can experience sexual pleasure (see Your Baby and Child, P. Leach, p. 212). Infants develop awareness of the function and form of all body parts as they grow. To a child, the penis or vagina is just another part of the body, like arms and legs.

The focus on the genitals is particularly evident during the toilet training years. If a child is taught that her genitals are dirty and learning as a foreign shameful , but she wants to explore them just the dissertation same, naturally she will feel ashamed and naughty if she does so. Language? Therefore, early on she sees part of dissertation, herself as negative. Most child development experts encourage parents to remain neutral about for writing a good personal for medical school a child's interest in her genitals to celebrity dissertation avoid preoccupation with that body part and to essay learning language enhance the development of a positive sexual identity. As the child grows, it becomes important to teach her about privacy and dissertation appropriate behavior when around others. Oftentimes, parents fear that by not discouraging their children from touching themselves, they are encouraging them to explore sexuality at thesis, an early age. But teaching children to respect and understand their bodies will more positively impact their self image compared to emphasizing the sense of celebrity dissertation, shame ('ayb) that many children are taught. Such a sense of essay summary, shame can be taken to extremes; for example, a mother refuses to apply necessary medication to her three year old daughter's vagina because to touch her there is 'ayb. Other girls are afraid to endorsement dissertation cleanse their genitals properly because to touch themselves is essay learning as a language, 'ayb. The concept of shame or disgust regarding one's body has no basis in Islam. During adolescence, sexuality becomes of interest to young people as their bodies experience hormonal upheavals which result in celebrity, physical and jean paul summary emotional changes.

Again, a girl's experience through childhood will influence her passage through this difficult time. Endorsement? If she is taught that the onset of menstruation is a curse, then her experience and coping mechanisms will be affected negatively. A positive attitude will enable a young woman to paul sartre existentialism summary view it as a milestone, not a hindrance. Celebrity Dissertation? Unfortunately, much folklore and jean paul sartre existentialism summary negative cultural beliefs abound regarding a woman's menses. Indeed, for some women menstruation is a physically difficult, unwelcome disruption every month. Celebrity? But it is a simple biological process that can be managed like any other physical condition, and needn't impair a woman's ability to function. Several hadith exist regarding menstruation. The only Qur'anic reference is found in Surah 2, verse 222 where Muslims are told to avoid sexual intercourse during a woman's menses: And they will ask thee about (woman's) monthly courses. Say, 'It is a vulnerable condition. Keep, therefore, aloof from women during their monthly courses, and do not draw near unto them until they are cleansed; and when they are cleansed, go in unto them as God has bidden you to do.' In a hadith found in Muslim (No.

592, also reported in Sunan Abu Dawud, No, 258), a discussion occurs whereby the Prophet emphasizes that the Islamic view of menstruation differs significantly from the Jewish attitude during his time, which strongly restricted women from several arenas while they were menstruating. In this hadith he says, Associate with them in the houses and do everything except sexual intercourse. Aisha and the other wives of the Prophet were instrumental in pointing out his attitude of tolerance; for example, Maimuna recalled an occasion when she was sitting near him while he was praying. She happened to of war be menstruating and during his prayers he knelt on her garment but did not displace it, meaning that being in the presence of a menstruating woman had no impact on his prayers ( Mishkat ul Masabih, No. 550; for other hadith along similar lines see Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. Endorsement Dissertation? 212-213, 267-273; Muslim, Nos. 269, 577-588 and Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. 293-300) Also, the Prophet commanded menstruating women and those observing purdah to participate in Eid festivities. They sat behind those who prayed but joined in takbir ( Muslim, Nos. 1932-34; Bukhari, Vol.1, No.

321). Exemptions from Rituals. Today, as in the time of the Prophet, women do not pray or fast while on their menses. Masculinity Essays? The Qur'an does not address this practice at celebrity endorsement, all; several hadith exist which expressly forbid women to pray while on their period. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. Masculinity Essays? 271-287, Bukhari, Vol.1., No.327). Endorsement Dissertation? Several traditions show that menstruating women were not supposed to perform tawaf (circumambulation) around the Kaaba during Hajj while they were menstruating (Bukhari, Vol.

1, Nos. 302,321,325; al-Muwatta, 20.16) The menses were viewed as a temporary illness such that days not fasted had to be made up as any ill person would do after Ramadan. Tips For Writing A Good For Medical? The Qur'an states that those who are ill or on a journey can desist from fasting and endorsement dissertation make the days up later (2:184). There are no hadith which expressly forbid women from fasting while menstruating, but based on the text from the following, one concludes that menstruating women did not fast: Aisha is reported to for writing personal statement for medical school have said that during menstruation in the time of the Prophet, the women were commanded to complete the fast (abandoned during menses) but were not commanded to complete the (abandoned) prayer (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 262-3, Muslim, Nos. 660-662). Women who have prolonged menses because of an underlying medical problem can resume prayers , fasting, and intercourse after a certain number of days (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 274-306, Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. 303,306,322,324).

In view of the verse mentioned above which admonishes against sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman in order to avoid causing her harm, the exemptions from the endorsement above-mentioned rituals could be viewed as an movement, extension of endorsement, God's consideration of women. Essay Movement New Religious? Perhaps abstention from prayer and fasting during one's menses is a divine acknowledgement of women's increased difficulty during that period. God gave them permission not to pray or fast as a sign of mercy, just as He allows travelers to celebrity dissertation shorten their prayers to in the ease their burden. Many Muslims believe that menstruating women are not allowed to enter the mosque or touch the dissertation Qur'an. As A Language? This relates to the view of the menstruating woman as unclean. Since she cannot be purified with ablution until after her menses stop, she is not in the proper state to enter a mosque or recite Qur'an.

Conflicting hadith exist regarding these habits. When looking at the whole body of hadith regarding the dissertation subject of menstruation, it appears that many of the injunctions were made because of the physical problems associated with active bleeding. English As A Foreign? Women at that time did not have access to dissertation modern amenities which protect a woman and essay english foreign language her garments from the blood flow. One hadith points out that one of the celebrity endorsement Prophet's wives (Um Salamah, who was having irregular bleeding) needed a dish underneath her to catch the menstrual blood while she was observing I'tikaf in the mosque during Ramadan (Bukhari No. 306, Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 2470, Muslim, No. 2470).

Therefore, practically speaking , women might have been restricted in their activities if they did not have the means to deal with a heavy period, for example. Today, women have so many options so that there are rarely fears of thesis, such difficulties. In addition, the Prophet once asked Aisha to fetch his mat which was in celebrity endorsement, the mosque. She said, But I am menstruating to which he replied Your menstruation is not in your hand. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 261) However, another hadith exists which states that menstruating women should not enter the mosque: The Prophet is reported to have said, I do not make the mosque lawful for a menstruating woman and for a person who is junub. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 232) The act of not touching the Qur'an while menstruating is based on the hadith that the Prophet wrote a letter in which he said that no one should touch the Qur'an but one who is pure. In The Media? (Mishkat-ul-Masabih, No. 465;). Also, in Surah 56, verses 77-79 we find: That this indeed is a Qur'an most honorable, in a Book well-guarded, which none shall touch but those who are clean (tahir). In Mishkat-ul Masabih a hadith from celebrity endorsement dissertation Tirmidhi states that the Prophet said that the of war thesis menstruating woman and one who is junub should not recite anything from the celebrity dissertation Qur'an (No.

461). Essays? In general, since, in either of these states, women or men are not yet physically purified (tahir) they cannot touch or formally recite the Qur'an until that state comes to an end. By performing ghusl (complete ablution) after the menses are over, one achieves the prerequisite physical state which allows for the resumption of prayers, fasting, reciting Qur'an and sexual relations. Endorsement Dissertation? This does not imply impurity of spirit nor does it necessarily have to mean that a menstruating woman is unclean or dirty. New Religious? The Prophet was known to perform ghusl after intercourse before reciting Qur'an, and endorsement he also would recite Qur'an while resting his head in Aisha's lap and she happened to be menstruating. (Mishkat, No. 460, Muslim, Nos.

260, 591) It is for writing statement, possible to understand why Muslims might view menses as a negative aspect of the female identity. A well known and dissertation oft-quoted hadith which leads to the conclusion that menstruating women neither prayed nor fasted is found in Bukhari with several versions: The Prophet is reported to have said, Isn't it true that a woman does not pray and does not fast on menstruating? And that is the sartre essay summary defect in her religion (Vol. 3, No. 172, see also Vol. Celebrity Endorsement? 1, No. 301). The conclusion usually derived from this hadith is that women can never achieve the same level of faith or spirituality as men because they cannot fulfill their religious duties all the time.

The weakness in this argument and therefore in the hadith is thesis, that it contradicts the undisputed image expressed in the Qur'an of women and men as equal in terms of their duties and expectations as Muslims, servants of God. To say that one's faith is determined only by the extent to which she can carry out the rituals negates all of the other aspects of faithfulness and observance that cannot be quantified. God rewards or punishes according to deeds and intentions; how, then, can something that is biologically determined, not chosen or willed by the individual, serve as a measure of faith? Would God punish women for something that He created? Because this hadith is celebrity endorsement, found in short essays about global, Bukhari, it is rarely questioned or reinterpreted and unfortunately reinforces a negative view of women in Islam. The large volume of hadith regarding menstruation reflects the need for celebrity practical guidance on the part of the Muslim community at the time of the Prophet. After reviewing all of the texts, one can't help but feel the burden of menstruation for the Muslim woman.

Regardless of the for writing a good statement school deficiency hadith and in celebrity dissertation, view of modern advances, Muslim women today can view menstruation as a simple fact of life that has no negative bearing on her value as a human being. Modern medicine has enabled us to manipulate the menstrual cycle in a myriad of paul sartre existentialism essay, ways so that women can continue to carry out dissertation, their activities without being disabled once a month. Indeed, many women take advantage of medical technology to avoid menstruating during Hajj which, for many, is truly a once in a lifetime event not to be missed because of tips for writing a good personal statement school, bad timing. Virginity and the Hymen: The Double Standard. Throughout childhood and adolescence, girls are sometimes prohibited by their parents from engaging in any activities that might interfere with the integrity of the celebrity hymen which is a small circular membrane at the opening of the vagina which allows the passage of menstrual flow. The opening is jean, very narrow and is torn when penetration occurs (as in sexual intercourse). Celebrity? This is occasionally accompanied by bleeding.

Such blood loss has been required in some cultures to prove that the woman is a virgin at marriage so a blood stained cloth would be given to the groom's family on the wedding night to verify the bride's pure state. Statement School? If a woman did not bleed, the repercussions could be severe. So it became vitally important that the hymen remain intact as a sign of virginity with the dissertation family's honor at essay english foreign language, stake. While many of the cultural traditions involving proof of a woman's virginity are less prevalent than in the past, one can still find a persistent concern about the hymen as a marker for virginity today throughout many parts of the Muslim world. (It should be noted that the concern about the hymen is not limited only to Muslims.) As a result, any activity that might cause tearing of the hymen would be forbidden, such as bicycle riding, horseback riding, gymnastics, etc. Unfortunately, the prohibitions against these activities are rarely accompanied by an explanation (most likely due to shyness on celebrity dissertation the part of the parents); thus, the young girl learns that because she is a girl she cannot participate in paul essay, activities enjoyed by other children. Again, such an attitude promotes a negative self-image. These attitudes are culturally entrenched and not based on Islam. Celebrity? While virginity of both men and women is emphasized in Islam, there is essays warming, no text in Qur'an or Hadith which specifically addresses the intactness of any part of celebrity endorsement, a woman's anatomy as a marker for virginity. As will be discussed in detail later, the Islamic position on sexual behavior is explicit.

Both men and women are required to masculinity media be chaste and to seek fulfilling relationships in marriage. Dissertation? Consequently, pre- and extra-marital relations are prohibited (Qur'an, 17:32, 24:26, 25:68; Bukhari, Vol. 8, Nos. Essay Movement New Religious? 798-802). Of course, then, there is no debate that Muslims, male and female, must be virgins before they enter into their first marriage. Each individual is responsible and accountable to God for maintaining a state of purity prior to celebrity endorsement dissertation matrimony. Why should a woman have to prove that she is a virgin with physical evidence, when the man is taken on his word? Naturally, a woman who marries for the second or third time cannot give the same proof, meaning the decleration of war status of the hymen is truly irrelevant for celebrity dissertation determining sexual purity. The hymen exists as a remnant of embryological development which serves no purpose physiologically speaking (K. L. Moore, The Developing Human).

If it tears because a girl goes bike riding or uses a tampon or even has a pelvic exam by a physician as part of an evaluation of a medical condition, must it then follow that she is no longer a virgin? The restriction against vaginal penetration applies to premarital sexual behavior with a member of the opposite sex. The prohibition against tips a good for medical school, premarital sex exists because of multiple negative social, psychological and physical consequences that do not apply if the hymen is endorsement, torn by of war an act that does not involve sexual intercourse. An unfortunate consequence of focusing on the shamefulness of sexuality is the inability of many women to enjoy a fulfilling sexual life once married. If a woman is taught from childhood that her genitals are unclean, untouchable, and endorsement dissertation basically an of war thesis, area off limits, and if inadequate discussion takes place to prepare her for her first sexual experience, then naturally she would be horrified to imagine the penetration of that area by endorsement another person such as her husband. Media? And if the first encounter is painful, the stage is set for inhibition and fear so that a fulfilling sexual relationship is endorsement, practically impossible. Problems that ensue include the inability to consummate a marriage, vaginismus (spasm of the vaginal muscles which causes pain and prevents penile penetration), dyspareunia (painful intercourse), and the emotional and psychological consequences for the individuals involved in the relationship. Essays About? Also, the strong sense of fear and shame often prevents adequate medical evaluation during pelvic examinations because some women are unable to sufficiently relax even if they are married and have already borne children. While our religion stresses the importance of mutual sexual satisfaction between marriage partners, negative cultural factors can prevent such an outcome.

By educating children and young adults properly about sexuality, and by eliminating the features or habits which contribute to a negative self-image, and by focusing on the positive language found regarding these issues in Islamic literature women and men will be able to enjoy a fulfilling sexual relationship in marriage that is each person's right. Sexuality in Qur'an and dissertation Hadith. The references to sexuality found in Qur'an and hadith will now be discussed. In the following verse, men and women are referred to as the garments of one another, implying a sense of balance and mutual nurturance from one to the other. It is school, lawful for you to celebrity dissertation go in for writing a good personal statement for medical, unto your wives during the night preceding the celebrity dissertation (day's) fast: they are as a garment for you, and you are as a garment for them. God is aware that you would have deprived yourselves of this right, and so He has turned unto you in His mercy and masculinity media removed this hardship from you. Now, then, you may lie with them skin to skin, and avail yourselves to that which God has ordained for you.(2:187) Also, by reviewing this and the verses below one appreciates the fact that sexual relations are sanctioned by endorsement God and are viewed as part of the spiritual relationship that exists between a husband and wife. As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an specifically prohibits intercourse during a woman's period (2:222) to avoid causing her discomfort. In verse 223 of the same Surah, the Qur'an says: Your wives are your tilth; go, then, unto your tilth as you may desire, but first provide something for your souls, and remain conscious of God, and know that you are destined to meet Him.

And give glad tidings unto those who believe. Based on these verses and some hadith, Muslim couples are encouraged to enjoy sexual relations in any manner the two prefer. Essay English As A Foreign Language? The only prohibitions involve avoiding intercourse while a woman is menstruating, and avoiding anal penetration (Muslim, No.3365); this explains the celebrity endorsement text in the verse mentioned above since it was revealed when one of the for writing a good personal statement for medical school Sahaba was concerned about having sexual intercourse from behind. Celebrity Endorsement? He was worried that he committed a sin. So the essay movement new religious Prophet said that any position was lawful as long as anal penetration did not occur. Endorsement? Therefore, if the english couple is mutually agreeable, no other restrictions apply.

Other verses that address sexuality focus on the unlawfulness of extra-marital sexual relationships which will be discussed later. Sexual Rights of the Wife. Several hadith also address the issue of sexual satisfaction with reference to the wife's rights in this matter. The Prophet advised Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As (who spent all day fasting and celebrity endorsement all night in prayer) to fast sometimes and not at other times; to pray at night and to sleep at night. Your body has a right over you, your eyes have a right over you and your wife has a right over you. (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 127) The wife's rights include a right to companionship from her husband and fulfillment of her sexual needs. A woman's satisfaction is particularly referred to in the interpretation of the hadiths which discuss penile withdrawal as a method of contraception.

One stipulation is that the woman must consent because such a practice could interfere with her sexual fulfillment to short essays about warming which she is entitled. Also, if she desires to bear children, coitus interruptus practiced by celebrity her husband would violate that right as well. This viewpoint is based on paul sartre existentialism essay summary a hadith transmitted by endorsement dissertation Umar ibn-al-Khattab who said that the Prophet forbade the practice of coitus interruptus with a woman except with her permission This reference is found in Sex and Society in Islam, by B. F. Musallam who also points out that this hadith was considered weak by jean paul existentialism essay summary some Medieval jurists (see also al-Muwatta, 29.34, No. 100). Nevertheless, the position regarding the woman's right to orgasm was developed over time by several Muslim jurists during the same period (Busallam, Chapter 2 and celebrity dissertation footnotes).

Also, one undisputed justification for divorce on media essays behalf of the endorsement wife is her sexual dissatisfaction. The most explicit discussions of sexual relations with respect to fulfilling the wife's needs are found in the Book on the Etiquette of Marriage, part of Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali's larger work, Revival of the Religious Sciences (Ihya Ulum al-Din), written in the eleventh century. In spite of some of his comments that are generally disparaging of women, he argues forcefully regarding the wife's right to sexual fulfillment. He quotes the Prophet as saying, Let none of of war, you come upon his wife like an animal, let there be an emissary between them. When asked what is the emissary, he replied, The kiss and sweet words. In another hadith, the celebrity dissertation Prophet points out that one of the deficiencies of a man is that he should approach his wife and have sexual contact with her before exchanging words and caresses, consequently, he sleeps with her and fulfills his needs (i.e. orgasm) before she fulfills hers. Al-Ghazali further elaborates on the importance of a woman achieving orgasm by stating, Congruence in attaining a climax is more gratifying to her because the essay learning as a foreign language man is not preoccupied with his own pleasure, but rather with hers. Rights of the Husband.

The sexual rights of the husband are also elucidated in the traditions, but the language is such that it appears that his rights supersede those of his wife. For example, in Bukhari, AbuHuraira reports that the Prophet said, If a man invites his wife to endorsement dissertation sleep with him and she refuses, then the angels send their curses on her till morning. (Vol. Essay Summary? 7, No. 121-2; in celebrity, Muslim, the text reads that God is displeased with her until the jean summary husband is pleased with her Nos. 3366-68).

In Riyadh-us-Salaheen, a hadith attributed to Tirmidhi and Nisai states that the Prophet said, When a man sends for his wife for the satisfaction of his need, she should go to him even if she may be occupied in baking bread. (No. Celebrity? 284) Similarly, Muslim women are advised not to statement fast without the permission of their husbands since fasting would interfere with sexual relations (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 2452-3; Muslim, Nos. 3366-68; Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 120). Clearly, Islamic literature stresses the importance of the sexual relationship between a husband and wife, but the above traditions seem to show that the husband's right to have sex is more important than the wife's right of celebrity endorsement dissertation, refusal if she is not willing for whatever reason. The only time she can refuse intercourse, then, is during menstruation. The verse (2:222) commands Muslims to a good for medical avoid sex during that time because it may be associated with discomfort on the part of the woman. A logical conclusion would be that sexual relations are better avoided for any circumstances (physical or otherwise) that would lead to discomfort. A common view of sex is that the stronger sexual urges of celebrity endorsement, men (compared to women) can be controlled only to a certain extent; according to some, this justifies the practice of polygamy even though the Qur'an makes no mention of sexual desires in masculinity, the verses on celebrity endorsement dissertation polygamy (4:3-5). Learning English As A Foreign? Also, the same argument is made to justify forcing women to dissertation have sex against their will, as they are forbidden to refuse to have sexual relations.

Since the husband's urges are so strong, and to masculinity prevent him from acting out on them illicitly, a wife's duty therefore is to submit in order to preserve the marriage. Yet, human beings are endowed with self control not seen in endorsement, any other species, such that we do not act on every instinctual impulse because of some uncontrollable force. This is what distinguishes humankind since God gave us the ability to movement new religious think and make choices. Therefore, there is no justification for forcing women to have sex against their will, even in marriage. One does not find any traditions that show the Prophet as an aggressive or coercive husband. Similarly, behavior involving coercion and force goes against the philosophy of mutual satisfaction outlined in the Qur'an (see verses above) and against the hadith which states that the best among Muslims are those who are best towards their wives (Riyadh-us-Salaheen, No. 278).

Also, the Prophet expressed his strong disapproval of celebrity, those who physically beat their wives and then had sexual relations that night (Bukhari, Vol. 7, No. 132, Vol.9, 81-82; see also Riyadh us-Salaheen, No. 274). The example of the Prophet clearly reveals that he and his wives enjoyed physical affection not necessarily related to intercourse thus reflecting an attitude of loving behavior in a variety of circumstances. Based on the hadith transmitted by his wives (particularly regarding physical intimacy while they were menstruating), this behavior included kissing, caressing, embracing and bathing together. Short Essays Global Warming? (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 267-273, 2376-2379; Muslim, Nos. 577-586, 629)

Husbands and wives should strive to satisfy one another's sexual needs as much as possible. This can be achieved by honest, open discussions; care, kindness and a desire to please one another. Dissertation? Viewing sexual intimacy as an important part of the relationship will enable a couple to achieve mutual satisfaction that enhances the overall success of the thesis marriage. Clearly, coercion and dissertation lack of consideration for one's spouses feelings will result in learning english language, tension that can have negative effects on the rest of the relationship. Unfortunately, if a Muslim woman is raised to abhor and endorsement dissertation fear any matters related to sex, then in most instances of sexual contact she would be a passive and perhaps unwilling participant, and definitely not one who derives pleasure from masculinity in the essays sex. Also, the general view of celebrity endorsement dissertation, sex as a shameful and dirty act contributes to inhibitions of both men and women, preventing them from enjoying an act sanctioned by God.

The following hadith highlights the importance of privacy in sexual relationships: the Prophet is reported to global warming have said, The most wicked among the people in the sight of God on the Day of celebrity dissertation, Judgement is the man who goes to sartre existentialism his wife and she comes to him, and then he divulges her secret. (Muslim, Nos. 3369-70). Consequently, Muslims would be very unlikely to discuss matters of their sexual lives outside of the home. By keeping sexual issues private, the couple ensures mutual respect and avoids the chances of violating trust by divulging personal tastes and practices to others. However, this attitude would also prevent couples from seeking necessary help, thus diminishing opportunities for alleviating any problems related to dissertation sexual dysfunction. Consultations with professionals, such as physicians, would not violate the jean sartre essay summary code of celebrity, privacy, and could help the essay movement individual or couple in celebrity endorsement, matters that significantly impact the marriage.

Sex Outside of Marraige. As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an specifically prohibits sexual acts outside of marriage (zina). Interestingly, the essay learning as a text does not go into detail to dissertation explain why such behavior is sinful. Essay New Religious? The verses which mention illicit sexual relations do so while admonishing Muslims to avoid other grave sinful deeds such as murder and stealing (Qur'an 25:68, 60:12). Muslims acknowledge and believe in Divine wisdom which is understood, to some extent, by the application of common sense and an exploration of the ramifications of fornication and adultery which include but are not limited to unwanted pregnancy, transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, negative emotional and celebrity endorsement dissertation psychological consequences, and physical intimacy without emotional commitment. In addition to Qur'an, numerous hadith exist which point out that zina is considered a major sin (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 148; Vol. 8, Nos.

798-802). The issue of extramarital sexual relations takes on even more profound importance because laws exist in Islamic jurisprudence which outline the punishment (hadd) for this behavior which is considered a sex crime. Clearly, the threat of punishment authorized by God serves as a very effective deterrent for illicit sexual behavior which results in negative social consequences beyond those experienced by the couple in question. Even though the text is clear regarding the unlawfulness of zina, the following references point out in the essays, how difficult it is to accuse someone of such a crime. According to the Qur'an, those who accuse another of zina are required to produce four eyewitnesses of the act of celebrity dissertation, genital penetration (meaning the act of intercourse would practically have to be committed in public view). Of War Thesis? According to hadith, other incriminating evidence include confession and celebrity endorsement pregnancy (Bukhari, Vol. 8, No.

816; Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4518; Muslim, No. 4194). While the essays global seriousness of the crime is not in question, the Prophet himself demonstrated reluctance in reacting to celebrity endorsement dissertation accusations and even confessions without giving individuals the opportunity to avoid punishment and repent to God, with the hopes of avoiding punishment in essay learning, the hereafter as well. In addition, the Prophet himself advised the believers not to make public their misbehaviors. When a man came to confess that he had been with a woman and did everything except sexual intercourse, Omar ibn al Khattab said, Allah has concealed your fault; it would have been better if you had concealed it yourself.

The Prophet then quoted the verse, And be constant in praying at the beginning and endorsement the end of the day. Masculinity? for, verily, good deeds drive away evil deeds: this is a reminder to all who bear (God) in mind. (11:114). In addition, the Qur'an elsewhere clearly stresses the importance of sincerely repenting as God is ever merciful (4:15-16). Several hadith refer to endorsement dissertation an instance in which the Prophet tried to give a man the opportunity to avoid punishment. Maiz ibn Malik came to of war thesis the Prophet insisting on confessing his sin of fornication with a slavegirl. The Prophet responded by turning away from dissertation him, then insisted that the for writing couple must have just looked at each other, or only embraced or kissed; but Maiz persisted with his confession of actual intercourse.

The Prophet gave him ample opportunity to conceal his sin, and repent privately with the hopes of endorsement dissertation, receiving God's forgiveness. Yet, Maiz also knew that punishment in this life would replace the possible punishment awaiting in the Hereafter. So upon masculinity, acknowledgement and confession of fornication, the Prophet ordered the punishment. (Bukhari, Vol. 8, Nos. 806, 810, 812-14; Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4413).

A similar story involves a pregnant woman who also wanted to confess and receive punishment. Again, the Prophet first told her to Go back to her tribe, but she returned again wishing to celebrity endorsement confess. The Prophet told her to go back until the child was born. She returned again with the infant and masculinity in the essays he told her to suckle him until you wean him. She returned when the endorsement dissertation boy was weaned, again confessing fully, resulting in the prescribed punishment. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4428). For a couple (or individual) convicted of zina, the punishment would be harsh. According to the Qur'an , 100 lashes for each (24:2).

In several hadith collections, the punishment of stoning to death is described for those guilty of adultery. This divergence is significant because stoning resulted in death while flogging did not.. The Qur'an does not distinguish between fornication and adultery but uses one word to in the essays describe both, zina. Belief in the Qur'an as the final word would argue that the endorsement dissertation use of stoning to death instead of flogging is inappropriate; indeed a hadith in Bukhari states that a transmitter of one of the stoning hadiths did not know if stoning was practiced before or after the warming revelation of the above Qur'anic verse (Vol. .8, No. 804). Interestingly, both Bukhari and Muslim report a hadith transmitted by Ibn Abbas who narrated that Umar ibn al-Khattab feared that in future times Muslims would not use stoning as punishment because it is celebrity, not mentioned in the Qur'an.

But he spoke to confirm the obligation of its use as punishment for proven cases of adultery. (Bukhari, Vol.8, No. 816; Muslim, No. 4194). All of essay learning english foreign language, these issues dealing with punishment must be reviewed by modern Islamic jurists to develop laws (in those countries where Islamic law is dissertation, applied) that incorporate the Islamic principles of justice, due process and compassion. In countries where Muslims live as minorities (where Islamic law does not prevail), these punishments cannot be carried out by zealous individuals or communities who may feel that they are required to carry out God's law in spite of the prevailing legal system. Yet, the system of Islamic jurisprudence must guarantee basic rights of individuals accused of serious crimes: these rights cannot possibly be upheld without a court system with checks and balances to ensure enforcement of the law while respecting the rights of a good, individuals. The main point is that, while the punishment for zina is severe and extreme, the requirements for proof of endorsement, guilt are so strict that the chances of one actually being convicted and essay learning english foreign language then punished are very small. Thus the individual Muslim who commits such acts in private, without fear of retribution should pay heed to the following verses: Verily, God's acceptance of repentance relates only to those who do evil out of endorsement, ignorance and then repent before their time runs out. And it is they unto whom God will turn again in masculinity in the media, His mercy - for God is all-knowing, wise; whereas repentance shall not be accepted from those who do evil deeds until their dying hour and then say, Behold I now repent; nor from those who die as deniers of truth; it is these for whom We have readied grievous suffering.(4:17-18) While it may seem obvious to some, the definition of zina is not without controversy.

Again, using the hadith mentioned above(Bukhari, Vol. 8, No. 806, etc.), the endorsement dissertation Prophet did not consider Maiz ibn Malek of a crime until he confessed of actual sexual intercourse involving penile penetration. This does not mean that other behaviors such as kissing, heavy petting, oral sex are not prohibited but that the requirements needed to essay english as a justify a harsh punishment are strict. Obviously, many couples can engage in all of these activities without being exposed to witnesses and thus avoid punishment in this life. Celebrity? But they still must answer to God who, in no uncertain terms, admonishes against any sexual contact outside of learning english as a language, marriage. False Accusations and celebrity Honor. If a husband accuses his wife of adultery by swearing four times and she denies any wrongdoing under oath, then she is vindicated (Qur'an 24:6-9).

According to Muhammad Asad (footnote 10, Surah 24) the same applies if a woman accuses her husband. If the accusation is found to be false the global warming punishment of the accuser is severe: And as for those who accuse chaste women (of adultery), and then are unable to produce four witnesses (in support of thier accusation), flog them with eighty s stripes; an ever after refuse to accept from them any testimony- since it is endorsement dissertation, they, they that are truly depraved!- excepting only those who afterwards repent and made amends for, behold, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace. And as for those who accuse their own wives, but have no witnesses except themselves, let each of these (accusers) call God four times to witness that he is indeed telling the truth, and the fifth time, that God's curse be upon him if he is telling a lie. (As for the wife, all) chastisement shall be averted from personal for medical school her by endorsement dissertation her calling God four times to for writing a good witness that he is endorsement, indeed telling a lie, and the fifth (time), that God's curse be upon her if she is telling the truth . (24:4-8) These verses were revealed in response to accusations against Aisha, the Prophet's wife, who was left behind the caravan when she went looking for a lost necklace. A young soldier happened upon her and essay english escorted her to endorsement dissertation the camp where they arrived the following day. Rumors about sexual misconduct spread, causing great upheaval and emotional distress in the household of the Prophet.

The above verses point out that a woman's word to jean paul existentialism essay swear to celebrity her innocence is sufficient to both preserve her reputation and result in punishment of her accusers. The following verse admonishes the community for not questioning the rumors and giving Aisha, the accused, the benefit of the doubt: Why do not the believing men and women, whenever such (a rumor) is thesis, heard, think the dissertation best of one another and say, 'This is an tips for writing a good statement school, obvious falsehood'. and were it not for God's favor upon endorsement, you, and His grace in this world and in the life to come, awesome suffering would indeed have afflicted you in result of all (the calumny) in which you indulge when you take it up with your tongues, uttering with your mouths something of which you have no knowledge, and deeming it a light matter whereas in masculinity media essays, the sight of God it is an awful thing. Verily, as for those who like (to hear)foul slander spread against (any of) those who have attained to faith - grievous suffering awaits them in this world and in the life to come: for God knows (the full truth), whereas you know (it) not (24:12-19). Slander is considered a grave offense since it taints the reputation of individuals and disrupts relationships The verses, while referring to Aisha's particular case, universally applied, serve to dissertation protect women from in the media essays any unfair accusations about their chastity. Unfortunately in many communities throughout the Muslim world the, honor of the entire family is caught up in and determined by the reputation of the female members, who can be accused of sexual misconduct, even if it is only suspected. As is clear from the celebrity dissertation above verses, singling out women for punishment based only on accusations or assumptions has no basis in decleration thesis, Islam. Endorsement? Even if a woman is accused of fornication, and she denies the learning as a language accusation, no punishment is carried out endorsement dissertation, (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4451). Thus, even the suggestion of misbehavior (usually acts other than intercourse) cannot possibly serve as evidence of wrongdoing to Islamically justify retribution (such as honor killings) on the part of the woman's family. The sin of false accusations and the focus on absolving the one who is falsely accused has become problematic regarding the movement punishment of rape.

If a woman accuses a man of raping her and he denies that he did, she is basically confessing to celebrity dissertation illicit sexual contact and therefore punishable. This is even more problematic if the woman has no other evidence besides her testimony. This is the current state of affairs in Pakistan where rape victims are punished for the crime committed against them. According to Imam Malik, if a man is convicted of rape, he receives the punishment as mentioned for zina and also must pay a mahr (bride-price) to english as a the victim (al-Muwatta, 36.16). Imam Malik also states that if an unmarried woman is pregnant and claims to have been raped, unless there is physical evidence, she is presumed to be guilty of fornication and celebrity endorsement dissertation therefore punished (al-Muwatta, 41.4). Again, based on earlier interpretations, the woman is made to suffer for a crime committed by essays about warming another because the focus is erroneously on the sexual act and not on rape as an act of violence. Rather than viewing the act of celebrity, sex as the issue requiring jurisdiction, the judges should view rape as an act of violence perpetrated against a good for medical school, an unwilling victim who cannot be considered guilty of a sex crime. Along the lines of endorsement dissertation, sexual behavior arises the issue of homosexuality about which the Islamic position is clear. Based on decleration of war numerous verses in the Qur'an which refer to Prophet Lot and the sins committed by his community, one concludes that homosexual relations are prohibited. (7:80-84, 11:77-83, 15:57-77, 26:160-175, 27:54-58, 29:28-35)) Again, the Qur'an does not go into great detail to explain why; and celebrity dissertation again Muslims first accept God's wisdom and short essays about global warming then apply reason to come to an understanding. Endorsement Dissertation? The most basic argument is that homosexual behavior is ultimately detrimental to the survival of thehuman race. Also, it is contrary to the Islamic position of the importance of the short about global bond between husbands and wives which is a goal for which Muslims are encouraged to strive. (based on a well known hadith that marriage is half of one's religion.)

Like zina, punishment has been described for those who are found to engage in celebrity endorsement, homosexual acts. The Qur'an is decleration of war, somewhat vague on the issue of punishment. The only verse which alludes to this behavior again calls for four witnesses to confirm the celebrity dissertation immoral conduct (fahishah) between two women or two men; if they are found guilty, they are to be punished, but if they repent they are to be left alone (4:15-16). The type of punishment is not defined. The hadith are more specific. In Sunan Abu Dawud, Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet said if anyone is found doing as Lot's people did, to kill the one who does it (sodomy) and to sartre existentialism whom it is done (No. 4447).

In the footnote to this hadith it is pointed out that the jurists differed in celebrity endorsement dissertation, opinion regarding how the punishment would be carried out. Basically, homosexual acts are considered illicit and if verified by witnesses or confession, then the for writing a good personal statement school individuals would be punished like those who commit zina. What occurs in private is between individuals who are ultimately accountable to celebrity dissertation God. Naturally, sexual feelings can arise for jean paul essay summary people who are not yet married. An oft quoted hadith advises fasting to help quell the celebrity sexual appetite (Bukhari, Vol. 3, No. 129).

For some this may not really help. But feelings of frustration do not justify acting them out essay new religious, with someone outside of the marital relationship. Therefore, one could argue for endorsement the benefit of masturbation which would relieve the frustration and prevent illicit sexual contact (see Musallam, p.33 and Qaradawi, pp. 170-1). According to Al-Qaradawi in The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, the majority of scholars consider masturbation haram (forbidden). But, he does point out that the Hanbali jurists permit masturbation for those afraid of committing fornication or adultery or for those without the means to marry. While the value of thesis, family and raising children is endorsement dissertation, undisputed among most Muslims, it is well known that contraception is permitted and can be practiced for a variety of reasons at the discretion of the couple. Jean Paul Sartre Essay Summary? This is consistent with the view that the purpose of sexual behavior between husband and wife is not limited to endorsement dissertation procreation. The Prophet did not prohibit contraception (the withdrawal method or coitus interruptus practiced at personal statement school, the time) and did not mention any stipulations in any of the hadith except one mentioned earlier which refers to the importance of endorsement dissertation, obtaining the wife's consent before practicing withdrawal.

Similarly, use of female controlled methods, such as the birth control pill, would require the husband's consent in media essays, consideration of his desires for bearing children. (Bukhari, Vol. 7, Nos. 135-6; Muslim, Nos. 3371-88; al-Muwatta, 29.34) While withdrawal was the method practiced during the Prophet's time, by analogy, contraception by the means available today is celebrity endorsement, also permitted. In almost every hadith that discusses withdrawal ('azl) the Prophet is reported to masculinity in the have said that even if it is celebrity, practiced, if God intends a child to be born she/he will be born. Although the thesis methods used today for endorsement dissertation contraception are very effective, not a single one provides 100% assurance that pregnancy will not occur; so, as always, God's will prevails when He so ordains a matter such as conception. Some Muslims argue that sterilization of men or women is new religious, not allowed as a method of contraception because it alters the human body. They use the hadith which admonish against altering one's features for cosmetic reasons (Y. Endorsement Dissertation? Al-Qaradawi, The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, pp. 88-9). In The? Surgery done for beautification is clearly not the same as that done for contraception so the connection is flawed at celebrity, best, and does not offer a convincing argument against jean paul sartre, sterilization.

Like the other monotheistic religions, Islam prohibits the taking of the life of another human being without just cause (i.e. in self-defense, see 5:32) Therefore the question arises, at what point in gestation does the fetus become a human, such that to remove it would be described as murder. The debate in modern Western society centers around the issue of choice. Endorsement? Since the pregnancy is part of the woman's body, she has the right to make decisions regarding the outcome. On the other hand, the fetus is a potential human being who has rights of her/his own, one of them being the right to life. By the early third trimester, when an infant born can survive outside of the womb, to terminate a pregnancy is considered illegal. Prior to that stage of gestation, the fetus definitely cannot survive, therefore, it is not yet considered a human being . Others believe that the fetus's status as a human begins at essay movement new religious, conception. In spite of the positions of the major jurists, many Muslims today ( and some earlier jurists) believe that abortion is unlawful under any circumstances unless the celebrity dissertation woman's life is endangered by the pregnancy. Tips For Writing Statement? Modern technology (not available to early jurists) enables the physician to celebrity see the beating heart of a 21 day old embryo; whether the embryo qualifies as a person is really only learning as a, known by God. Many feel that life and the human spirit are present at conception meaning pregnancy termination at any stage would involve the unlawful taking of a life ( see Islamic Perspectives in Obstetrics and Gynecology, by Dr. Endorsement Dissertation? Hassan Hathout, pp. 61-78 ). While some modern day scholars also feel that the fetus' right to life prevails even in cases of incest or rape, others consider those situations exceptional and think abortion is allowed to preserve the emotional and psychological well-being of the decleration thesis woman.

Female Genital Mutilation. Since female genital mutilation (FGM , known also as female circumcision). is endorsement, a custom among some Muslims, the Islamic position must be made clear. This practice which involves varying degrees of mutilation (from removing the clitoris to removing all labia and sewing the vagina to such an extent that only a small opening exists to allow passage of menstrual blood) presumably is performed to limit the sexual activity of women . By eliminating their ability to experience orgasm , they will be less likely to misbehave before or during marriage. This practice pre-dated Islam and decleration thesis is currently a custom in celebrity endorsement dissertation, a few Muslim countries, particularly in Africa. Only one hadith exists which specifically addresses FGM. In Sunan Abu Dawud, Um Atiya said that the Prophet told a woman who performed circumcision in Medina to not cut severely as that is better for a woman and more desirable for a husband (No. 5251). According to learning english language Abu Dawud, this is a weak hadith (mursal).

In the footnote of this hadith, the translator, Ahmad Hasan, points out that all of the major scholars maintained that FGM was recommended (but to what degree was not specified). As mentioned throughout this chapter, focusing on endorsement dissertation sexuality in a positive manner can be a difficult task for Muslims. Cultural views of women in general, fear of committing and being punished for short about warming sin, and the use of sex as a means of domination have all contributed to the silence and repression that prevent people from being comfortable with their sexuality as individuals and in dissertation, relationships. Through education and understanding, a more positive approach can lead to a better outcome. Teaching children to accept their bodies and sexuality contributes to jean sartre existentialism summary developing strong self-esteem which is a major determinant of future sexual activity. Young people, particularly women, with low self-esteem are more likely to engage in sexual behavior at a young age. Fostering self-esteem occurs mainly within the endorsement dissertation family unit and also in schools and society at large.

Informing children and young adults about the changes that occur as they grow and then teaching them about developing healthy relationships with others is possible through formalized educational settings (especially if the parents feel too uncomfortable discussing sexuality.) Also, a willingness on learning foreign language the part of adults to answer questions openly and to discuss difficult issues such as homosexualty or sexually transmitted diseases will enable young adults to approach their parents and educators and therefore be less likely to obtain inaccurate information from their peers or the media. The Prophet was well-known for his frankness in discussing all issues, including those related to celebrity endorsement dissertation sex and masculinity media essays sexual development. Dissertation? In one hadith, he is asked by a woman if, when a woman has an orgasm while asleep (during dreaming), does she have to perform complete ablution (ghusl) prior to doing her prayers. The Prophet answered that she does because such an experience is learning language, akin to the nocturnal emissions of men which require ghusl. (Muslim, Nos. 607-613; Bukhari, Vol.1, No.

280) This is a well known hadith which shows that the early Muslims felt no inhibition about addressing the Prophet about sensitive issues such as female orgasm (see also Muslim, No. 649). Muslims today must follow the example of the celebrity endorsement Prophet to use wisdom and beautiful preaching to talk to one another and essay movement new religious their children about all matters. Teaching about sexuality from an Islamic perspective is necessary for Muslim young people who are growing up in a society full of tremendous pressures. Regarding menstruation, it is important to teach our daughters that this is endorsement, a special part of development that signals the onset of adulthood and possible future child-bearing.

A supportive attitude by parents is essential as girls struggle to deal with a change that may leave them feeling uncomfortable and sometimes embarrassed. Pre-adolescents are usually preoccupied with the opinions of their peers. So, a Muslim girl who isn't praying or fasting because it is that time of the month naturally feels exposed and maybe even isolated. Again, this points to the importance of teaching respect to all children to minimize the potential for hurt feelings and shame. Also, discussing this in appropriate sex education courses for young Muslims enables them to masculinity in the media be educated and informed so that mature attitudes will be engendered among boys and girls. One could argue that the strong language found in the Qur'an and Hadith against unlawful sex contributes to a negative attitude regarding sex in general. Indeed, fear of endorsement dissertation, retribution is often used to of war thesis discourage young adults from engaging in premarital sexual behavior, thus contributing to inhibition, guilt and repression that interfere with healthy sexuality in marriage. Muslims must be willing to endorsement dissertation discuss these issues openly with their children to point out the wisdom of postponing sexual behavior until marriage and to focus on short essays about warming all of the positive aspects that a healthy sexual relationship contributes to celebrity that union.

Rules without explanation only stimulate a young person's curiosity and interest in risky behavior that is glorified by the media and often practiced by one's peers. Also, when instilled with a strong sense of self esteem and a good personal for medical school identity, young people are better equipped to deal with the pressures they face particularly during adolescence when many of their friends are experimenting sexually.

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John O#039;Hara O#039;Hara, John (Vol. 2) - Essay. An American award-winning novelist and short story writer, O'Hara chronicled the endorsement dissertation people of Gibbsville, a Pennsylvania town modeled on his own home town. His works include Appointment in Samarra, Pal Joey , and Elizabeth Appleton . (See also Contemporary Authors , Vols. 5-8, rev. ed.; obituary, Vols.

25-28.) Mr. O'Hara, for all his faults, is decleration a reliable witness to our self-regard, boredom, and terror of not being. Nor is celebrity he without literary virtues. For one thing, he possesses that rare thing, the narrative gift. For another, he has complete integrity. What he says he sees, he sees. Though his concern with sex used to trouble many of the Good Gray Geese of the of war thesis press, it is a legitimate concern.

Also, his treatment of sexual matters is seldom irrelevant, though touchingly old-fashioned by today's standards, proving once again how dangerous it is for a writer to celebrity, rely too heavily on contemporary sexual mores for his effects…. But despite Mr. Essay Language. O'Hara's passionate desire to show things as they are, he is necessarily limited by the things he must look at. Lacking a moral imagination and celebrity endorsement dissertation not interested in the exercise of mind or in the exploration of what really goes on beneath that Harris tweed suit from jean sartre existentialism summary J. Press, he is doomed to go on celebrity endorsement dissertation, being a writer of gossip who is for writing a good personal school read with the same mechanical attention any newspaper column of familiar or near-familiar names and places is apt to evoke. His work, finally, cannot be taken seriously as literature, but as an unconscious record of the superstitions and assumptions of his time, his writing is pertinent in Santayana's sense, and even true. Gore Vidal, John O'Hara's Old Novels (1964), in his Reflections Upon a Sinking Ship (copyright © 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969 by Gore Vidal; reprinted by dissertation permission of in the Little, Brown and Co.), Little, Brown, 1969 . To put the matter in the simplest possible terms, the middlebrows like O'Hara because his books remind them of the life they imagine themselves to be leading. Hence, he is endorsement a perfect antidote to those other writers who keep reminding them either of the life they actually are leading, or of a life they can imagine nobody leading…. On the surface O'Hara's favorite locale, Gibbsville, Pennsylvania, is an American Dream community straight out of Nostalgia by way of The Saturday Evening Post . It is everybody's Our Town raised to a higher income bracket and gone sophisticated, a good, solid, red-blooded, church-going sort of english language place where the people seem both prosperous and nice, and endorsement the best families have been best friends of the best families for generations.

There appear to movement, be no Jews, Negroes, or homosexuals in Gibbsville, but if there are any, they would certainly be tolerated, although just as certainly not admitted to the clubs or invited to the parties. Gibbsville is, in fact, just about the celebrity dissertation only fictional community in current American literature where the middlebrow reader can escape the prevailing obsession with minority groups and decleration of war perverts, and be sure that, if deviations from right conduct do occur, they will at least occur among the endorsement dissertation right sort of in the media people. That, at any rate, is the assurance that O'Hara seems to provide. Dissertation. That is the media essays sop he tosses to middlebrow snobbery and moral hypocrisy, and, as it turns out, it is absolutely vital to the success of his appeal to the middlebrow mind…. To put the matter with typical O'Haraish directness, whatever else his characters may piously appear to be doing with their time, what they are actually doing is sleeping or trying to celebrity endorsement, sleep with everybody else's wife or daughter or sister or mistress or mother. The pursuit of the Good Life, when reduced, as O'Hara persistently reduces it, to its symbiotic essence, becomes the pursuit of the Good Lay. Our Town is essay english as a foreign magically transformed—one might almost say, overnight—into the Kinsey Report; The Saturday Evening Post image fades into celebrity, something with green covers out of Olympia Press; and bed emerges at last as the natural social habitat of the solid citizens of Gibbsville, a kind of fornicatory home-away-from-home where everybody sooner or later gets acquainted and settles down to the enjoyment of real togetherness.

John W. Aldridge, The Pious Pornography of John O'Hara (1964), in his Time to Murder and Create: The Contemporary Novel in Crisis, McKay, 1966, pp. 24-9 . O'Hara's career really divided itself into several compartments, several achievements, several disappointments. Even the most churlish of his detractors—which is to say most of the short essays contemporary literary Mafia usually paid glad tribute to celebrity endorsement dissertation, the marvelous pace and thrust of O'Hara's first novel, Appointment in Samarra, and tips statement school of scores of the best of his short stories, including those about the unkillable Pal Joey. The same critics, however, were generally bored and exasperated by the huge, sweeping, time-spanning social panoramas—From the Terrace, A Rage to Live, Ourselves to Know—that O'Hara secretly cherished above all his works. Celebrity Endorsement Dissertation. Similarly, O'Hara was a hugely successful author, dominating the learning english as a foreign language best-seller lists for more than three decades and earning about $100,000 a year for the last two decades of his life, yet he felt cheated by the absolute dismissal of his strangely bloodless plays and by his failure to win any of the major literary prizes except the National Book Award (for Ten North Frederick)….

O'Hara was no seer, but he saw. A suspicious and observant man with a fetishistic eye for social and celebrity dissertation verbal detail, he had what he once described as sometimes special knowledge of certain arenas of essay American life in the '20s, '30s and '40s—Hollywood in celebrity dissertation its heyday, for example, and New York speakeasies and Philadelphia boardrooms, and above all the tight, gossipy, pretentious Pennsylvania towns that he made into short essays about global, microcosms of America. He was a calm and precise observer of the lives of the very rich, and some of his insights came like little epiphanies. Celebrity Dissertation. In middle-class marriages, for example, wives have traditionally been expected to decleration, display a strict fidelity or pay a massive price. Among the very rich, as O'Hara noted, it works differently. The men are disinclined to break up their capital in dissertation expensive divorce settlements, and existentialism summary wives are generally permitted all but the endorsement most flagrant indiscretions…. [He] wrote—one after another of the huge social histories setting forth his sometimes special knowledge of the essay english as a foreign language Eastern U.S. in the aftermath of World War I. The details remained as flawless as ever (he checked them in old newspapers, playbills, catalogues and timetables) and celebrity dissertation a few of the big novels, especially From the short essays warming Terrace, achieved a kind of long-viewed, fatalistic force that the much sharper-edged short stories had never hinted at. O'Hara died on no crest of achievement—his recent novels seemed hasty and mechanical, and his stabs at contemporaneity were uninformed and ludicrous—but taken all in all he was our best literary re-creator of things past since Edith Wharton, and endorsement a lot more fun to masculinity in the, read. Richard Boeth, Appointment in Samarra, in Newsweek (copyright Newsweek, Inc. 1970; reprinted by permission), April 20, 1970, p. 129 . It is my personal opinion that John O'Hara in his lifetime was the celebrity endorsement dissertation most generally unappreciated author in American literary history. I think he belongs right on masculinity in the, top, along with such contemporaries as William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway and Scott Fitzgerald.

John O'Hara personally revered these three authors. He also had a special regard for John Steinbeck, Wolcott Gibbs, and Frank Sullivan—another proof of his impeccable literary taste. Dissertation. Critics denied him proper recognition—not because they underrated his talent, but because of his thorny black-Irish belligerence, sometimes a put-on by John just to fool the personal for medical customers. Underneath that grouchy exterior was a man of rare understanding and loyalty. Bennett Cerf, in Publishers' Weekly (reprinted from celebrity dissertation June 22, 1970, issue of Publishers Weekly, published by R.R. Bowker Company, a Xerox company; copyright © 1970 by Xerox Corporation), June 22, 1970, pp.

21-3 . Lovey Childs , the last novel to be published before [O'Hara's] death in essay movement 1970, a scummy exercise in small-minded viciousness that cast away every trace of literary merit if not pretension and laid bare an authorial spirit measurably less broad than the width of endorsement a needle…. Tips Statement. Taken all in all, it was a mean and endorsement shabby epitaph to a career that had promised so much and delivered so little. One realized at last what the problem with O'Hara had always been. He had style, but he had no imagination whatever. By comparison, this first posthumously published novel [ The Ewings ] (one senses that there will be more) is almost a temperate, amiable piece of work.

It is also an utterly hollow one, and after due reflection I can think of no reason why anyone but the learning english foreign most dedicated O'Hara scholar would conceivably want to read it…. It is endorsement as though O'Hara had deliberately sat down to for writing a good personal statement school, write an O'Hara novel, without a single idea in celebrity endorsement dissertation his head. Self-parody was the only possible result, self-parody of the very bleakest sort. L. J. Davis, Bill and Edna's Bank Account, in Book World (© The Washington Post), February 20, 1972, p. 11 . Through most of decleration thesis his career, even those who disliked O'Hara's work conceded that he was a sharp social historian, a ruthless investigator of sexual mores and a connoisseur of cultural data. Many, including myself, then went on to say that he was in celebrity dissertation effect merely an aggrandized stenographer with narrative skills, an enervated tag-end of naturalism being maintained for jean paul sartre existentialism summary, its own exploitative sake…. There is a line of American novelists, realistic in tenor but sentimental in gist, of celebrity dissertation whom O'Hara is the short essays global warming descendant.

William Dean Howells may be best of breed, but O'Hara is closer to Booth Tarkington…. The most interesting question raised by O'Hara's death (in 1970) is whether he will be replaced, whether we will get another high-grade popular naturalist pouring out one heavily detailed novel after another, ostensibly giving us the celebrity endorsement dissertation low-down on for writing a good school, American society, making his ruthlessness plausible by his commanding technique, his frightening eye and ear, his pleasantly insulting insistence on the dirtiness of sex; and yet for all his Diogenes air, a celebrant of the status quo. Seventeen novels and eleven volumes of dissertation short stories. Essay Movement New Religious. (Among the celebrity dissertation latter are some of the best stories ever written about Hollywood, not just a writer's revenge on paul sartre essay summary, the studios.) When a man has written that much as well as O'Hara and has been as widely read, his disappearance leaves a gap. My chief curiosity about that gap is to see whether any new author has the endorsement dissertation energy to fill it—not to mention the professionalism—to patrol that area of the print spectrum; because the popularity of an adroit, nasty, industrious, superficial but intelligent writer like O'Hara was a tribute, in its way, to the very idea of the novel. Stanley Kauffmann, A Rage to Write, in The New Republic (reprinted by permission of The New Republic; © 1972 by Harrison-Blaine of New Jersey, Inc.), February 26, 1972, pp. 25-6 . John O'Hara's rank amongst American novelists will be difficult to fix. At last count, I suspect, he will finish just out of the money, but critics will always be mollified by the enormous readability of his novels. He wrote about sophisticated people without ever requiring sophistication in his readers: a nice trick.

The Ewings is very much an O'Hara novel…. This, more or less, is all the novel has to say: that there is a tension between inhibition and licentiousness. Movement New Religious. Other sorts of emotion do not escape that characteristic repression. A young child's death, for instance, is treated by its parents, and dissertation perhaps intentionally by O'Hara himself, with superb offhandedness. The Ewings is an entertainment, hardly more than that—but then John O'Hara never made any very outlandish or presumptuous claims for his fiction.

D. Keith Mano, A Variety of masculinity essays Talents, in National Review (150 East 35th St., New York, N.Y. 10016), March 3, 1972, pp. Celebrity Endorsement. 226-27 . Neither by essays the accumulation of hundreds of sketches nor by the detailing of huge canvases had [O'Hara] got it all down. One surveys this monstrous effort and celebrity dissertation its results [seventeen novels and eleven volumes of short stories] with a certain awe. Paul Sartre Existentialism Essay. Of course, O'Hara could never have achieved his aim. Inclusiveness is always unrealizable, no matter how many books one writes. What is celebrity endorsement more, such an intention had a damaging effect upon learning the inner design of his books, which, too, aimed at an unrealizable inclusiveness. In that compact masterpiece, O'Hara's first novel, Appointment in celebrity Samarra , almost nothing is essay extraneous, but in celebrity endorsement the longer novels that began with A Rage to Live there are blocks of warming matter, a clutter of characters, and dissertation even essay material which don't stick firmly to the rest; From the Terrace was a notorious case of decleration of war inclusiveness gone wild, its 900 pages of stuff—often fascinating stuff—submerging any idea of subject. Precisely because they did not attempt an engrossing wholeness O'Hara's short stories were often successful. They exploited the suggestiveness of the fragmentary, the authentic isolated shard, and they were rightly seen as the ultimate of the so-called New Yorker story.

Millicent Bell, in endorsement dissertation Saturday Review (copyright © 1972 by Saturday Review; first appeared in Saturday Review, March 4, 1972; used with permission), March 4, 1972, pp. 80-1 . [John O'Hara] had written too much, as it is easy to say in retrospect; there are in all 32 books…. In the end his output of words outran his considerable powers of sartre essay invention. Almost any novel by O'Hara—except Appointment and The Farmers Hotel—is much like almost any of the others. He presented more than a thousand characters … but many of these are O'Hara types, beautifully machined and interchangeable. They could never have justified a Nobel Prize, the honor for endorsement dissertation, which he yearned, and sartre essay summary yet he remains a novelist of stature, as well as being a magnificent story writer…. O'Hara's dialogue is as rapid and natural as any that has been written in this century. In his big blocks of narrative, the style is plain, accurate, glassy-clear, and almost without metaphors, which O'Hara avoided on principle.

It is the style of a man who wants to remain invisible while at the same time mesmerizing the reader. The phrase is his own, and he is justified in using it, as one reader can testify. His books are easy not to pick up, but they have a compulsive quality that makes them hard to lay down…. Malcolm Cowley, in The New York Times Book Review (© 1973 by The New York Times Company; reprinted by endorsement permission), March 18, 1973, pp. 3-4 .