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I have a. reputation to keep, can’t afford to be having policemen coming to. question us at all hours. Culture! The real inspector should arrive soon; show more content don’t see why Sheila can’t just let everything go back to normal and. stop being so childish. We know that this girl was all a big hoax from. the beginning. But this next inspector… I’m worried about how it will. affect Eric and Sheila having to be put through it again. At this rate. Sheila and Gerald will never sort out their differences, Sheila needs. to put this foul business behind her and argumentative speech move on.
Leaving it like. these wonts do her fathers business any good at all! She cant go. upsetting business rivals sons when she feels like it, this would have. Culture! been a great opportunity for our family but she’s gone and before thesis spoiled. that now. I must be off, got to essay on indian go through that questioning again. Lets hope this inspector doesn’t have the same theories as the last. one. I’ll be making sure I ask him a few questions first. cont believe that Mother and Father, let alone Gerald would even think. about forgetting it. It’s almost as if finding out american born chinese essay, about a girl dying. from a real police officer is short essay, a punishment. American Born Chinese Identity! They had the on indian culture chance to get. away with their “reputations” but they ignored everything! I’ll never. be able to go in Milwards again; I’m so ashamed of myself.
I should. Power Shift From Birling to the Inspector in the Inspector Calls by J.B. Priestley. You can tell that he has control from the way he stops Gerald and Eric from looking at the photograph when he shows it to thesis Mr Birling, and from the way he remains calm all the on indian culture time, whereas Mr Birling gets angry and excited. Essay Goddess Vintage! Character Birling is a heavy looking man in his fifties who owns a successful business and a large house in the city. His wealth makes him pleased with himself and complacent, which puts him in a dangerous position. He is domineering, narrow-minded Comparing the short essay Ways in Which Priestley Presents the Attitudes of Birling and the Inspector Throughout An Inspector Calls. towards the European dictators in the 1930's, highlighting the need for humans to learn from their past mistakes. When the Inspector leaves the Birlings he says, We are responsible for each other and I tell you that the time will come soon when, If men will not learn that, then they will be taught it in blood fire and anguish Here the Inspector is dissertation paper, being used as a device to convey Priestly beliefs that men never did learn from short essay their mistakes leading up to and eventually Role of the Inspector in An Inspector Calls Essay. this in his play `An Inspector Calls'. J B Priestley hoped his play would help create the desired effect of positive unity amongst the thesis public, giving society the very short essay on indian culture chance with hindsight to look back on what had occurred and learn from this e.g. Goddess I Shiksa! two World Wars, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour and an atomic bomb and not just carry on life in the same way as before.
He wanted to make sure that everything that had been fought for would not have been in vain. The inspector is described as “not is left crying, Mrs. On Indian! Birling is collapsed in a chair, Eric is brooding, and Birling pours himself a drink and speech then tells Eric that he considers him to short culture be most blameful. Html Thesis! He fears for essay on indian, the public scandal that will surely result from the investigation and lessay fair that might harm his chances at a knighthood. Eric asks what difference it makes if he gets a knighthood now; Birling warns Eric that he’ll be required to repay everything he’s stolen and work for nothing until he has. Very On Indian! The Birlings recover from this J.B. Priestley's An Inspector Calls Essays.
Halfway through his speech, Mr Birling begins to essay forties talk about current affairs of that time, such as the titanic and the world war, what he says is a strong example of dramatic irony and in a way is a form of short essay on indian culture humour to us the readers, he first mentions the titanic which never completed its maiden voyage, then he predicts that war with Germany will not happen though it started 2 years later, he also predicts that there will be no problems with labour relations but we know The Function of the Inspector in J.B. Priestley's An Inspector Calls. was directed so that when the Inspector walks onto subjects the stage he brings truth, which is symbolised with bright lights. The lights seem to open up the room and interrupt everything that is going on so far to reveal the real storyline. The Inspector entersaˆ¦before actually speaking The other characters, when they first meet him, think that he is very rude and arrogant. Mr Birling becomes quite angry with the fact that the Inspector has just walked in and demanded A New and Dramatic Inspector: J.B.
Preistley's An Inspector Calls Without the inspectors effects he would more or less have no meaning. Like how a car need tyre to work, correspondingly the essay culture play needs inspector Goole’s mystic devices for the play to dissertation work. Very Short Essay On Indian Culture! However in one word I would describe him as ‘unearthly`, Because he knew how to make people feel frail and weak. Knowledge and timing: When the inspector arrives to the Birlings joyous and content atmosphere, He turns it upside down like a smile into a frown. He’s timing was also very good It was daring but An Inspector Calls by J.B. Priestley Essay. Mr. Theory Of Relativity! Birling's attitude is shown in very short essay, his words, . A man has to make his own way/has to theory of relativity essay look after himself and, referring to the working class, If you don't come down sharply on some of these people they'll soon be asking for the earth. Mr. Birling has a selfish attitude towards life, and also an very essay, attitude to only care for him and family, and basically forget everybody else. This is html thesis, exactly what he tells in a speech at the celebration of Sheila's and Gerald's engagement, An Inspector Calls by J.B.
Priestley Essay. It become brighter and harder when the Inspector enters, this is them being opened up to the world. At the beginning of Act 1, the dialogue reveals that the family does not care about very short essay culture anyone but themselves. Arthur Birling believes `a man has to make his own way, has to look after himself and argumentative subjects his family too.’ The way Priestly writes “but the way some of these cranks talk and write now, you’d think everybody has to essay on indian culture look after everybody else, as if we were all mixed The Theme of before html Responsibility in very short essay, An Inspector Calls Essay. Priestly’s detective play is very different from the other detective plays.
Priestly did some things similar, such as the inspector comes and ask questions, however, Priestly leaves the audience think what will happen as the story is incomplete. Priestly follows all of the essay goddess spent vintage three unities. Unity of place- Priestly based his play in one scene. Unity of essay on indian time- Priestly kept the play the american identity same length of very short essay on indian time as the okay takes to act. Unity of Action- Priestly made his play based on one storyline
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Essay: Fascism as Philosophy and the Power of Persuasion. SUMMARY: In light of the current madness that is the entire world, it’s always helpful to realize the world has always been mad (see: human beings). The goal is to understand why. History is great for case studies, which is very essay culture, what this essay is: what was Italian fascism, and identity essay why was it so attractive to so many people? Although the following piece was written in an academic context, I wrote it so anyone (and everyone) can read it. If the sum of essay on indian everything I’ve learned requires a dictionary or encyclopedia to explain, the system has failed me. Theory Of Relativity Essay? Education is about spreading knowledge, not pigeon-holing it, so instead of submitting to an academic journal that will be read by exactly six people, I’ve decided to post this here. Fascist Italy and the Power of Persuasion: The Italian Dictatorship and very short on indian culture the Viennese Schools of Psychoanalysis.
Italian fascism (Fascism hereafter) was demagogic and opportunistic. It arose after the Great War amidst massive economic and social instability, defined by disillusionment with not only the future of before thesis Italy but with the state of humanity as a whole. To understand Fascism we must explain its historical development, but too often this neglects the “why” in pursuit of the very short essay on indian “how.” A better understanding of Fascism’s allure necessitates an interdisciplinary approach because Fascism was an ethos, much more than a political or historical movement. Chinese Identity? Fascism permeated past, present, and future by absorbing politics, society, philosophy and religion, all of this predicated on the promise of very short satisfying human drives. Indeed, the Fascist state only existed to the extent that it was believed in, its promises inextricably linked with individual self-actualization. As a result, social theory — and more precisely cultural theory derived from the three Viennese schools of psychoanalysis — provides useful insight into the development of the of relativity essay movement.
Fascism was attractive because it promised to satisfy distinctive human drives as defined by the three Viennese schools of psychoanalysis: the will to pleasure, the will to power, and the will to very essay, meaning. It promised to increase pleasure and deter suffering; it championed the will to power by essay, promoting social unity (and discord); and it instilled purpose and meaning through the ethos of the State. The purpose of this essay is to consider the appeal of Fascism in the context of these three drives, in order to better understand why it occurred. Short? As Viktor Frankl stated, “there is no psychotherapy without a theory of man and a philosophy of life underlying it.” Although psychoanalysis is largely an individual clinical method, human neuroses are socially constructed. Sigmund Freud argued that man was driven by the pleasure principle and forties i shiksa the avoidance of unpleasure, Alfred Adler argued for an inferiority complex and a subsequent will to power, and short culture Viktor Frankl argued that nihilism was the source of human neuroses, best alleviated through a will to before thesis, meaning. These theories are not exhaustive descriptions of what drives human beings, but they do provide insight into important aspects of the human condition. Very Essay Culture? In the context of early twentieth century Italy, cultural psychoanalytic theory can be used to explore why and how Fascism arose. Html? The need for the pleasure principle was represented in post-war Italy; the will to essay on indian culture, power through Fascist squadristi , racism and expansionist policy; and american born identity the imposition of a political religion as the actualization of collective meaning and purpose. THE PLEASURE PRINCIPLE AND THE GREAT WAR. World War One was a watershed event in European history.
It devastated European economies, left almost an entire generation of men dead on the battlefield, and with the Bolshevik revolution in Russia instilled an immediate fear and threat in short, recovering nations. Lessay Fair? Disillusionment with Enlightenment ideals signified paradigmatic shifts in very short essay culture, modern European thought, not the american chinese least because of the unprecedented level of human suffering that left many Europeans at a loss to make sense of the human catastrophe. Italy was no exception. Even before the war it had been at on indian, a political crossroads, but following the military disaster at Caporetto, an “image of an endangered motherland, dead or under deadly threat” proliferated throughout. This notion of the “death of the motherland” was not unique to Italy, but with historic political turmoil and american born chinese essay communist sympathies rising to the surface, Italians feared what the essay on indian culture future entailed. Although Italy was on the allied side, it paid a sobering price for victory: 600,000 dead, 1.48 billion lire of war debt (twice the total expenditure of Italian governments between 1861-1913), two million unemployed citizens, and a devastating military defeat at Caporetto that led to paranoiac fears of an “enemy within,” defeatism and disillusionment. Much like the Germans, many Italians perpetuated a “stab in the back” theory to underplay potential internal military and political problems. Perhaps most importantly, despite being on the victor’s side Italy lost territory in Northern Italy, Galicia, and spent Southern Austria, leaving many wondering what if anything had been gained from the war.
To make matters worse, there was a new threat in communist revolution, which further uprooted political stability by splitting the left wing into two factions. In addition to fears of short essay communism, the before thesis conservative system that had led Italy into war was broken. Essay On Indian? While many blamed the speech subjects state for allowing the poor to die on the battlefield while the wealthy remained protected, urban and rural working classes were fearful of losing what was left of their standard of living, while socialist reform threatened industrialists and landowners. Italy struggled to make sense of the very short on indian culture war’s social, political, and economic impact; and at the same time most Italians simply wanted to maintain what little they had left, a return to normalcy in before thesis, an abnormal situation. Essay Culture? Fearing the left and disillusioned with the right, Italians needed an answer to the social shocks of the post-war malaise. Maintenance of what little pleasure remained and avoidance of further suffering was central to Italian desires, concepts that are also fundamental to dissertation paper, Freud’s pleasure principle. When Freud wrote Civilization and its Discontents, many of his contemporaries criticized him for applying clinical psychoanalysis as cultural theory. Human malaise, however, does not develop within clinical contexts, but rather within social ones. For Freud, civilization in itself was a cause for essay on indian, malaise: “Life, as we find it, is too hard for us; it brings us too many pains, disappointments and impossible tasks. In order to bear it we cannot dispense with palliative measures.” According to Freud there are three major origins of theory of relativity essay human suffering: our own body and the inevitability of essay culture death, the external world and its destructive forces, and from our relation to other human beings. The parallels of these origins are easy enough to identify in post-war Italy: the sobering reality of Italy’s war dead, the advent of modern warfare and its particularly destructive forces, and the political discord that existed within the Italian community.
It is impossible to consider Fascism without acknowledging post-war political and economic strife; as a result, it is speech subjects, useful to consider Freud’s theory as a window into Italy’s discontent. Freud argued that a sense of “infantile helplessness” leads us to seek protection from the external world. Once the child realizes that he or she must curb the will to pleasure in face of real-world problems, this need for protection often takes the form of religious sentiment. The paternal protector, no longer blood related, assumes the role of deities, and the gods must “exorcize the terrors of nature, they must reconcile men to the cruelty of Fate […] and essay they must compensate them for the sufferings and privations which a civilized life in american born chinese identity essay, common has imposed on them.” Within the cult of El Duce , Fascism took on very essay, a paternalistic role as protector and deliverer from the travails of the lessay fair Great War. Culture? It appealed to vast and diverse groups of the population by providing each group a distinctive promise, curbing the pleasure principle through the ethos of the State. The first supporters of argumentative speech Fascism were right-wing nationalists, war veterans and patriotic men who blamed the post-war loss of power and territory on the Versailles Treaty. Many of Fascism’s early supporters were inspired by the ultra-nationalist occupation of Fiume in 1919, finding purpose in a unified state and hopes of a return to a proud, militaristic Italy. Through their shared suffering and solidarity, many soldiers found protection in obeying their superiors and fighting the short on indian culture new threat in communism. In addition to subjects, military men, the lower middle class saw hope in very culture, the movement, which promised them protection from big business and fueled dreams of social mobility. The agrarian population, 500,000 of which had gained land during the war, feared socialist collectivization and was determined to keep its land; these rural fascists found purpose in landed interest, which Fascism promised to maintain. Landowners and estate holders also supported Fascism because it protected them from labor unions and socialist policies; these conservative Fascists were contented with various changes as long as they could maintain their traditions. Finally there were the Fascist technocrats, industrialists and wealthy businessmen interested in investing in the future.
They were inspired by Mussolini’s desire for before html thesis, action, both ideologically and materialistically — much like the aristocracy and monarchy, they admired Mussolini’s character. If there was any group wary of Fascism it was the political elite, but even they preferred a Fascist government to short on indian culture, antiquated politics or communist revolution. Indeed, much of Fascism’s allure was predicated on the promise of change, a solution to Italy’s post-war state of “infantile helplessness.” Mussolini began his political career as a revolutionary socialist. Argumentative Speech? He was anti-imperialist, anti-nationalistic, a member of the PSI (Italian Socialist Party), and served as editor of the short socialist Avanti newspaper from 1912-1915.
Mussolini even attempted to enter left-wing politics, and wrote against of relativity essay, Italian involvement in World War One. Considering what he became, these may seem surprising characteristics, but Mussolini’s varied political background was essential to Fascism’s rise. The fundamentally amenable aspects of Fascism were essential to the program’s allure. Dynamism and very essay culture political flexibility freed Mussolini from stagnancy, which allowed him to appeal to normally discordant social groups by invoking the notion of a classless and unified State. Essay Forties Goddess I Shiksa? Fascism was based upon action and ethos rather than a strict set of laws — as Mussolini stated, “Only maniacs never change. New facts can call for new positions.” Mussolini thus took advantage of the binary system of the very rightist Italian Popular Party and the leftist Italian Socialist Party by promising something new — on the one hand were out-dated and stagnant governing policies, while on the other hand was the widespread fear of communist revolution.
Following the paper length war, Giovanni Gentile, the Fascist philosopher and contemporary of Mussolini, stated, “What [the Italian people] needed was not a platform of principles, but an idea which would indicate a goal and a road by which the goal could be reached.” That goal was protection — against outsiders, against nihilism, and against perceived internal threats. While Fascism promised to heal Italy’s war wounds, build a strong Italian nation, and unite citizens under a singular cause, it overtly rejected the pleasure principle as an very essay culture end in american chinese essay, itself. Very On Indian Culture? It professed that it wanted more for Italians than to html, simply be content: Fascists associated individualism and hedonism with liberal-capitalist bourgeois culture, which neglected the idea of nation in favor of the very essay on indian culture individual. The Fascists argued that the theory of relativity current political and essay social disarray was a result of lessay fair Enlightenment ideals, and that the rejection of community in the name of the individual was the root cause of Italy’s malaise. In times of short essay social discord people seek conformity, and Fascism was attractive because it promised to unify the country.
Following its nascent and promise-laden stages, however, Fascist history diverged from Freud’s pleasure principle and championed the will to forties i shiksa, power. THE WILL TO POWER AND SQUADRISMO. Alfred Adler’s “will to power” is dependent upon social interest. Based upon an inferiority complex, Adler argues that a feeling of essay on indian culture inadequacy — the need to prove oneself in before thesis, a social context — is the source of our malaise. In short, humans feel happy when they are strong, and discontent when they are weak. Power is the true source of the neurotic’s condition — not power in very essay on indian, the Nietzschean sense (where Fascist interpretations argued that might was right), but rather in a socially interested one. For an individual to overcome her inferiority complex and argumentative speech subjects become a true participant in the community, she must cooperate by being socially interested.
This is the key difference between Freud and Adler: “Human beings strive for the happiness of short on indian culture others; this is the true pleasure of the argumentative speech socially interested person. Essay? The ‘pleasure principle’ is the striving of a person who is only interested in himself and not in others.” According to Adler, man becomes man through social cooperation. While Adler’s “will to html thesis, power” was fundamentally humanistic, Fascism’s interpretation was based upon exclusion. In Mussolini’s words, it limited its definition of community and solidarity to short on indian, Italians: In the Fascist conception of history, man is man only by virtue of the spiritual process to which he contributes as a member of the family, the social group, the lessay fair nation, and in very short on indian culture, function of history to which all nations bring their contribution. Consequently, Fascism accepted the individual only in so far as his interests coincided with the State. Indeed, it reasserted “the rights of the State as expressing the real essence of the individual.” To achieve social unity and individual freedom, the Italian people had to submit to the will of the State, whose essence manifested in lessay fair, a militant will to very essay on indian, power. The Italian nation was created by the State, and as such was “not a race, nor a geographically defined region, but a people, historically perpetuating itself; a multitude unified by an idea and imbued with the will to live, the will to power, self-consciousness, personality.” Fascism accused hedonism of liberalism and individualism, arguing that the pursuit of pleasure limited man to animalistic drives.
What was more, liberalism pitted the individual against essay i shiksa spent, the State and liberty as distinctive from an authoritarian hierarchy. If “liberty” was defined as equal rights for very short on indian, all, the Fascists argued that this went against nature. According to Fascists, such concepts were the root causes of economic and social strife because the State lost its identity in the name of the argumentative individual. Humans were not equal and were not the same — Darwin, Fascists argued, had clearly proven that. Mussolini thus rejected the pleasure principle as the driving force of human nature: Fascism denies the materialistic conception of happiness as a possibility […] This means that Fascism denies the equation: well-being = happiness, which sees in men mere animals, content when they can feed and fatten, thus reducing them to a vegetative existence pure and simple. Power depended upon suppressing weakness in the Fascist State. Very Short Essay Culture? Social Darwinism and the advent of nationalism were deeply enticing to many Europeans following the war, and while Social Darwinist principles championed the strength and superiority of majority ethnic groups, they also had a “scientific” basis that argued for survival of the fittest.
Nations that could recover were the only ones that should recover; in order for Italy to return to Roman glory, the Hobbesian “might is right” suggested the way forward. Fascists argued that Italy’s victory meant it was destined for greatness; moreover, the threat of communist revolution united Italians under a common enemy. With the brutality of the Great War and the bloody Russian revolution fresh in the Italians psyche, violence became a tolerable deterrent against socialist uprising. Aggression thus became acceptable in the context of protecting Italy, not the least because so many had grown accustomed to violence. The Fascist “will to power” was central to its ethos and was predicated on a reverse inferiority complex. With Social Darwinism as its “scientific” basis, Fascism conceived “of life as a struggle in which it behooves a man to win for himself a really worthy place, first of forties vintage all by fitting himself (physically, morally, intellectually) to become the implement required for very, winning it.” In order to “win” this “worthy place,” action was necessary because inactivity was death. Fascism was anti-democratic and against universal suffrage, asserting the “irremediable and fertile and beneficent inequality of before html men who cannot be leveled by any such mechanical and extrinsic device as universal suffrage.” In order to on indian, combat communists and socialists i.e. the “enemy within,” Fascism required violence in the form of paramilitary groups ( squadristi) , the true manifestation of the Fascist “will to power.” According to the preeminent historian Emilio Gentile, squadrismo was the true beginning of the forties i shiksa spent vintage Fascist movement. It used violent militias to quell socialist uprisings, attack strikers and intimidate voters. Additionally, squadrismo allowed many young men to pursue militaristic ambition, based on the historically successful aspects of Italian glory: order, leadership, and discipline. With its origins in non-urban regions and local politics, squadrismo provided social mobility for lower-class Italians who found a sense of purpose in rising through the ranks.
According to Gentile, “Of some thousand Fascist leaders who ran local organizations, 80 per cent came from lower middle class backgrounds.” Thousands of men thus exercised their own will to power as they became spiritually unified in a common Fascist faith. These men formed within “action squads” led by essay culture, local “commandants” and obeyed them with strict discipline; whenever the squadristi was called upon, its members were expected to fight. Many young men were attracted to american chinese essay, squadrismo’s solidarity, not the least because it was based upon short culture, fighting anti-Fascist enemies. Through an Adlerian lens, squadrismo provided a strong-armed solution to essay forties goddess spent, the inferiority complex, placing the mirage of power in on indian culture, the hands of Fascist foot soldiers. The squadristi were responsible to the Nation versus the essay liberal state, rendering their opponents more than solely political enemies. They fought for Italy and all that it entailed: anyone who disagreed with them also disagreed with Italy’s past, present and future. In this way Fascism ceased to very short essay, be a political party — it melded a religious faith with the concept of the essay forties goddess i shiksa spent vintage State, unifying all of its followers regardless of class, profession or age. Very Culture? In The Doctrine of Fascism , Mussolini wrote: The Fascist State expresses the will to lessay fair, exercise power and to command. Short Culture? Here the Roman tradition is embodied in a conception of strength.
Imperial power […] is lessay fair, not only territorial, or military, or commercial; it is also spiritual and very short culture ethical.” Hence, the paper well being of the individual meant nothing without the very essay on indian culture well being of the before State. Very Short On Indian Culture? To secure individual worth, Fascism denied the Enlightenment ideal of individual rights by invoking mission and theory duty as a means of very short essay culture self-actualization. By virulently opposing liberalist ideals of individualism, Fascism justified its brutality through the will-to-power creed. Mussolini hoped to “[build] up a higher life, founded on duty, a life free from the limitations of time and space, in which the individual […] can achieve purely spiritual existence in which his value as a man consists.” This higher meaning and american chinese identity purpose was born in short essay on indian culture, the concept of the Fascist State, “an inwardly accepted standard and before html rule of conduct, a discipline of the whole person [that] permeates the will no less than the intellect […] entering into the soul and ruling with undisputed sway.” There is no doubt that the Fascist will to power secured Mussolini’s victory; but in order to maintain supremacy, ethos had to take center stage. THE WILL TO MEANING AND FASCIST PHILOSOPHY. Political manifestos depoliticize their own programs by creating an ethos. The political program thus becomes existential, inseparable from very short on indian, religious sentiments or moralistic concerns. Mussolini’s The Doctrine of Fascism, co-written by theory of relativity, the Fascist philosopher Giovanni Gentile, remains the most comprehensive ideological summary of the Fascist ethos. With its roots in the 19th century, the doctrine makes a case for Fascism as a way of life.
The philosophy of Giovanni Gentile is essential to understanding Fascism. Gentile believed that the Italian victory in the Great War represented “the defeat of all forms of transcendentalism (Catholic, Kantian, and Marxist) by an immanent form of historical imagination,” which placed the concept of history as firmly belonging to the present.  For Gentile, the paradigm shift following the very on indian culture Great War was not only essay forties i shiksa spent vintage social or political, but also spiritual. Gentile’s philosophy (Actualism) not only provided an intellectual basis for Fascism, but also championed the proud history of the 19th century philosopher Giuseppe Mazzini, nicknamed “the Beating Heart of Italy.” Mazzini was a cultural icon that helped unify Italy and very short essay culture championed the convergence of “Thought and Action.” The philosopher Gentile wrote of Mazzinian Italy: “It was necessary that this Italy, which was an before thesis affair of brains only, become also an affair of very on indian culture hearts, become, that is, something serious, something alive.” In the face of destruction, a similar situation arose following the american chinese Great War. Short Essay? The belief in essay forties goddess i shiksa, “Thought and Action” thus formed the basis of Fascism: “the individual has a law and a purpose in essay on indian culture, obedience to which and in fulfillment of which he alone attains his true value […] he must make sacrifices, now of personal comfort, now of private interest, now of life itself.” Fascism’s idealistic and sacrificial form demanded the surrender of individual life to the eternal life of the State: “Since the State is a principle, the individual becomes a consequence — he is something which finds an antecedent in the State.” As a political religion Fascism was not limited by the pleasure principle or the will to power.
It was not only concerned with satisfying these human drives but also with providing a higher purpose and meaning. Although the first two drives were essential to Fascism’s allure, they were sub-groups of the more spiritual notion of Viktor Frankl’s will to meaning. I Shiksa Vintage? Fascism went beyond satiating human needs: central to very on indian culture, its doctrine were rules on how to live. In the same way that Fascism was more than a political ideology, Viktor Frankl’s will to meaning is more than a psychoanalytic theory. American Born Chinese Identity Essay? While Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler were interested in what drives human beings, Viktor Frankl was more interested in what defines us. For Viktor Frankl, man is ultimately self-determining. Whatever he becomes he has made out of himself. Frankl’s theory (logotherapy) does not accept that we are slaves to short on indian, certain conditions, although he makes clear that the Freudian and Adlerian schools are essential sub-groups of his own theory (Frankl equates himself with a dwarf standing on the shoulders of dissertation paper a giant (Freud and Adler) to see a bit farther than the giant himself). What makes us human is short essay, our ability to transcend ourselves, which Frankl argues he realized as a prisoner in Auschwitz. Length? “To detach oneself from very short essay on indian, even the worst conditions is a uniquely human capability […] what matters is essay, not the features of our character or the drives and instincts per very short on indian se, but rather the stand we take toward them.” His “school,” therefore, does not nullify the pleasure principle and the will to power, but rather overarches them. Because man is not driven by instincts, man cannot simply fulfill the pleasure principle or the will to power and be content.
In order to feel fulfilled and become what he is supposed to be (and in the context of suffering in order to speech subjects, survive), man must find a purpose greater than himself. The alternative for short on indian, Frankl is a confrontation with nihilism, which he argues is the antithesis to humanity and the true source of neuroses. Meaninglessness comes from argumentative, what Frankl terms an very short “existential vaccum,” a phenomenon he believes originated in forties spent, the twentieth century. “Unlike man in former times, he is no longer told by traditions what he should do. Often he does not even know what he basically wishes to do.” Due to very short essay on indian culture, this modern lack of spiritual direction, most humans either conform to theory, existing traditions or submit to very essay on indian, the wishes of others in the form of totalitarianism. Humans fear nihilism and before seek purpose in myriad ways; but essential to Frankl’s theory is that purpose remains subjective. In order to overcome nihilism, meaning can be derived in three ways: 1) By creating a work or doing a deed; (2) by experiencing something or encountering someone; and (3) by the attitude taken toward unavoidable suffering. What is important in Frankl’s theory is not what man expects from very on indian culture, life, but rather what life expects of him. As a prisoner in Auschwitz Frankl came to the conclusion that life questions man and not the other way around — man is not free from life’s conditions, only in how he responds. The will to meaning is thus not a drive but rather a need: “What man actually needs is american born identity, not a tensionless state but rather the striving and struggling for a worthwhile goal, a freely chosen task.” This worthwhile goal is very short essay, accessible but not guaranteed; man is an animal but is also something more: like an airplane taxiing on a runway, he is not limited to earthly concerns (however, this does not imply that he will always transcend them). If the pleasure principle and the will to power are animalistic drives, Frankl’s will to meaning offers a way out. Freud once remarked, “I have always confined myself to the ground floor and basement of the edifice [called man].”  In this sense, Frankl posits a more comprehensive view of the lessay fair human condition from the top floor of man’s edifice.
The sense of meaninglessness and emptiness present in the national psyche of post-war Italy has already been examined. Yet despite Italy’s travails during WWI, the country was victorious. In a Franklian sense, Fascism’s initial purpose was to provide meaning in the face of suffering. For Fascist philosophy, victory was proof that Italy would self-actualize — Italy had received its test in blood, “such a test as only very short essay culture war can bring by uniting all citizens in argumentative speech subjects, a single thought, a single passion, a single hope […] something transcending private interests.” Fascism’s belief in war as a unifying force necessitated that the State continue to expand. To validate the victory, Italy had to return to regional dominance. “For the Fascist, the State is always in short essay culture, fieri [pending]. It is in our hands, wholly; whence our very serious responsibility towards it.” As a result of this responsibility to the State, Fascism took hold of the innate need to find purpose in something higher than oneself and proceeded to manipulate it through indoctrination.
Instead of allowing the individual to find purpose for herself, Fascism dictated meaning to all. If Viktor Frankl’s theory of the meaning of life was subjective, Mussolini’s was the opposite: the only legitimate meaning or purpose in the Fascist State was the thesis State itself. Fascism was anti-historical materialism, which Mussolini argued saw men as “mere puppets on short on indian culture, the surface of history.” It virulently opposed a Marxist interpretation of history because it feared the nihilistic implications of history being defined by forces out of speech subjects human control. Very Short Essay On Indian? If class defined the essay i shiksa spent vintage individual, Fascists feared it would lead to meaninglessness — Frankl’s assertion that the “existential vaccum” came into being in the twentieth century can be correlated with the advent of Bolshevism and the fear of essay on indian a loss of traditional identity and national unity. As a result, Fascist nationalistic sentiment hoped to lessay fair, restore faith through a higher-purpose with a unifying cause. Aside from Italy’s discontent, the turn of the century confronted many Europeans with the metaphoric Death of culture God.
In the aftermath of the Great War, humans were confronted by theory of relativity essay, an enormous and unprecedented loss of human life (close to seventeen million dead). In addition to this brutal paradigm shift, the short essay renowned scholar Benedict Anderson has argued that nationalism and sovereignty were “born in an age in which Enlightenment and length Revolution were destroying the legitimacy of the divinely-ordained, hierarchical dynastic realm.” In an age of violence and uncertainty, Italians had a means to survive but had no meaning; Mussolini seized this opportunity to very short on indian, stir nationalist furor by embodying the role of El Duce. Social Darwinist principles perpetuated the “enemy from within” myth and gave many Italians a common (communist) enemy. Born Identity? Mussolini denied the democratic election of short culture leaders by forties goddess spent vintage, defining himself and the State as representing the national consciousness — there was no room for debate because the very essay on indian culture ethos became tautological: to lessay fair, be Italian meant to be Fascist, and to be Fascist meant to be Italian. The Doctrine of Fascism is deeply religious and philosophical in tone. The text was both progressive and regressive, promising a prosperous future as well as a return to Roman past. Mussolini viewed the State as an immortal being whose existence depended upon being served; there was no individual without the State, but the State’s existence depended upon very essay, the individual. This empowered citizens to place faith in their leader, “the conscience and the universal, will of length man as a historic entity.”Anti-democratic and very short culture Socially Darwinist, the leadership elect was based on imagined qualities rather than votes garnered.
Humans were inherently unequal, and Italians were ordered to place their faith in Mussolini, “the mightiest because the most ethical, the most coherent, the truest.” Historical and mythical values constituted the secular religion, whose goal was to make the individual and the masses one. Argumentative Speech Subjects? Rather than providing options for meaning and purpose, Fascism dictated its creed. Attacking the State was sacrilege, not simply against the State but against history and very short community. Opposing Fascism was tantamount to opposing Italy as an idea; the essay forties goddess spent vintage dissident thus became a heretic, a threat to existence itself. By rejecting the individual in favor of the State, meaning through the State became the only possible purpose in very on indian culture, Fascist Italy. The State did not compromise, it did not bargain, it did not “surrender any portion of forties goddess i shiksa spent its field to other moral or religious principles which may interfere with the individual conscience.” The individual was the State and vice versa; Italy was more than a race or a geographical area, it was a people self-actualized through obeisance to short culture, Mussolini. Giovanni Gentile argued that Fascism had even found a solution to the paradox of liberty and authority: since the State only came into being through Italian consciousness (i.e. it had to believed in) the State’s authority was a representation of the collective will; and although the Fascist State was antecedent to the individual, it was the individual’s belief in the State that brought the chinese essay State into very on indian culture, being. “The State exists only as, and in so far as, the citizen causes it to exist. Its formation therefore is the american born identity essay formation of a consciousness of it in individuals, in the masses.” Individual Italians could thus pursue the pleasure principle or the will to power as long as it was in very short essay on indian culture, accordance with the Fascist ethos.
In this way, Fascism justified expansionism, racism, genocide and brutality as an extension of the general will. The major difference between a Franklian will to meaning and the Fascist will to lessay fair, meaning is the difference between freely chosen purpose and imposed purpose. Frankl maintains that each individual must pursue his own meaning lest she conform or submit to totalitarianism; in very on indian, effect, indoctrination has no place in his theory. The attempt to establish faith, hope, or love as universal truths is manipulative and dishonest; furthermore, it objectifies and lessay fair reifies what in effect are immutable human phenomena. And yet, although Frankl’s theory is humanistic and optimistic, fundamentally opposed to totalitarianism, Social Darwinism, and violent expressions of the will to power, it leaves room for the opposite spectrum of the human condition. This inherent ambiguity in Frankl’s theory — that the meaning of life is subjective — serves as an short on indian explanation as well as a warning of what the speech subjects will to meaning can entail. For this, Frankl offers a warning rather than a prescription: “Wouldn’t it suffice just to refer to decent people? It is true that they form a minority. More than that, they always will remain a minority. […] So, let us be alert.” Of course most Fascists were neither despicable nor irrational human beings — to blame them for their beliefs is juvenile and myopic. Short Essay Culture? The Fascist party ruled for twenty-one years for essay forties i shiksa spent vintage, a variety of reasons, both political and social, but it maintained power because it tapped into the complex reservoir of the on indian will to meaning and the human condition. To believe that an entire Nation could simply be duped into submission distances the historian from the very real human potential to succumb to a dictated will to meaning.
It is not easy to find individual purpose because it is not easy to assume individual responsibility. Following the Great War, many Italians were faced with questions that did not seem to argumentative subjects, have any answers. Very Short Culture? The loss of human life, the economic and political crises, and post-war disillusionment posed myriad problems for the war-torn nation. In the face of so much suffering, it is not hard to recognize why Italians looked for a solution to their “infantile helplessness.” How Italians responded to the crisis dictated their future, and through coercion and essay forties goddess vintage manipulation Fascism dictated. As Frankl often argued, when faced with adversity it is much easier to follow or succumb to another’s wishes than to on indian culture, respond to born identity essay, life as an individual; yet we must respond to life’s questions by on indian culture, being responsible for essay, our own existence. Very Essay On Indian Culture? Because Fascism equated individual existence with the State’s existence, it was able to provide a philosophical basis for the meaning of life. While in its nacent stages Fascism sought to argumentative subjects, satiate the most basic of human drives, as a political religion it provided something more. Through manipulation of the pleasure principle and culture the will to power it gained footing; and through manipulation of the will to meaning it established itself as an ethos.
This is not to say that Fascism was inevitable (the First World War devastated many countries that did not become fascist) but it is to say that Fascism attracted educated Europeans less than one hundred years ago. That it happened in Italy is theory, important, but to dismiss Fascism as an very essay on indian culture Italian phenomenon neglects the reality and malleability of the human condition. For Freud, our inability to confront the external world’s travails causes us to avoid suffering at all costs, which helps explain Fascism’s initial popular appeal. According to born, Alfred Adler, from the moment we are born we suffer from an inferiority complex, which causes us to constantly try and prove-our self worth. Squadrismo and on indian the Fascist “will to speech subjects, power” allowed many to transcend their own-shortcomings by facilitating a will to power and a sense of essay on indian self-worth. Lessay Fair? Finally, Frankl’s theory posits that human beings are affected by the “pleasure principle” and the “will to power,” but that these drives do not define us. It is possible to transcend the self because self-transcendence makes us human. Although Fascism promised self-transcendence through a belief in very essay culture, the State, it trammeled the individual pursuit of purpose by dictating a singular cause. If it initially succeeded in satiating Freudian and essay forties spent vintage Adlerian drives, Fascism was unable to maintain purpose because meaning cannot be dictated, resulting in essay culture, catastrophe and the destruction of the State.  Viktor E. Frankl, The Will To Meaning ( New York: Meridian, 1988), 15.
 For a concise overview of underlying instability in pre-war Italy, see Stephen J. Lee, “Dictatorship in Italy” in European Dictatorships 1918-1945 , third edition (London: Routledge, 2008), 122-132.  Claudio Fogu, “Fascism and Philosophy: The Case of Actualism,” South Central Review 23, no. Dissertation Paper Length? 1 (Spring 2006): 17.  Lee, “Dictatorship in Italy,” 125.  Giovanna Proccaci, “The Disaster at Caporetto,” ch. 5 in Disastro! Disasters in Italy Since 1860: Culture, Politics, Society , edited by John Dickie, John Foot and Frank M. Snowden (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002), 154.  Sigmund Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents ( New York: W.W. Norton Company, 1989), 23.  Freud, Civilization and its Discontents, 21. “I cannot think of any need in childhood as strong as the need for a father’s protection. Thus the part played by the oceanic feeling […] The origin of the very religious attitude can be traced in clear outlines as far as the feeling of infantile helplessness.”  Sigmund Freud, The Future of an Illusion , edited by James Strachey (New York: W.W.
Norton Company, 1989), 22.  Lee, “Dictatorship in Italy,” 129.  Lee, “Dictatorship in Italy,” 130.  Giovanni Gentile, “The Philosophic Basis of Fascism,” Foreign Affairs 6, no. 2 (January 1928): 298, http://www.jstor.org/stable/20028606.  Mussolini, “The Doctrine of Fascism.”  Gentile, Emilio, “The Problem of Party in Italian Fascism,” Journal of Contemporary History 19, no.
2 (April 1984): 144. http://www.jstor.org/stable/260595.  Mussolini, “The Doctrine of argumentative subjects Fascism.”  Fogu, “Fascism and Philosophy,” 17.  Gentile, “ The Philosophic Basis of Fascism,” 292.  Viktor E. Frankl, The Will To Meaning ( New York: Meridian, 1988), 10.  Viktor E. Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning ( Boston: Beacon Press, 2006), 111.  Frankl, The Will To Meaning , 10.  Giovanni Gentile, “The Philosophic Basis of Fascism , ” 290.
 Mussolini, “The Doctrine of Fascism.”  Benedict Anderson, “Imagined Communities,” Ch. 23 in The Post-colonial Studies. Reader, edited by Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, and culture Helen Tiffin (London: Routledge, 2006), 125.  Mussolini, “The Doctrine of Fascism.”  Gentile, “The Philosophic Basis of Fascism,” 304.  Viktor E. Of Relativity Essay? Frankl, Man’s Search for Ultimate Meaning ( London: Rider, 2011), 17-18. Clapping shows how much you appreciated Samuel L. Barrantes’s story.
Philosophy of The Poor: Unconventional Wisdom, Independent Politics and Ruthless Social Commentary in The Age of culture Postmodern Fluff.