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Programmed and maintained secure Mitel NSTS switchboard. Also wired hundreds of scientific research letter, RS-449 patch panels in Communication Center bays. Master of economy, Science in Information Systems (MSIS) , Concentration in personal essay Telecommunications Security. Hawaii Pacific University . Command Economy Economy Essays! Awarded 05/2009, GPA 3.84. Paper Letter! Graduated With Distinction. Bachelor of Science in Business Management (BSBM) , University of Maryland , University College . Awarded 12/2005, GPA 3.51. Vs Free Economy! Three time Dean’s List mention. Associate of Arts, General Studies , University of ballistic, Maryland , University College . Command Economy Vs Free Economy Essays! Awarded 12/1998. Paper! DISA FSO, Assured Compliance Assessment Solution (ACAS) , 04/2015, 32 hours. Command Economy Vs Free Market Economy! DISA FSO, Securing Mobile Devices, 03/2015, 24 hours.
Infosec Institute, DOD Risk Management Framework, 12/2014, 32 hours. Create And Outline Of Your Persuasive Essay! Telos , Xacta IA Manager Assessment Engine – SOCOM ICD503 User Training, 06/2013, 16 hours. Telos , Xacta IA Manager Assessment Engine User Training – SOCOM, 07/2012, 24 hours. Vs Free Market Economy Essays! DISA FSO, Security Readiness Review (SRR) Walk-through for lab report Windows, 7/2011, 40 hours. DISA FSO, Vulnerability Management System (VMS) v6.6, 5/2011, 16 hours. VMware, VMware vSphere : Install, Configure, Manage [V4.1], 4/2011, 40 hours. Command Essays! DSS, NISPOM Chapter 8 Implementation Course (IS302.01), 2/2011, 16 hours. Spider Robinson Heinlein Essay! DSS, NISPOM Chapter 8 Requirements for Industry Course, 12/2010, 20 hours. USAF, TBMCS-UL System Administrator Spiral 8.5 Delta Training, 3/2006, 40 hours. Economy Vs Free Market Essays! USAF, YAF02SE, USAF System Administrator Course , 6/2005, 8 hours. Spider Robinson Essay! Microsoft, 1560 Updating support skills from vs free market essays WinNT to Win2000 , 05/2002, 40 hours.
Compumaster , Supporting, Troubleshooting, and ballistic lab report Optimizing Win2000 , 04/2002, 14 hours. Oracle University , Enterprise DBA Part 1A, Architecture Administration , 07/2001, 40 hours. USN, A-531-0046 Information Systems Administrator , 05/2001, 2 months. Command Essays! • INFOSEC fundamentals, Relational Databases, OSI reference model, Microsoft Windows NT Management, Microsoft Exchange Server, UNIX, Routers, ATM. USN, P-500-0025 First Line Leadership Development Program, 02/2001, 80 hours. Essay Ever! Sun Microsystems, Solaris System Administration I (SA-238), 12/2000, 40 hours.
Fore Systems, ATM Theory CORE Products Installation Maintenance , 05/2000 40 hours. Fore Systems, ATM PowerHub Installation, Operation and command economy vs free market economy Maintenance , 05/2000, 32 hours. Laser Tech Inc., Copper - Fiber Optic Splicing School , 07/1998, 40 hours. HQ Naval Security Group, Methods of Managing Quality , 02/1998, 40 hours. NSA, ES-386, TIDYTIPS III Hardware Maintenance , 03/1996, 40hrs. USN, A-102-0377 Information Collection Systems Maintenance , 12/1993, 2 months. USN, A-102-0109 Cryptologic Technician Maintenance Class A3, 09 /1991, 5 months. A Thesis And Outline Of Your Persuasive! USN, A-102-0234 Electronic Technology, Class A1 , 05/1991, 4 months. USAF, 902X1 Radio Operator Technical Training, 05/1990, 6 weeks. Command Economy Market Economy! Fastrac NetG Computer Based Training: • 12327 UNIX Fundamentals , 12754 Networking Fundamentals , 12755 Networking Fundamentals 2 , 12777 UNIX Shell Programming , 12634 Sun Solaris Part 1 , 80201 Novell Networking Technologies Part 1. Ballistic Pendulum Lab Report! US Navy Computer Based Training: • NT-C10 Digital Switching , NT-C11 Understanding Ethernet , NT-C12 Understanding FDDI , NT-C13 Understanding Frame Relay, SMDS, and vs free market essays ATM , NT-C14 Understanding Bridges, Routers, Gateways , NT-C16 Local Area Networking , NT-C23 Digital Switching , NT-C24 T1 Transmission Basics.
Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) #114991, Certified 10/2007. IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) V3 Foundation #4420538, Certified 1/2012. Top Secret/SCI. SSBI 04 September 2012. And Outline Of Your Persuasive Essay! PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND HONOR SOCIETIES. • Upsilon Pi Epsilon (UPE) International Honor Society – Inducted 04/2008. • Epsilon Delta Pi (EDP) National Honor Society – Inducted 11/2006.
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Stop Making Plans; Start Making Decisions. Most executives view traditional strategic planning as worthless. Why? The process contains serious flaws. First, it’s conducted annually, so it doesn’t help executives respond swiftly to threats and opportunities (a new competitor, a possible acquisition) that crop up throughout the year. Second, it unfolds unit by unit—with executive committee members visiting one unit at market essays a time to review their strategic plans. Ballistic Pendulum? Executives lack sufficient information to provide worthwhile guidance during these “business tours.” And the economy economy essays visits take them away from of unknown soldier urgent companywide issues, such as whether to economy economy essays enter a new market, outsource a function, or restructure the personal essay organization.
Frustrated by vs free, these constraints, executives routinely sidestep their company’s formal strategic planning process—making ad hoc decisions based on soldier scanty analysis and meager debate. Result? Decisions made incorrectly, too slowly, or not at command economy vs free essays all. How to improve the quality and quantity of your strategic decisions? Use continuous issues-focused strategic planning . Throughout the year, identify the issues you must resolve to enhance your company’s performance—particularly those spanning multiple business units. Debate one issue at a time until you’ve reached a decision. And add issues to your agenda as business realities change.
Your reward? More rigorous debate and more significant strategic decisions each year—made precisely when they’re needed. The Idea in Practice. To create an shakespeare othello essay, effective strategic-planning process: Link Decision Making and command, Planning. Create a mechanism that helps you identify the on tomb of unknown decisions you must make to create more shareholder value. Once you’ve made those decisions, use your traditional planning process to develop an implementation road map. Example: At Boeing Commercial Airplanes, executives meet regularly to uncover the company’s most pressing, long-term strategic issues (such as evolving product strategy, or fueling growth in services). Upon selecting a course of action, they update their long-range business plan with an implementation strategy for command economy vs free that decision. (By separating—but linking—planning and execution, Boeing makes faster and better decisions.) During strategy discussions, focus on issues spanning multiple business units.
Example: Facing a shortage of investment ideas, Microsoft’s leaders began defining issues—such as PC market growth and security—that are critical throughout the company. Dialogues between unit leaders and pendulum, the executive committee now focus on what Microsoft as a whole can do to address each issue—not which strategies individual units should formulate. Countless new growth opportunities have surfaced. Spread strategy reviews throughout the economy vs free market economy year rather than squeezing them into essay on tomb soldier, a 2-3-month window. You’ll be able to focus on—and resolve—one issue at command economy vs free market a time. And you’ll have the flexibility to add issues as soon as business conditions change. Example:
Executives at multi-industry giant Textron review two to three units’ strategy per quarter rather than compressing all unit reviews into one quarter annually. They also hold continuous reviews designed to soldier address each strategic issue on the company’s agenda. Once an also-ran among its peers, Textron was a top-quartile performer during 2004–2005. Structure Strategy Reviews to Produce Results. Design and conduct strategy sessions so that participants agree on facts related to each issue before proposing solutions. Example: At Textron, each strategic issue is resolved through a disciplined process: In one session, the management committee debates the command economy vs free market economy essays issue at hand and reaches agreement on the relevant facts (e.g., customers’ purchase behaviors, a key market’s profitability figures). The group then generates several viable strategy alternatives. In a second session, the committee evaluates the alternatives from a strategic and financial perspective and selects a course of action. By moving from facts to alternatives to choices, the group reaches many more decisions than before. Is strategic planning completely useless?
That was the question the CEO of a global manufacturer recently asked himself. Two years earlier, he had launched an ambitious overhaul of the company’s planning process. The old approach, which required business-unit heads to essay on tomb of unknown make regular presentations to the firm’s executive committee, had broken down entirely. The ExCom members—the CEO, COO, CFO, CTO, and head of HR—had grown tired of economy vs free market economy essays, sitting through endless PowerPoint presentations that provided them few opportunities to challenge the business units’ assumptions or influence their strategies. Othello? And the economy vs free unit heads had complained that the ExCom reviews were long on exhortation but short on executable advice. Worse, the reviews led to very few worthwhile decisions. The revamped process incorporated state-of-the-art thinking about robinson, strategic planning.
To avoid information overload, it limited each business to 15 “high-impact” exhibits describing the unit’s strategy. To ensure thoughtful discussions, it required that all presentations and supporting materials be distributed to the ExCom at least a week in advance. Command Market? The review sessions themselves were restructured to allow ample time for give-and-take between the corporate team and ballistic lab report, the business-unit executives. And rather than force the unit heads to economy vs free essays traipse off to ballistic headquarters for meetings, the ExCom agreed to spend an unprecedented six weeks each spring visiting all 22 units for daylong sessions. The intent was to make the strategy reviews longer, more focused, and more consequential. It didn’t work. Command Economy Economy Essays? After using the new process for two planning cycles, the CEO gathered feedback from the participants through an anonymous survey. Create A Thesis And Outline Essay? To his dismay, the vs free market report contained a litany of complaints: “It takes too much time.” “It’s at too high a level.” “It’s disconnected from the way we run the business.” And so on. Most damning of all, however, was the respondents’ near-universal view that the new approach produced very few real decisions. The CEO was dumbfounded. How could the company’s cutting-edge planning process still be so badly broken?
More important, what should he do to make strategic planning drive more, better, and faster decisions? Like this CEO, many executives have grown skeptical of strategic planning. Is it any wonder? Despite all the time and energy most companies put into my best vacation, strategic planning, the process is most often a barrier to good decision making, our research indicates. As a result, strategic planning doesn’t really influence most companies’ strategy. In the following pages, we will demonstrate that the failure of most strategic planning is due to two factors: It is typically an annual process, and it is command economy economy essays, most often focused on individual business units.
As such, the personal resume process is command economy economy, completely at odds with the spider way executives actually make important strategy decisions, which are neither constrained by the calendar nor defined by unit boundaries. Not surprisingly, then, senior executives routinely sidestep the command economy vs free essays planning process. They make the decisions that really shape their company’s strategy and ballistic, determine its future—decisions about mergers and acquisitions, product launches, corporate restructurings, and the like—outside the command essays planning process, typically in an ad hoc fashion, without rigorous analysis or productive debate. Critical decisions are made incorrectly or not at all. More than anything else, this disconnect—between the way planning works and the way decision making happens—explains the frustration, if not outright antipathy, most executives feel toward strategic planning. Companies see a dramatic increase in the quality of their decision making once they abandon the traditional planning model, which is calendar driven and focused on of unknown soldier the business units. In our survey, the companies that broke most completely with the past made more than twice as many strategic decisions each year as companies wedded to tradition. What’s more, the new structure of the vs free economy essays planning process ensures that the decisions are probably the ballistic pendulum best that could have been made, given the information available to managers at command economy vs free market economy the time. Here are the average numbers of major strategic decisions reached per year in companies that take the following approaches to strategic planning: Annual review focused on business units. Annual review focused on spider robinson issues.
Continuous review focused on business units. Continuous review focused on issues. But companies can fix the process if they attack its root problems. A small number of forward-looking companies have thrown out their calendar-driven, business-unit-focused planning processes and replaced them with continuous, issues-focused decision making. By changing the timing and command economy, focus of strategic planning, they’ve also changed the nature of top management’s discussions about strategy—from “review and approve” to “debate and decide,” meaning that senior executives seriously think through every major decision and its implications for the company’s performance and ballistic pendulum lab report, value. Indeed, these companies use the strategy development process to economy market essays drive decision making. As a consequence, they make more than twice as many important strategic decisions each year as companies that follow the essay traditional planning model. (See the command economy market exhibit “Who Makes More Decisions?”) These companies have stopped making plans and started making decisions. In the fall of 2005, Marakon Associates, in my best ever collaboration with the Economist Intelligence Unit, surveyed senior executives from 156 large companies worldwide, all with sales of $1 billion or more (40% of them had revenues over $10 billion). Economy Vs Free? We asked these executives how their companies developed long-range plans and how effectively they thought their planning processes drove strategic decisions. The results of the survey confirmed what we have observed over many years of essay of unknown soldier, consulting: The timing and structure of strategic planning are obstacles to good decision making.
Specifically, we found that companies with standard planning processes and practices make only 2.5 major strategic decisions each year, on command vs free market essays average (by “major,” we mean they have the potential to increase company profits by 10% or more over the long term). Shakespeare Othello Essay? It’s hard to command economy market economy essays imagine that with so few strategic decisions driving growth, these companies can keep moving forward and deliver the financial performance that investors expect. Even worse, we suspect that the few decisions companies do reach are made in spite of the strategic planning process, not because of it. Indeed, the traditional planning model is essay, so cumbersome and out of sync with the economy market economy way executives want and need to make decisions that top managers all too often sidestep the process when making their biggest strategic choices. Companies that follow the traditional strategic planning model develop a strategy plan for each business unit at shakespeare some point during the year. A cross-functional team dedicates less than nine weeks to developing the unit’s plan. The executive committee reviews each plan—typically in daylong, on-site meetings—and rubber-stamps the results. The plans are consolidated to produce a companywide strategic plan for review by the board of directors. Once the strategic-planning cycle is complete, the units dedicate another eight to nine weeks to economy vs free essays budgeting and capital planning (in most companies, these processes are not explicitly linked to vacation strategic planning).
The executive committee then holds another round of meetings with each of the business units to market economy negotiate performance targets, resource commitments, and (in many cases) compensation for managers. The results: an approved but potentially unrealistic strategic plan for each business unit and a separate budget for spider essay each unit that is decoupled from the unit’s strategic plan. With the big decisions being made outside the planning process, strategic planning becomes merely a codification of judgments top management has already made, rather than a vehicle for identifying and debating the critical decisions that the company needs to make to produce superior performance. Over time, managers begin to question the value of strategic planning, withdraw from it, and come to rely on other processes for setting company strategy. At 66% of the companies in command market economy our survey, planning is a periodic event, often conducted as a precursor to essay the yearly budgeting and capital-approval processes. In fact, linking strategic planning to these other management processes is often cited as a best practice. But forcing strategic planning into an annual cycle risks making it irrelevant to executives, who must make many important decisions throughout the year. There are two major drawbacks to economy market economy essays such a rigid schedule. The first might be called the time problem. A once-a-year planning schedule simply does not give executives sufficient time to spider essay address the market economy issues that most affect performance.
According to our survey, companies that follow an resume, annual planning calendar devote less than nine weeks per year to strategy development. That’s barely two months to collect relevant facts, set strategic priorities, weigh competing alternatives, and make important strategic choices. Many issues—particularly those spanning multiple businesses, crossing geographic boundaries, or involving entire value chains—cannot be resolved effectively in such a short time. It took Boeing, for example, almost two years to command essays decide to outsource major activities such as wing manufacturing. Constrained by the planning calendar, corporate executives face two choices: They can either not address these complex issues—in effect, throwing them in the “too-hard” bucket—or they can address them through some process other than strategic planning. In both cases, strategic planning is marginalized and separated from strategic decision making. Then there’s the ever timing problem. Even when executives allot sufficient time in strategy development to address tough issues, the timing of the process can create problems. Economy Essays? At most companies, strategic planning is a batch process in which managers analyze market and competitor information, identify threats and opportunities, and create a thesis of your persuasive essay, then define a multiyear plan. But in the real world, managers make strategic decisions continuously, often motivated by an immediate need for action (or reaction). When a new competitor enters a market, for instance, or a rival introduces a new technology, executives must act quickly and decisively to safeguard the company’s performance.
But very few companies (less than 10%, according to our survey) have any sort of rigorous or disciplined process for responding to changes in the external environment. Instead, managers rely on ad hoc processes to correct course or make opportunistic moves. Once again, strategic planning is command economy market essays, sidelined, and executives risk making poor decisions that have not been carefully thought through. MA decisions provide a particularly egregious example of the timing problem. Acquisition opportunities tend to emerge spontaneously, the result of changes in management at a target company, the actions of a competitor, or some other unpredictable event. Faced with a promising opportunity and limited time in which to othello act, executives can’t wait until the command opportunity is evaluated as part of the next annual planning cycle, so they assess the deal and make a quick decision. But because there’s often no proper review process, the softer customer- and people-related issues so critical to effective integration of an acquired company can get shortchanged. It is no coincidence that failure to essay vacation plan for integration is often cited as the primary cause of deal failure. The organizational focus of the typical planning process compounds its calendar effects—or, perhaps more aptly, defects. Two-thirds of the command executives we surveyed indicated that strategic planning at their companies is conducted business by business—that is, it is questions, focused on units or groups of units.
But 70% of the senior executives who responded to our survey stated they make decisions issue by issue. For example, should we enter China? Should we outsource manufacturing? Should we acquire our distributor? Given this mismatch between the way planning is command vs free essays, organized and the way big decisions are made, it’s hardly surprising that, once again, corporate leaders look elsewhere for guidance and inspiration. A Thesis And Outline Of Your Essay? In fact, only 11% of the executives we surveyed believed strongly that planning was worth the effort. The organizational focus of traditional strategic planning also creates distance, even antagonism, between corporate executives and business-unit managers.
Consider, for command vs free market essays example, the way most companies conduct strategy reviews—as formal meetings between senior managers and the heads of each business unit. While these reviews are intended to produce a fact-based dialogue, they often amount to little more than business tourism. The executive committee flies in for a day, sees the sights, meets the natives, and flies out. The business unit, for its part, puts in spider heinlein a lot of vs free market economy essays, work preparing for this royal visit and is keen to make it smooth and trouble free. The unit hopes to escape with few unanswered questions and on tomb of unknown, an approved plan. Accordingly, local managers control the flow of information upward, and senior managers are presented only economy vs free, with information that shows each unit in the best possible light. Opportunities are highlighted; threats are downplayed or omitted.
Strategy reviews often amount to of your persuasive essay little more than business tourism. Vs Free Market Essays? The executive committee flies in for essay ever a day, sees the sights, meets the natives, and economy vs free market, flies out. Even if there’s no subterfuge, senior corporate managers still have trouble engaging in spider constructive dialogue and debate because of what might be called information asymmetry. They just don’t have the information they need to command economy economy essays be helpful in guiding business units. A Thesis And Outline Of Your Persuasive? So when they’re presented with a strategic plan that’s too good to be believed, they have only market economy, two real options: either reject it—a move that’s all but unheard-of at othello questions most large companies—or play along and impose stretch targets to secure at least the promise that the unit will improve performance. In both cases, the review does little to drive decisions on issues. It’s hardly surprising that only 13% of the executives we surveyed felt that top managers were effectively engaged in all aspects of strategy development at their companies—from target setting to debating alternatives to approving strategies and allocating resources. Decision-Focused Strategic Planning. Strategic planning can’t have impact if it doesn’t drive decision making. And it can’t drive decision making as long as it remains focused on individual business units and limited by the calendar. Over the past several years, we have observed that many of the best-performing companies have abandoned the traditional approach and are focusing explicitly on reaching decisions through the continuous identification and systematic resolution of strategic issues. (The sidebar “Continuous, Decision-Oriented Planning” presents a detailed example of the issues-oriented approach.) Although these companies have found different specific solutions, all have made essentially the same fundamental changes to their planning and economy essays, strategy development processes in othello essay order to produce more, better, and faster decisions.
Continuous, Decision-Oriented Planning. Once the vs free market essays company as a whole has identified its most important strategic priorities (typically in an annual strategy update), executive committee dialogues, spread throughout the year, are set up to reach decisions on as many issues as possible. Since issues frequently span multiple business units, task forces are established to prepare the strategic and and outline essay, financial information that’s needed to uncover and evaluate strategy alternatives for command economy each issue. Preparation time may exceed nine weeks. The executive committee engages in lab report two dialogues for each issue at three to four hours each. The first dialogue focuses on reaching agreement on the facts surrounding the vs free issue and on and outline a set of viable alternatives.
The second focuses on the evaluation of command vs free economy essays, those alternatives and the selection of the best course of action. Once an essay, issue is resolved, a new one is added to the agenda. Critical issues can be inserted into the planning process at any time as market and economy vs free essays, competitive conditions change. Once a decision has been reached, the budgets and spider heinlein, capital plans for the affected business units are updated to command vs free essays reflect the selected option. Consequently, the essay resume strategic-planning process and the capital and budgeting processes are integrated.
This significantly reduces the need for lengthy negotiations between the executive committee and unit management over vs free market essays, the budget and capital plan. The results: a concrete plan for addressing each key issue; for each business unit, a continuously updated budget and on tomb of unknown soldier, capital plan that is linked directly to the resolution of critical strategic issues; and more, faster, better decisions per year. They separate—but integrate—decision making and plan making. First and most important, a company must take decisions out of the traditional planning process and create a different, parallel process for command economy essays developing strategy that helps executives identify the decisions they need to make to create more shareholder value over time. The output of this new process isn’t a plan at all—it’s a set of concrete decisions that management can codify into future business plans through the existing planning process, which remains in place.
Identifying and making decisions is distinct from creating, monitoring, and updating a strategic plan, and the two sets of tasks require very different, but integrated, processes. The Disconnect Between Planning and Decision Making. Percentage of surveyed executives saying their companies conduct strategic planning only at prescribed times. Percentage saying planning is done unit by unit. Percentage of personal essay, executives saying strategic decisions are made without regard to the calendar. Percentage saying decisions are made issue by issue.
No wonder only 11% of executives are highly satisfied that strategic planning is market economy essays, worth the effort. Boeing Commercial Airplanes (BCA) is a case in point. This business unit, Boeing’s largest, has had a long-range business plan (LRBP) process for many years. The protracted cycles of commercial aircraft production require the unit’s CEO, Alan Mulally, and his leadership team to take a long-term view of the business. Accordingly, the unit’s LRBP contains a ten-year financial forecast, including projected revenues, backlogs, operating margins, and capital investments. BCA’s leadership team reviews the personal business plan weekly to track the division’s performance relative to the plan and to keep the organization focused on execution. The weekly reviews were invaluable as a performance-monitoring tool at BCA, but they were not particularly effective at bringing new issues to the surface or driving strategic decision making. So in 2001, the command vs free unit’s leadership team introduced a Strategy Integration Process focused on uncovering and addressing the business’s most important strategic issues (such as determining the best go-to-market strategy for the business, driving the evolution of BCA’s product strategy, or fueling growth in services).
The team assigned to this process holds strategy integration meetings every Monday to spider essay track BCA’s progress in resolving these long-term issues. Once a specific course of action is command economy vs free market, agreed upon essay on tomb of unknown soldier, and approved by BCA’s leadership team, the vs free economy long-range business plan is spider, updated at vs free essays the next weekly review to reflect the projected change in personal resume financial performance. The time invested in command vs free economy essays the new decision-making process is more than compensated for by the time saved in the LRBP process, which is lab report, now solely focused on strategy execution. The company gets the best of both worlds—disciplined decision making and superior execution. BCA has maintained the value of the command economy market economy LRBP as an execution tool even as it has increased the quality and quantity of ballistic, important decisions. Managers believe that the new process is at economy economy essays least partially responsible for the sharp turnaround in Boeing’s performance since 2001. High-performing companies typically focus their strategy discussions on a limited number of important issues or themes, many of create a thesis and outline of your essay, which span multiple businesses.
Moving away from a business-by-business planning model in command economy vs free market economy this way has proved particularly helpful for large, complex organizations, where strategy discussions can quickly get bogged down as each division manager attempts to cover every aspect of the unit’s strategy. Business-unit managers should remain involved in corporate-level strategy planning that affects their units. But a focus on issues rather than business units better aligns strategy development with decision making and investment. Consider Microsoft. The world’s leading software maker is a highly matrixed organization. No strategy can be effectively executed at the company without careful coordination across multiple functions and across two or more of Microsoft’s seven business units, or, as executives refer to them, “PLs”—Client; Server and Tools; Information Worker; MSN; Microsoft Business Solutions; Mobile and Embedded Devices; and Home and Entertainment. In late 2004, faced with a perceived shortage of good investment ideas, CEO Steve Ballmer asked Robert Uhlaner, Microsoft’s corporate vice president of strategy, planning, and analysis, to vacation ever devise a new strategic planning process for the company. Uhlaner put in place a Growth and Performance Planning Process that starts with agreement by Ballmer’s leadership team on a set of strategic themes—major issues like PC market growth, the entertainment market, and security—that cross business-unit boundaries. These themes not only frame the dialogue for Microsoft’s annual strategy review, they also guide the units in fleshing out investment alternatives to command economy vs free essays fuel the company’s growth. Dialogues between the PL leaders and on tomb, Ballmer’s team focus on what the company can do to address each strategic theme, rather than on individual unit strategies.
The early results of this new process are promising. “You have to be careful what you wish for,” Uhlaner says. “Our new process has surfaced countless new opportunities for growth. We no longer worry about a dearth of command market, investment ideas, but how best to shakespeare othello questions fund them.” Like Microsoft, Diageo North America—a division of the market economy essays international beer, wine, and spirits marketer—has recently changed the way it conducts strategic planning to essay vacation allocate resources across its diverse portfolio. Diageo historically focused its planning efforts on individual brands. Brand managers were allowed to make the case for additional investment, no matter what the size of the brand or its strategic role in the portfolio. As a result, resource allocation was bedeviled by endless negotiations between the brands and corporate management. This political wrangling made it extremely difficult for Diageo’s senior managers to establish a consistent approach to vs free market economy growth, because a lack of transparency prevented them from discerning, from the many requests for heinlein additional funding, which brands really deserved more resources and command economy vs free market economy, which did not. Starting in 2001, Diageo overhauled its approach to strategy development. A crucial change was to focus planning on the factors that the on tomb company believed would most drive market growth—for example, an increase in the U.S. Hispanic population.
By modeling the impact of these factors on the brand portfolio, Diageo has been better able to match its resources with the brands that have the most growth potential so that it can specify the strategies and investments each brand manager should develop, says Jim Moseley, senior vice president of consumer planning and economy economy, research for Diageo North America. Create? For example, the division now identifies certain brands for growth and earmarks specific resources for investment in these units. Vs Free Economy Essays? This focused approach has enabled the company to shorten the brand planning process and reduce the time spent on ballistic pendulum lab report negotiations between the brands and division management. It has also given senior management greater confidence in each brand’s ability to contribute to Diageo’s growth. They make strategy development continuous. Effective strategy planners spread strategy reviews throughout the year rather than squeeze them into command economy market essays, a two- or three-month window. Ballistic Pendulum Lab Report? This allows senior executives to focus on vs free market economy one issue at a time until they reach a decision or set of decisions. Moreover, managers can add issues to the agenda as market and competitive conditions change, so there’s no need for essay ad hoc processes. Senior executives can thus rely on a single strategic planning process—or, perhaps more aptly, a single strategic decision-making model—to drive decision making across the company. Textron, a $10 billion multi-industry company, has implemented a new, continuous strategy-development process built around a prioritized “decision agenda” comprising the vs free economy essays company’s most important issues and opportunities.
Until 2004, Textron had a fairly traditional strategic planning process. Each spring, the company’s operating units—businesses as diverse as Bell Helicopter, E-Z-Go golf cars, and Jacobsen turf maintenance equipment—would develop a five-year strategic plan based on standard templates. Unit managers would then review their strategic plans with Textron’s management committee (the company’s top five executives) during daylong sessions at each unit. Once the strategy reviews were complete, the units incorporated the results, as best they could, into their annual operating plans and capital budgets. In June 2004, dissatisfied with the quality and pace of the decision making that resulted from the essay vacation company’s strategy reviews, CEO Lewis Campbell asked Stuart Grief, Textron’s vice president for command vs free strategy and business development, to rethink the company’s strategic planning process. After carefully reviewing the company’s practices and gathering feedback from its 30 top executives, Grief and his team designed a new Textron Strategy Process. There were two important changes. Shakespeare Questions? First, rather than concentrate all of the operating-unit strategy reviews in the second quarter of each year, the company now spreads strategy dialogues throughout the command economy economy year—two to three units are reviewed per quarter. Essay My Best Vacation? Second, rather than organize the management committee dialogues around business-unit plans, Textron now holds continuous reviews that are designed to address each strategic issue on the company’s decision agenda. Both changes have enabled Textron’s management committee to be much more effectively engaged in business-unit strategy development.
The changes have also ensured that there’s a forum in which cross-unit issues can be raised and addressed by top management, with input from relevant business-unit managers. The process has significantly increased the number of strategic decisions the company makes each year. As a result, Textron has gone from economy essays being an also-ran among its multi-industrial peers to pendulum a top-quartile performer over the past 18 months. John Cullivan, the director of command vs free market essays, strategy at Cardinal Health, one of the world’s leading health-care products and services companies, reports similar benefits from shifting to a continuous planning model. “Continuous decision making is tough to a thesis and outline establish because it requires the reallocation of economy vs free economy, management time at the top levels of the company,” he says. “But the process has enabled us to get sharper focus on the short-term performance of our vertical businesses and make faster progress on our longer-term priorities, some of which are horizontal opportunities that cut across businesses and thus are difficult to manage.” To facilitate continuous strategic decision making, Cardinal has made a series of important changes to its traditional planning process. Create Of Your? At the vs free economy essays corporate level, for example, the ballistic company has put in place a rolling six-month agenda for its executive committee dialogues, a practice that allows everyone inside Cardinal to know what issues management is working on and when decisions will be reached. Similar decision agendas are used at the business-unit and functional levels, ensuring that common standards are applied to command market all important decisions at the company. And to support continuous decision making at Cardinal, the shakespeare essay company has trained “black belts” in new analytical tools and processes and economy market economy, deployed them throughout the organization.
This provides each of the robinson heinlein company’s businesses and functions with the resources needed to address strategic priorities that emerge over command economy vs free market economy essays, time. They structure strategy reviews to produce real decisions. The most common obstacles to decision making at large companies are disagreements among executives over pendulum lab report, past decisions, current alternatives, and economy economy, even the shakespeare othello essay questions facts presented to support strategic plans. Leading companies structure their strategy review sessions to overcome these problems. At Textron, for command economy economy example, strategic-issue reviews are organized around “facts, alternatives, and choices.” Each issue is addressed in two half-day sessions with the ballistic pendulum lab report company’s management committee, allowing for vs free market economy eight to ten issues to be resolved throughout the year. In the first session, the management committee debates and personal essay, reaches agreement on the relevant facts—information on command market economy essays the profitability of key markets, the actions of competitors, the purchase behavior of customers, and create a thesis, so on—and a limited set of viable strategy alternatives. The purpose of this first meeting is not to reach agreement on command market economy essays a specific course of action; rather, the meeting ensures that the essay group has the best possible information and a robust set of alternatives to consider.
The second session is focused on evaluating these alternatives from a strategic and financial perspective and selecting the economy best course of action. By separating the dialogue around facts and alternatives from the debate over choices, Textron’s management committee avoids many of the bottlenecks that plague strategic decision making at most companies and reaches many more decisions than it otherwise would. Like Textron, Cadbury Schweppes has changed the structure of spider robinson heinlein essay, its strategy dialogues to focus top managers more explicitly on decision making. Economy Economy? In 2002, after acquiring and integrating gum-maker Adams—a move that significantly expanded Cadbury’s product and geographic reach—the company realized it needed to rethink how it was conducting dialogues about strategy between the corporate center and the businesses. The company made two important changes. First, strategy dialogues were redesigned to incorporate a standard set of persuasive, facts and metrics about consumers, customers, and command economy vs free, competitors. Heinlein Essay? This information helped get critical commercial choices in front of economy economy essays, top managers, so that the choices were no longer buried in the business units. Second, senior executives’ time was reallocated so they could pay more attention to markets that were crucial to realizing Cadbury’s ten-year vision and to making important decisions.
HBR’s 10 Must Reads on Making Smart Decisions. Cadbury’s top team now spends one full week per year in create of your each of the countries that are most critical to driving the company’s performance, so that important decisions can be informed by command economy essays, direct observation as well as through indirect analysis. Strategy dialogues are now based on a much deeper understanding of the markets. Cadbury’s strategic reviews no longer merely consist of reviews of and approval of a strategic plan, and they produce many more important decisions. • • • Done right, strategic planning can have an enormous impact on a company’s performance and create and outline persuasive essay, long-term value. Economy Vs Free Market Economy Essays? By creating a planning process that enables managers to discover great numbers of hidden strategic issues and make more decisions, companies will open the door to many more opportunities for create and outline persuasive long-term growth and profitability.
By embracing decision-focused planning, companies will almost certainly find that the quantity and quality of command economy market essays, their decisions will improve. And—no coincidence—they will discover an personal essay, improvement in the quality of the command vs free market economy essays dialogue between senior corporate managers and unit managers. Corporate executives will gain a better understanding of the challenges their companies face, and unit managers will benefit fully from the experience and create, insights of the company’s leaders. Command Economy Market Essays? As Mark Reckitt, a director of group strategy at Cadbury Schweppes, puts it: “Continuous, decision-focused strategic planning has helped our top management team to ballistic lab report streamline its agenda and command economy vs free market essays, work with business units and robinson heinlein, functional management to make far better business-strategy and commercial decisions.” Michael Mankins is economy essays, a partner in Bain Company’s San Francisco office and a leader in the firm’s Organization practice.
He is a coauthor of create and outline of your essay, Time, Talent, Energy: Overcome Organizational Drag and Unleash Your Team’s Productive Power (Harvard Business Review Press, 2017).
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Abu Arrayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni. Died: 13 December 1048 in Ghazna (now Ghazni, Afganistan) Click the picture above. to see six larger pictures. Other work which al-Biruni undertook as a young man was more theoretical. Before 995 (when he was 22 years old) he had written a number of short works. One which has survived is economy market economy his Cartography which is a work on map projections. As well as describing his own projection of a hemisphere onto a plane, al-Biruni showed that by the age of shakespeare othello essay 22 he was already extremely well read for he had studied a wide selection of map projections invented by others and he discusses them in vs free economy essays the treatise. Pendulum. The comparatively quiet life that al-Biruni led up to this point was to command economy vs free market essays come to a sudden end. It is interesting to speculate on spider essay how different his life, and command vs free essays contribution to shakespeare othello essay scholarship, might have been but for the change in his life forced by the political events of 995. Command Market Economy. The end of the 10 th century and beginning of the 11 th century was a period of essay of unknown great unrest in the Islamic world and there were civil wars in the region in which al-Biruni was living. Khwarazm was at this time part of the Samanid Empire which ruled from Bukhara.
Other states in the region were the Ziyarid state with its capital at Gurgan on the Caspian sea. Further west, the Buwayhid dynasty ruled over the area between the Caspian sea and the Persian Gulf, and over Mesopotamia. Command Economy Vs Free Economy Essays. Another kingdom which was rapidly rising in influence was the Ghaznavids whose capital was at Ghazna in Afghanistan, a kingdom which was to play a major role in al-Biruni's life. The Banu Iraq were the rulers of the Khwarazm region and Abu Nasr Mansur, al-Biruni's teacher, was a prince of a thesis and outline of your essay that family. In 995 the rule by the Banu Iraq was overthrown in economy economy a coup. Al-Biruni fled at essay my best ever, the outbreak of the civil war but it is market economy less clear what happened to his teacher Abu Nasr Mansur at this stage. Describing these events later al-Biruni wrote [',' E S Kennedy, Biography in Dictionary of ballistic pendulum Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).',' 1]:- After I had barely settled down for a few years, I was permitted by the Lord of Time to go back home, but I was compelled to vs free economy participate in worldly affairs, which excited the envy of a thesis and outline of your persuasive fools, but which made the economy market economy essays, wise pity me. Exactly where al-Biruni went when he fled from Khwarazm is unclear.
He might have gone to create a thesis and outline of your persuasive Rayy (near to where the city of Tehran stands today) at this time, but certainly he was there at some time during the following few years. He writes that he was without a patron when in Rayy, and lived in poverty. al-Khujandi was an astronomer who was working with a very large instrument he had built on the mountain above Rayy to observe meridian transits of the command vs free economy, sun near the solstices . He made observations on shakespeare othello questions 16 and 17 June 994 for the summer solstice and 14 and economy economy essays 17 December 994 for the winter solstice. From these values he calculated the essay my best vacation ever, obliquity of the ecliptic , and the latitude of vs free economy Rayy but neither are particularly accurate. Of Unknown Soldier. Al-Khujandi discussed these observations, and his large sextant, with al-Biruni who later reported on market them in his Tahdid where he claimed that the aperture of the sextant settled by about one span in the course of al-Khujandi's observations due to the weight of the instrument. Al-Biruni is almost certainly correct in pinpointing the cause of al-Khujandi's errors. Since al-Khujandi died in 1000, we can be fairly certain that al-Biruni spent part of the time between 995 and 997 at essay on tomb of unknown, Rayy. Economy Vs Free Market Economy Essays. He must also have spent part of this time in Gilan, which is bordered by the Caspian Sea on the north, for around this time he dedicated a work to the ruler of Gilan, ibn Rustam, who had connections with the Ziyarid state. We know certain dates in shakespeare othello essay questions al-Biruni's life with certainty for he describes astronomical events in his works which allow accurate dates and places to be determined. His description of an eclipse of the moon on 24 May 997 which he observed at Kath means that he had returned to his native country by economy vs free market essays this time. The eclipse was an event that was also visible in Baghdad and al-Biruni had arranged with Abu'l-Wafa to observe it there.
Comparing their timings enabled them to calculate the difference in resume longitude between the cities. We know that al-Biruni moved around frequently during this period for by 1000 he was at Gurgan being supported by Qabus, the ruler of the Ziyarid state. He dedicated his work Chronology to Qabus around 1000 and he was still in Gurgan on 19 February 1003 and 14 August 1003 when he observed eclipses of the moon there. We should record that in the Chronology al-Biruni refers to seven earlier works which he had written: one on vs free essays the decimal system, one on personal resume the astrolabe , one on economy vs free market astronomical observations, three on spider robinson heinlein astrology, and two on economy market economy essays history. Essay. By 4 June 1004 al-Biruni was back in his homeland, for on that day he observed another eclipse of the moon from Jurjaniyya. Ali ibn Ma'mun had ruled over Khwarazm and he remained at the court when his brother Abu'l Abbas Ma'mun succeeded him as ruler. Both the economy vs free economy, Ma'mun brothers married sisters of the ruler Mahmud from the a thesis, powerful state at Ghazna which would eventually take control of Abu'l Abbas Ma'mun's kingdom. Both Ali ibn Ma'mun and Abu'l Abbas Ma'mun were patrons of the sciences and supported a number of top scientists at their court. By 1004 Abu'l Abbas Ma'mun was ruler and vs free he provided generous support for al-Biruni's scientific work. Not only did al-Biruni work there but Abu Nasr Mansur, his former teacher also worked there, allowing the pair to renew their collaboration. With Abu'l Abbas Ma'mun's support al-Biruni built an instrument at Jurjaniyya to observe solar meridian transits and he made 15 such observations with the instrument between 7 June 1016 and 7 December 1016.
Wars in the region were to disrupt the scientific work of al-Biruni and Abu Nasr Mansur and eventually both left Khwarazm in about 1017. Shakespeare Questions. Mahmud was extending his influence over the region from his base in Ghazna and made a demand of Abu'l Abbas Ma'mun in 1014 to have his name inserted into the Friday prayers. Command Vs Free Market Essays. This was a signal that he wanted an end to Ma'mun's rule and he was making a bid for the region to come under his control. After Ma'mun had at least partially agreed to Mahmud's demands, he was killed by his own army for what they considered to be an act of treachery. Following this Mahmud marched his army into the region and gained control of Kath on 3 July 1017. Both al-Biruni and Abu Nasr Mansur left with the victorious Mahmud, perhaps as his prisoners. On Tomb Of Unknown Soldier. There follows a strange period during which there is evidence in al-Biruni's own writings that he suffered great hardships but he also seems to market economy have been supported by Mahmud for essay my best vacation, some scientific work.
Some reports that Mahmud was cruel to al-Biruni may have some basis despite the limited patronage al-Biruni received from the ruler. Some dates and places from this period can again be deduced from descriptions of astronomical events recorded by al-Biruni. He was in Kabul on 14 October 1018 but, despite having no instruments with which to command vs free economy essays observe, he was able to make an observation with an ingenious instrument he made from ballistic pendulum materials at hand. At Lamghan, north of Kabul, on 8 April 1019 he observed an eclipse of the sun, writing [',' Biography in Encyclopaedia Britannica. ',' 2]:- . at sunrise we saw that approximately one-third of the sun was eclipsed and command economy vs free market that the eclipse was waning. Between 1018 and 1020, supported by Mahmud, al-Biruni made observations from Ghazna which allowed an accurate determination of its latitude. On 17 September 1019 there was a lunar eclipse observed by al-Biruni from Ghazna and [',' Biography in Encyclopaedia Britannica. ',' 2]:- He gives precise details of the exact altitude of various well known stars at the moment of first contact. The relationship between Mahmud and al-Biruni is interesting. It is likely that al-Biruni was essentially a prisoner of Mahmud and was not free to leave. However Mahmud's military excursions into India meant that al-Biruni was taken to that country, and there can have been few experiences that al-Biruni would have enjoyed more.
He may have wished for better treatment from of unknown Mahmud but al-Biruni's scientific work certainly benefited. From around 1022 Mahmud's armies began to have success in taking control of the northern parts of India and in 1026 his armies marched to vs free market economy the Indian Ocean. Al-Biruni seems only to have been in essay my best vacation the northern parts of India, and we are uncertain how many visits he made, but observations he made there enabled him to command economy market determine the ballistic lab report, latitudes of eleven towns around the Punjab and the borders of Kashmir. His most famous work India was written as a direct result of the vs free economy, studies he made while in on tomb that country. The India is a massive work covering many different aspects of the country. Al-Biruni describes the religion and philosophy of India, its caste system and marriage customs. He then studies the essays, Indian systems of writing and numbers before going on to examine the geography of the country. The book also examines Indian astronomy, astrology and the calendar. Al-Biruni studied Indian literature in the original, translating several Sanskrit texts into Arabic.
He also wrote several treatises devoted to certain aspects of ballistic Indian astronomy and mathematics which were of particular interest to him. Al-Biruni was amazingly well read, having knowledge of Sanskrit literature on topics such as astrology, astronomy, chronology, geography, grammar, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, religion, and command market economy essays weights and measures. See [',' A M Shastri, Sanskrit literature known to al-Biruni, Indian J. History Sci. 10 (2) (1975), 111-138, 159.',' 65] for further details. Mahmud died in create a thesis and outline essay 1030 and he was succeeded by his eldest son Mas'ud, although not before a difficult political situation in which the economy economy, two sons of Mahmud each tried to follow their father as ruler. Clearly al-Biruni was unsure who would succeed for he chose not to give a dedication in his India which appeared at this time.
Better to have no dedication than to choose the wrong one! Mas'ud proved to be a ruler who treated al-Biruni more kindly than his father had done. Resume. If al-Biruni had been a virtual prisoner before, he now seems to have become free to travel as he pleased. Mas'ud was murdered in 1040 and succeeded by command economy vs free market economy essays his son Mawdud who ruled for eight years. By this time al-Biruni was an old man but he continued his enormous output of scientific works right up to the time of his death.
The total number of works produced by create and outline persuasive al-Biruni during his lifetime is impressive. Kennedy. writing in [',' E S Kennedy, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).',' 1], estimates that he wrote around 146 works with a total of about 13,000 folios (a folio contains about the same amount as a printed page from a modern book). Command Economy Economy Essays. We have mentioned some of the works above, but the range of al-Biruni's works cover essentially the whole of science at his time. Pendulum Lab Report. Kennedy writes [',' E S Kennedy, Biography in command economy vs free market economy essays Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).',' 1]:- . his bent was strongly towards the study of observable phenomena, in my best ever nature and in man. Command Vs Free Market Essays. Within the sciences themselves he was attracted by those fields then susceptible of spider robinson heinlein mathematical analysis. We have mentioned al-Biruni's astronomical observations many time above. It is worth noting that he had a better feel for errors than did Ptolemy. In [',' O Sheynin, al-Biruni and the mathematical treatment of vs free market economy essays observations, Arabic Sci. Philos. 2 (2) (1992), 299-306.',' 66] the author comments that Ptolemy's attitude was to select the shakespeare essay questions, observations which he thought most reliable (often that meant fitting in with his theory), and not to tell the reader about command economy observations that he was discarding.
Al-Biruni, on the other hand, treats errors more scientifically and when he does chose some to questions be more reliable than others, he also gives the discarded observations. He was also very conscious of rounding errors in calculations, and always attempted to economy observe quantities which required the essay on tomb, minimum manipulation to produce answers. One of the most important of al-Biruni's many texts is Shadows which he is thought to have written around 1021. Rosenfel'd has written extensively on this work of al-Biruni (see for example [',' B A Rosenfel#8217;d and L G Utseha, Some mathematical discoveries in al-Biruni#8217;s #8217;Shadows#8217;, J. Hist. Arabic Sci. 4 (2) (1980), 332-336.',' 52], [',' B A Rozenfel#8217;d, Some questions on the mathematics of variable quantities in al-Biruni #8217;s treatise on shadows (Russian), Istor.-Mat. Command Economy Economy Essays. Issled. 23 (1978), 226-230, 358.',' 55], and [',' B A Rozenfel#8217;d and L G Uceha, al-Biruni#8217;s astronomical treatise on essay shadows (Russian), Istor.-Astronom. Issled. Economy Vs Free Market Economy Essays. 14 (1978), 303-314.',' 59]). Spider Robinson Essay. The contents of the work include the command vs free economy essays, Arabic nomenclature of shade and shadows, strange phenomena involving shadows, gnomonics, the history of the and outline of your persuasive essay, tangent and secant functions, applications of the shadow functions to the astrolabe and to other instruments, shadow observations for the solution of various astronomical problems, and the shadow-determined times of Muslim prayers.
Shadows is an extremely important source for our knowledge of the economy market essays, history of mathematics, astronomy, and physics. It also contains important ideas such as the idea that acceleration is connected with non-uniform motion, using three rectangular coordinates to define a point in 3-space, and ideas that some see as anticipating the introduction of polar coordinates. The book [',' B A Rozenfel#8217;d, M M Rozhanskaya and of your Z K Skolovskaya, Abu#8217;l-Rayhan al-Biruni (973-1048) (Russian) (Moscow, 1973). ',' 5] details the mathematical contributions of al-Biruni. These include: theoretical and practical arithmetic, summation of series, combinatorial analysis, the rule of three, irrational numbers, ratio theory, algebraic definitions, method of solving algebraic equations, geometry, Archimedes' theorems, trisection of the angle and other problems which cannot be solved with ruler and compass alone, conic sections , stereometry, stereographic projection , trigonometry, the sine theorem in the plane, and solving spherical triangles. Command Economy Vs Free Market. Important contributions to geodesy and geography were also made by create a thesis and outline essay al-Biruni. He introduced techniques to economy market measure the earth and distances on it using triangulation. He found the essay on tomb, radius of the earth to be 6339.6 km, a value not obtained in the West until the 16 th century (see [',' K Norhudzaev, al-Biruni and the science of geodesy (Uzbek), in Collection dedicated to the 1000th anniversary of the birth of al-Biruni (Tashkent, 1973), 145-158.',' 50]). His Masudic canon contains a table giving the coordinates of six hundred places, almost all of which he had direct knowledge. Not all, however, were measured by command economy al-Biruni himself, some being taken from a similar table given by al-Khwarizmi.
The author of [',' P G Bulgakov, al-Biruni and al-Khwarizmi (Russian), in Mathematics and astronomy in the works of scientists of the medieval East (Tashkent, 1977), 117-122; 140.',' 27] remarks that al-Biruni seemed to shakespeare essay questions realise that for places given by both al-Khwarizmi and Ptolemy, the value obtained by economy vs free al-Khwarizmi is the more accurate. Al-Biruni also wrote a treatise on time-keeping, wrote several treatises on the astrolabe and describes a mechanical calendar. He makes interesting observations on the velocity of light, stating that its velocity is immense compared with that of sound. He also describes the Milky Way as. Essay. . a collection of countless fragments of the nature of economy economy essays nebulous stars. Topics in physics that were studied by al-Biruni included hydrostatics and made very accurate measurements of specific weights.
He described the ratios between the densities of gold, mercury, lead, silver, bronze, copper, brass, iron, and tin. Al-Biruni displayed the results as combinations of integers and numbers of the othello essay questions, form 1/ n , n = 2, 3, 4, . , 10. Command Economy Market Economy. Many of al-Biruni's ideas were worked out in discussions and arguments with other scholars. He had a long-standing collaboration with his teacher Abu Nasr Mansur, each asking the other to undertake specific pieces of work to ballistic pendulum lab report support their own. He corresponded with Avicenna, in a rather confrontational fashion, about the nature of heat and light. In [',' I M Muminov (ed.), al-Biruni and Ibn Sina : Correspondence (Russian) (Tashkent, 1973).',' 4], eighteen letters which Avicenna sent to al-Biruni in answer to questions that he had posed are given.
These letters cover topics such as philosophy, astronomy and physics. Al-Biruni also corresponded with al-Sijzi. Market Economy Essays. The paper [',' Kh F Abdulla-zade, al-Biruni#8217;s letter to Abu Said (Russian), Izv. Akad. Nauk Tadzhik. SSR Otdel. Questions. Fiz.-Mat.
Khim. i Geol. Command Vs Free Economy. Nauk (3)(89) (1983), 16-19.',' 10] contains a letter that al-Biruni wrote to al-Sijzi (translated into English in [',' A Sayili, in Beyruni#8217;ye Armagan (Ankara, 1974), 169-207.',' 63]) which contains proofs of both the plane and spherical versions of the ballistic pendulum lab report, sine theorem. Al-Biruni says were due to his teacher Abu Nasr Mansur. Finally we should say a little about the personality of this great scholar. In contrast with the works of many others, we find out a lot about al-Biruni from his writings. Vs Free Economy Essays. Despite the fact that no more than one fifth of his works have survived, we get a clear picture of the great scientist. We see a man who was not a great innovator of original theories, mathematical or otherwise, but rather a careful observer who was a leading exponent of the experimental method. He was a great linguist who was able to essay read first hand an amazing number of the treatises that existed and he clearly saw the development of vs free science as part of a historical process which he is always careful to put in proper context. Othello Essay. His writings are therefore of great interest to economy vs free market economy essays historians of science.
It appears clear that, despite his many works on astrology, al-Biruni did not believe in the 'science' but used it as a means to support his serious scientific work. A devout Muslim, he did write religious texts to suit his patrons particular sect. He shows no prejudice against different religious sects or races, but he does have strong words to say about various acts they committed. For example the Arab conquerors of Khwarazm destroyed ancient texts - what sin could be worse than that to the scholar as dedicated to learning and history as was al-Biruni. On the Christian faith al-Biruni considered the doctrine of forgiveness, writing in India [',' E S Kennedy, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).',' 1]:- Upon my life, this is a noble philosophy, but the people of essay my best this world are not all philosophers. . And indeed, ever since Constantine the Victorious became a Christian, both sword and whip have been ever employed. An indication of the sarcasm that he employed against those he saw to market economy essays be foolish we give the reply that he made to a religious man who objected to essay resume the fact that an instrument which al-Biruni was showing him to economy vs free market determine the time for prayers had Byzantine months engraved on it.
Al-Biruni reports in my best Shadows that he said to vs free economy him:- The Byzantines also eat food. Then do not imitate them in this! Article by: J J O'Connor and E F Robertson. Click on this link to see a list of the Glossary entries for this page List of essay References (72 books/articles)
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After that day, I changed the way I acted. I was a new girl. I was in treatment and vs free market followed guidelines that the doctor recommended. Today I look like a normal teenager. I’m a happy girl who blends in with the personal resume other girls. I’m still not fully recovered but I visit my doctor regularly.
I still wish I had that perfect body that a model has. Command Vs Free Market Economy Essays! However, I am glad I changed my decision. Like most teenagers, I got a part-time job to earn some extra cash, but ended up learning a valuable lesson instead. I started working at a retail department store four months ago. Shakespeare Othello Essay Questions! My first day on the job was nerve-wracking because everything was hands-on training. After what felt like an incredibly long day of work, I realized that I had only worked for four hours at $6.75 an hour! I continued going to work feeling cheated for all the back-breaking work I was assigned to complete for economy vs free market essays, minimum wage. Working in retail has changed my life for the better. Create A Thesis And Outline Persuasive! It has made me realize that I can’t do that for the rest of my life. I refuse to. I would much rather do something that involves me using my brain because when I stand there folding clothes, I feel brain dead.
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About a year and a half ago I got into a car crash that was horrible. That moment changed my view about life entirely. All my life I had been waiting until I could get my driver’s license and my first car. When I finally got my license and my dad brought the economy vs free economy essays car to the house, I was thrilled. Essay My Best Vacation! From that day on, the most important thing in my life was that car. Every day I would get home and command economy see what else I could do to make it better. My car was my pride and shakespeare essay joy and command when I had fixed it up into “perfect” condition, I finally began to soldier, drive it. Every time I got into my car I felt invincible, as if nothing could stop me. Economy Market! But one day I was shown that just like every other person, I could be broken. One night after finishing up my errands, I was in the car with my friends. I felt unstoppable while driving.
But soon enough I was shown that I wasn’t. While driving down a main street I felt the car start to skid and it kept skidding to the point where I lost control. At this point time wasn’t moving slow enough and of unknown when I realized what was happening, the only thing I could do was swerve the car so the impact would be on my side, and so I did. After the command crash I don’t remember much, but I do remember the pain I was in, not only physical but also the thought that the lives of others were in essay my hands for a few seconds and I may have dropped them. Command Economy Market! One thing led to another and I was in the emergency room getting stitched up.
I didn’t sleep much that night but when I finally did wake up, I was in personal essay a lot of pain. But I also began to see things in a different light. The memory of that day will never leave me, but what I learned from that experience I’m glad for. Not only command economy essays, did I learn that I need to have a lot more appreciation for things, I also learned that material things should never be the most important things in your life. All that time that I spent working on shakespeare othello, the car could have been spent getting to know my family better. Economy Vs Free Market! I have also become a much humbler person who realizes that I can bleed just like everyone else, and I am grateful for that. Sometimes you need to go through rough moments to come out with the best. Having a car was what I waited for ballistic lab report, all my life, but now just being alive is command economy, a blessing for on tomb, me. Every day of one’s life should be made the economy vs free market economy essays best because you don’t know how many you have left. Letter to an inanimate object.
When one of our teen staff writers told us that she heard someone reading a letter to an inanimate object on National Public Radio, we thought that would make a great essay question. Ballistic! We all have objects that we have such strong feelings for that they become almost like a person with his or her own personality. Here is command market economy, your chance to essay of unknown, tell them how you feel. Write a letter to an inanimate object to vs free essays, tell it what it means to essay soldier, you. It could be an command economy vs free economy, object that makes you happy, like a favorite stuffed animal, or on object that drives you crazy, like a locker that always jams.
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